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系統識別號 U0002-1302201415111300
中文論文名稱 多國籍企業對薩爾瓦多零售業之影響:以沃爾瑪與精選超市之行銷競爭為例(2005-2012)
英文論文名稱 The Effects of Multinational Enterprises on the Retail Industry of El Salvador: A Case Study of Marketing Competition between Wal-Mart and Super Selectos (2005-2012)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 金正立
研究生英文姓名 Cheng-Li Chin
電子信箱 andy770513@hotmail.com
學號 699310032
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-01-08
論文頁數 133頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃任佑
委員-宮國威
委員-向駿
中文關鍵字 多國籍企業  零售業  薩爾瓦多  競爭  沃爾瑪  精選超市  超級市場 
英文關鍵字 Multinational Enterprises  Retail Industry  El Salvador  Competition  Wal-Mart  Super Selectos  Supermarket 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近半個世紀以來,多國籍企業不僅帶動世界經濟發展,同時它也為企業母國與地主國帶來深遠的影響。其中,又以美國多國籍企業於國際投資的表現最為活躍,而美國的沃爾瑪公司(Wal-Mart)更是當中的佼佼者。就企業營收而言,沃爾瑪既是全球第一大企業,也是世界零售業的霸主。

薩爾瓦多是沃爾瑪目前海外經營26國的其中之一。沃爾瑪於2005年收購中美洲零售控股公司(CARHCO)後,即正式展開其在中美洲五國的業務。歷經八年的時間,當沃爾瑪幾乎在該區域各國內,皆已取得絕對多數的市場份額時,卻唯獨在薩爾瓦多,其展店數與市場佔有率皆落後於薩國本土企業—精選超市(Súper Selectos)。為探究造成上述事實之原因,本論文將聚焦於三項議題,即是沃爾瑪效應、企業行銷競爭力,以及企業的成功關鍵因素。
英文摘要 In the recent fifty years, the MNEs have not only motivated the development of the world economy, but also have a profound impact on the parent country of the corporate and the host country. Among them, the U.S. MNEs are the main actors of the international investment, while Wal-Mart is the strongest one. As far as the total revenue is concerned, Wal-Mart is the largest company as well as the dominant retailer of the world.

Wal-Mart operates now in 26 foreign countries, including El Salvador. After the acquisition of Central America Retail Holding Company in 2005, Wal-Mart officially extended its business in the five countries of Central America. Eight years later, the enterprise almost has the absolute majority of the market share in every country of the region, but only in El Salvador, its number of stores and market share are behind a local company, named “Súper Selectos.” To explore the causes of the facts mentioned above, the thesis will focus on three issues, which are the Wal-Mart effects, marketing competitiveness of corporates, and the critical success factors of enterprises.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與研究目的 1
第二節 研究方法與章節架構 4
第三節 文獻回顧與範圍限制 10
第二章 多國籍企業與零售業概論 15
第一節 多國籍企業的發展 15
第二節 全球零售業的成長 22
第三節 薩國零售環境分析 30
第三章 沃爾瑪與精選超市的全球化發展 39
第一節 沃爾瑪全球在地化之起伏 39
第二節 精選超市區域國際化之進程 49
第三節 薩國的沃爾瑪效應 55
第四章 沃爾瑪與精選超市的價值鏈分析 63
第一節 從零售業價值鏈分析企業行銷競爭之條件 63
第二節 沃爾瑪行銷競爭力之分析 73
第三節 精選超市行銷競爭力之分析 82
第五章 企業成功關鍵因素之探討 91
第一節 以SWOT分析企業的營銷環境 91
第二節 沃爾瑪於薩國營銷的成功關鍵因素 100
第三節 精選超市於薩國營銷的成功關鍵因素 105
第六章 結論 113
參考書目 122

