||Integrated Reading Instructional Effects on EFL College Freshmen’s Reading Attitudes/Motivation
||Department of English
L2 reading attitudes/motivation
low achieving students
EFL reading instruction
||This study investigated instructional impacts on learners’ reading attitudes/motivation, the relationship between materials and learners’ reading attitudes/motivation, required reading and learners’ reading attitudes/motivation and what changes are needed for this instruction to better reflect the learning needs of low achieving students. The participants were fifty seven Applied Foreign Languages freshmen from three different programs in a private Institute of Technology at Eastern Coast Taiwan. They received integrated reading instruction which strategies were taught with a class reader in the fall semester of 2011. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected including pretest and posttest reading attitudes/motivation questionnaires, course evaluation surveys, and follow-up interviews, student feedback sheets, book reports, and teaching logs.
The quantitative results of paired samples t-test indicated there was no significant difference in learners’ reading attitudes/motivation except for two items: “I had good attendance in this class.” and “I shared the reading materials I read with classmates and friends.” The independent samples t-test showed that in-class reading group was significantly different from out-of-class reading group after instruction and this result supported the instructional impacts on learner reading attitudes/motivation. Moreover, in-class reading group adopted more active role in class participation than out-of-class reading group. This class experience raised learners’ awareness of the importance of personal engagement both in and out of the classroom in their reading progress.
The Pearson Correlation analysis revealed that instructional materials that were interesting, easy, and helpful for learning were likely to lead to positive attitudes/motivation. However, students with better reading attitudes/motivation tended to choose more difficult levels of readers for independent reading. Qualitative results indicated that class reader accompanying movies and songs were motivating. Materials for independent reading were perceived better when it was not too difficult or too easy to discourage reading. Reading graded readers which emphasizes reading for general meaning can be challenging for students who are used to the traditional teaching. In addition, students who were willing to comply with reading requirements have better reading attitudes/motivation.
Whether this successful experience could continue depended more on external factors such as required reading, peer influence, teacher recognition/encouragement than on motivation from learner themselves. Learner passivity, reluctance to read, time spent on reading, and difficult to find an appropriate level of readers were emerged reasons for students who failed to comply with the reading assignments.
Students preferred guided reading assisted by teacher explanation. A combination of reading with oral reading, speaking, and writing will improve learner interest in reading. Inclusion of reading time in class will provide learner opportunity to read English.
||Table of Contents
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables x
List of Figures xiii
List of Appendices xiv
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 3
1.3 Research Questions 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Definitions of Terms 6
1.6 Organization of the Study 7
CHAPTER 2 Literature Review 8
2.1 Foreign Language Reading Instruction 8
2.1.1 Problems with Traditional Instruction 8
2.1.2 Issues of Learner Autonomy 11
2.1.3 Effective Reading Instruction 13
2.1.4 Integrated Reading Instruction 14
22.214.171.124 ER Materials 15
126.96.36.199.1 Using Graded Readers 16
188.8.131.52.2 Using Class Readers 18
184.108.40.206 Teaching Reading Strategies 19
2.2 ER Studies 20
2.2.1 ER Studies in Taiwan 21
2.2.2 Success of Book Flood 25
2.2.3 ER Studies Related to Attitudes and Motivation 29
2.3 Reading Motivation Models 35
2.3.1 Gardner’s Socio-Educational Model 35
2.3.2 Mathewson’s Model of Reading Attitude 38
2.3.3 Day and Bamford’s Model of L2 Reading Motivation 39
2.4 Studies on L2 Reading Motivation 41
2.5 Summary 46
CHAPTER 3 Methodology 50
3.1 Implementation of Integrated Reading Instruction 50
3.2 The Pilot Study 50
3.2.1 Participants 51
3.2.2 Materials 51
3.2.3 Instruments 52
3.2.4 Procedures 53
3.2.5 Results and Discussion 54
3.2.6 Revisions for Improvement 58
3.3 Main Study 58
3.3.1 Participants 60
3.3.2 Materials 62
3.3.3 Instruments 64
3.3.4 Procedures 71
3.3.5 Data Collection 77
3.3.6 Data Analysis 78
CHAPTER 4 Instructional Effects on Reading Attitudes/Motivation 82
4.1 Quantitative Results 82
4.2 Qualitative Results 84
4.2.1 Students’ Responses to This Learning Experience 84
4.2.2 Interview Results of Students’ Perception of This Class Experience 91
4.2.3 Student Self-Evaluations of Overall Attitudes Towards This Class 94
4.2.4 Student Self-Evaluation of English Improvement 99
4.3 Discussion 101
CHAPTER 5: Materials and Learner Reading Attitudes/Motivation 109
5.1 Quantitative Results 109
5.2 Qualitative Results 117
5.2.1 Student-Reported Challenges for Reading Graded Readers