表1 1 SWOT分析模型 7
表2 1 世界外來與對外直接投資概況(2005-2008)(單位:億美元) 21
表2 2 2011年全球前十大零售商排名 29
表2 3 2012年薩國主要連鎖超市品牌暨分店數 35
表3 1 1990年以前沃爾瑪各時期之企業規模 41
表3 2 沃爾瑪海外投資一覽表(1991-2013) 43
表4 1 薩國主要連鎖超市稽查結果(2012年6月-9月) 78
表4 2 薩國主要連鎖超市過期商品查獲件數(2012年6月-9月) 79
表5 1 沃爾瑪於薩國營銷的SWOT分析 99
表5 2 精選超市於薩國營銷的SWOT分析 99
表5 3 成功關鍵因素對比摘要表 111

圖1 1 價值鏈分析模型 5
圖1 2 理論結構示意圖 8
圖2 1 典型的行銷通路流程 24
圖2 2 零售業的業態別 25
圖3 1 沃爾瑪企業進入前薩國連鎖超市的分店數變化(2000-2003) 56
圖3 2 沃爾瑪企業進入後薩國連鎖超市的分店數變化(2009-2012) 57
圖3 3 薩國超市歷年來斷貨率的變化(2006-2012) 59
圖3 4 薩國超市歷年來的主要斷貨原因(2008-2012) 60
圖4 1 價值體系 64
圖4 2 零售業的價值鏈 65
圖4 3 零售業價值鏈的行銷活動 72
圖4 4 沃爾瑪的道德採購標準 75
圖5 1 種下機會計畫產官學合作關係圖 106
參考文獻 壹、中文部分

一、書籍專著
Fishman, C.著,林茂昌譯。《沃爾瑪效應》(The Wal-Mart effect),台北:大塊文化,2006 年。
Ghertman, M.著,賴建誠譯。《多國籍企業》(Les multinationales),台北:幼獅文化,1985 年。
Levy, M.、Weitz, B. A.著,許英傑、黃慧玲譯。《零售管理》(Retailing management),二版,台北:美商麥格羅.希爾,2009 年。
Porter, M. E.著,李明軒等譯。《競爭論》(On competition),二版,台北:天下遠見,2009 年。
Porter, M. E.著,李明軒、邱如美譯。《競爭優勢》(Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining),二版,台北:天下遠見,2010 年
Robinson, R. D.著,多國籍企業研究學會譯。《國際企業經營策略論》(Internationalization of business: An introduction),台北:華泰圖書文物,1986 年。
Slater, R.著,黃秀媛譯。《沃爾瑪王朝:全球第一大企業成長傳奇》(The Wal-Mart decade: How a new generation of leaders turned Sam Walton’s legacy into the world’s #1 company),台北:天下遠見,2004 年。
Walton, S.、Huey, J.著,李振昌、吳鄭重譯。《Wal-Mart 創始人—山姆.沃爾頓自傳》(Sam Walton, made in America: My story),台北:智庫,2006 年。
李孟熹。《物流運籌戰略必備實戰經典》,台北:群泰企業管理顧問有限公司,2002年。
林正修、王明元、王全斌。《零售業管理》,台北:五南,2009 年。
林彩梅。《多國籍企業論》,六版,台北:五南,2006 年。
張保隆、伍忠賢。《零售業個案分析》,三版,台北:全華圖書,2011 年。
陳定國。《多國性企業經營》,二版,台北:聯經,1975 年。
彭劍鋒、孟澤元。《Walmart 沃爾瑪的成功之鑰—天天平價的終極零售業經營法則》,台北:上奇資訊,2013 年。
經濟部。《連鎖加盟基層管理認證教材》,台北:經濟部商業司,2005 年。
經濟部。《薩爾瓦多投資環境簡介》,台北:經濟部投資業務處,2011 年。
錢為家。《企業社會責任業務全書》,台北:商周出版,2009 年。

二、期刊論文
陳盈勻。《沃爾瑪拓展海外市場成功與失敗分析》,新竹:交通大學科技管理研究所碩士論文,2007 年。

三、網路資訊
行政院主計處。《中華民國行業標準分類第9 次修訂》,台北:行政院主計處,2011年。2013 年8 月6 日取自:
http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/public/Attachment/342210594471.pdf
經濟部國際貿易局,〈巴拿馬超市及中美洲超市聯盟〉,巴拿馬:駐巴拿馬大使館經濟參事處,2008 年。2013 年5 月30 日取自:
http://ekm92.trade.gov.tw/Pages/detail.aspx?nodeID=46&pid=242080

貳、英文部分

一、書籍專著
Hill, C. W. L. International business: Competing in the global marketplace. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2008.
Seth, A. & Randall, G. Supermarket wars: global strategies for food retailers. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

二、期刊論文
Basker, E. “The causes and consequences of Wal-Mart's growth,” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(3), 2007, pp.177-198.
Brenes, E. R. & Montoya, D. “Super Selectos: Winning the war against multinationals?” INCAE Business School, 2012.
Cruz, L. B. & Boehe, D. M. “How do leading retail MNCs leverage CSR globally? Insights from Brazil,” Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 2010, pp.243-263.
Durand, C. & Wrigley, N. “Institutional and economic determinants of transnational retailer expansion and performance: A comparative analysis of Wal-Mart and Carrefour,” Environment & Planning A, 41(7), 2009, pp.1534-1555.
Foster, L. et al. “Market selection, reallocation and restructuring in the U.S. retail trade sector in the 1990s,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(4), 2006, pp.748-758.
Graff, T. O. “Unequal competition among chains of supercenters: Kmart, Target, and Wal-Mart,” Professional Geographer, 58(1), 2006, pp.54-64.
Guilbe, C. J. “Big boxes, mega stores, and category killers overseas: The emerging geography of North American Chain Stores (NACS) in Puerto Rico,” Southeastern Geographer, 49(4), 2009, pp.326-339.
Javorcik, B. S. & Li, Y. “Do the biggest aisles serve a brighter future? Global retail chains and their implications for Romania,” University of Oxford, 2013.
Mamic, I. “Managing global supply chain: The sports footwear, apparel and retail sectors,” Journal of Business Ethics, 59(1), 2005, pp.81-100.
Martinez, S. & Kaufman, P. “Twenty years of competition reshape the U.S. food marketing system,” Amber Waves, 6(2), 2008, pp.28-35.
Matsa, D. A. “Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(3), 2011, pp.1539-1591.
Mireles, R. C. “Wal-Mart stirs up Mexico's retail landscape,” Logistics Today, 45(4), 2004, p.11.
Moberg, D. “How Wal-Mart shapes the world,” American Prospect, 22(4), 2011, A3-A6.
Monteiro, G. et al. “Food-retail development and the myth of everyday low prices: The case of Brazil,” Development Policy Review, 30(1), 2012, pp.49-66.
O'Brien, H. & Gupta, S. “Local power can change Wal-Mart: The ACORN and jobs with justice organizing strategy,” Social Policy, 36(1), 2005, pp.16-20.
Parnell, J. A. & Lester, D. L. “Competitive strategy and the Wal-Mart threat: Positioning for survival and success,” Sam Advanced Management Journal, 73(2), 2008, pp.14-24.
Paruchuri, S. et al. “The Wal-Mart effect: Wave of destruction or creative destruction?” Economic Geography, 85(2), 2009, pp. 209-236.
Poulson, B. W. “Wal-Mart and contestable markets in retailing,” Connecticut Law Review, 39(4), 2007, pp.1337-1359.
Reardon, T. et al. “Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(31), 2012, pp.12332-12337.
Reyes, S. “Study: Wal-Mart private brands are catching on,” Brandweek, 47(30), 2006, p.9.
Robinson, R. D. “Background concepts and philosophy of international business from World War II to the present,” Journal of International Business Studies, 12(1, Tenth Anniversary Special Issue), 1981, pp.13-21.
Schell, O. “How Walmart is changing China,” Atlantic Monthly, 308(5), 2011, pp.80-98.
Springer, J. “Small wonders,” Supermarket News, 59(32), 2011, pp.10-14.
Tilly, C. “Wal-Mart and its workers: Not the same all over the world,” Connecticut Law Review, 39(4), 2007, pp.1805-1823.
Weihrich, H. “The TOWS matrix: a tool for situational analysis,” Long Range Planning, 15(2), 1982, pp.1-19.

三、報章雜誌
Chandler, C. “The great Wal-Mart of China,” CNN Money, July 25, 2005.