5.2.2 Students’ Perceptions of Reading Graded Readers 119
5.2.3 Perceived Progress 130
5.2.4 Problems in English Reading/Reading Graded Readers 134
5.3 Discussion 139
CHAPTER 6: Required Reading and Reading Attitudes/Motivation 147
6.1 Quantitative Results 147
6.2 Qualitative Results 149
6.2.1 Billy Elliot 149
6.2.2 True Stories in the News 153
6.2.3 Self-Chosen readers 156
6.2.4 Student-Reported English Reading Habits 162
6.3 Discussion 164
CHAPTER 7: Learner Needs and Teaching Approaches 169
7.1 Student Suggestions for This Class 169
7.2 Purpose of Learning English 174
7.3 Discussion 175
CHAPTER 8: Concluding Remarks 181
8.1 Major Findings from this Study 181
8.2 Pedagogical Implications 183
8.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Studies 185
List of Tables
Table 3.1 Paired-Samples T-Test Pre-Post Differences for Each Class 54
Table 3.2 Student Preference of Materials 55
Table 3.3 Student Perceived Linguistic Levels of the Materials 56
Table 3.4 Participants Grouped by Levels of L2 Proficiency 61
Table 3.5 The Subscales and Items in English Reading Attitudes/motivation Questionnaire 67
Table 3.6 Summary of Data Collection Dates (month/day/year) 77
Table 3.7 Summary of Data Analysis for Research Questions 79
Table 4.1 Paired-Samples T-Test Results for Components of Reading Attitudes/Motivation 82
Table 4.2 Paired-Samples T-Test Results of Individual Reading Attitudes/Motivation Items 83
Table 4.3 Independent T-Test Results of Reading Attitudes/Motivation Differences Between In-Class and Out-of-Class Reading Groups 83
Table 4.4 Distribution of Students’ Responses to Two Open-Ended Questions (N=57) 85
Table 4.5 Four Themes of Positive Responses Related to Learners’ Reading Attitudes/Motivation 85
Table 4.6 Six Themes of Neutral Responses Related to Learners’ Reading Attitudes/Motivation 88
Table 4.7 Three Themes of Negative Responses Related to Learners’ Reading Attitudes/Motivation 90
Table 4.8 Students’ Self-Reported Levels of Participation in this Class 95
Table 4.9 Student Reported Reasons for Class Participation 96
Table 4.10 Student Reported Reasons for Not Attending/Participating in Class 97
Table 4.11 Students’ Self-Evaluation of English Improvement 99
Table 4.12 Students’ Self-Reported Reasons for Improvement 99
Table 4.13 Students’ Self-Reported Reasons for Lack of Improvement 100
Table 5.1 Pearson Correlations Between Learner Evaluation of Class Reader Billy Eliot and Post-Reading Attitudes/Motivation Questionnaire Scores 110
Table 5.2 Pearson Correlations Between Learner Evaluation of True Stories in the News and Post-Reading Attitudes/Motivation Questionnaire Scores 112
Table 5.3 Pearson Correlations Between Learner Evaluations of Self-Chosen Reader and Post-Reading Attitudes/Motivation Questionnaire Scores
Table 5.4 Pearson Correlations Between Learner Evaluations of Materials-Related Activities and Post-Reading Attitudes/Motivation Questionnaire Scores 115
Table 5.5 Student-Reported Challenges for Reading Graded Readers 117
Table 5.6 Information Concerning Self-Chosen Readers by Nine Interviewees 124
Table 5.7 Perceived Benefits from Reading Graded Readers 133
Table 5.8 Problems with Reading Graded Readers 138
Table 6.1 Summary of Pearson Correlations of Learner Commitment to Reading Requirements and Post-Reading Attitudes/Motivation Scores 148
Table 6.2 Frequency Responses Regarding Previewing Billy Elliot Before
Table 6.3 Reasons for Not Previewing 150
Table 6.4 Frequency Responses of Finishing Billy Elliot .151
Table 6.5 Reasons for Not Finishing Billy Elliot 151
Table 6.6 Frequency Responses for Turning in Feedback Sheets (out-of-class reading group) 153
Table 6.7 Reasons for Not Turning in Feedback Sheets (out-of-class reading group) 154
Table 6.8 Reasons for Not Reading True Stories in the News (out-of-class reading group) 155
Table 6.9 Student-Reported Number of Readers Read this Semester 156
Table 6.10 Student-Reported Reasons for Not Reading/Finishing a Self-Chosen Reader 157
Table 6.11 Frequency Response for Handing in Book Reports 158
Table 6.12 Reasons for Not Turning in Book Reports 159
Table 6.13 Frequency Responses of Giving Oral Reports 160
Table 6.14 Reasons for Not Making Oral Reports 160
Table 6.15 Frequencies of Reading English 162
Table 6.16 Average English Reading Times (n=31) 163
Table 6.17 Types of English Reading (multiple choices) 163
Table 7.1 Students’ Suggestions for Improving Instruction 170
Table 7.2 Purposes of Learning English (multiple choices) 174
List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Basic Model of the Role of Aptitude and Motivation in Second Language learning 36
Figure 2.2 Direct Influences upon Intention to Read 38
Figure 2.3 Model of major variables motivating the decision to read in a second language 40
Figure 3.1 Overview of the activities used in three classes 72
List of Appendices
Appendix A Handout for Strategy Instruction 198
Appendix B Class library checkout list 200
Appendix C Pilot Survey on Student English Reading Attitudes/Motivation 201
Appendix D Student Survey on English Reading Attitudes/Motivation 207
Appendix E Course evaluation survey (in-class reading) and (out-of-class reading)
Appendix F Interview Questions 234
Appendix G Feedback sheet 236
Appendix H Book report 238
Appendix I Teaching log 239
Appendix J Course syllabus 242
Appendix K Raw data 246
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