四、網路資訊
Deloitte Global. “Global powers of retailing 2013,” London: The Creative Studio, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from:
http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Global/Local%20Assets/Documents/Consumer%20Business/dttl_cb_GlobalPowersofRetailing2013.pdf
Fortune. “Global 500,” CNN Money, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2013, from:
http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2012/full_list/index.html
OECD. “OECD guidelines for multinational enterprises,” OECD Publishing, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2013, from:
http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/oecd-guidelines-for-multinational-enterprises_9789264115415-en
UNCTAD. “World investment report 2009: Transnational corporations, agricultural production and development,” UNCTAD Division on Investment and Enterprise, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2013, from:
http://unctad.org/en/Docs/wir2009overview_en.pdf
——. “UNCTAD training manual on statistics for FDI and the operations of TNCs,” Geneva: UNCTAD Division on Investment and Enterprise, Vol.2, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2013, from:
http://unctad.org/en/Docs/diaeia20092_en.pdf
USAID. “Import policies,” 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from:
http://www.caftadr.net/elsalvador-ip.html
USDA. “El Salvador retail food sector report 2000,” Foreign Agricultural Service, 2000. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from:
http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200101/65679295.pdf
——. “El Salvador retail food sector report 2001,” Foreign Agricultural Service, 2001. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from:
http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200111/135682689.pdf
——. “El Salvador retail food sector report 2002,” Foreign Agricultural Service, 2002. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from:
http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200211/145784624.pdf
——. “El Salvador retail food sector report 2003,” Foreign Agricultural Service, 2003. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from:
http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200311/146085208.pdf
——. “El Salvador exporter guide annual,” Foreign Agricultural Service, 2009. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from:
http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/General%20Report_San%20Salvador_El%20Salvador_6-30-2009.pdf
——. “El Salvador retail food sector,” Foreign Agricultural Service, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from:
http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_San%20Salvador_El%20Salvador_11-29-2010.pdf
——. “The retail sector in El Salvador,” Foreign Agricultural Service, 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from:
http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_San%20Salvador_El%20Salvador_11-30-2011.pdf
——. “El Salvador retail foods 2012,” Foreign Agriculture Service, 2012. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from:
http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_San%20Salvador_El%20Salvador_12-20-2012.pdf
Walmart. “Wal-Mart announces Central American investment,” Wal-Mart Store Inc., 2005. Retrieved September 24, 2013, from:
http://news.walmart.com/news-archive/2005/09/20/wal-mart-announces-central-american-investment
——. “Walmart de Mexico agrees to acquire Walmart Centroamerica,” Walmex, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from:
http://www.walmex.mx/assets/files/Informacion%20financiera/BMV/BMV/Eng/2009/12062009%20-%20Walmart%20De%20Mexico%20Agrees%20To%20Acquire%20Walmart%20Centroamerica.pdf
——. “Standards for suppliers manual,” Wal-Mart Store Inc., 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2013, from:
http://cdn.corporate.walmart.com/0e/ca/52eda3d84f828f82da0e9a02f021/standards-for-suppliers-manual_129833075555266802.pdf
——. “Walmart 2013 annual report,” Wal-Mart Store Inc, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2013, from:
http://az204679.vo.msecnd.net/media/documents/2013-annual-report-for-walmart-stores-inc_130221024708579502.pdf

參、西文部分

一、報章雜誌
Argueta, K. “Grupo Calleja apuesta por productores nacionales,” El Diario de Hoy, 17 de Julio, 2012.
Azucena, M. “Marcas propias cobran auge en supermercados,” El Diario de Hoy, 6 de Julio, 2009.
Belloso, M. “La marca Walmart ya está en El Salvador,” La Prensa Gráfica, 14 de Mayo, 2011.
——. “Súper Selectos baja el precio de 100 artículos,” La Prensa Gráfica, 27 de Septiembre, 2012.
Cantizzano, I. “Vender a Walmart era lo mejor,” El Diario de Hoy, 17 de Enero, 2007.
Choto, D. “Selectos y ocho cadenas de supermercados se unen en Centroamérica,” El Diario de Hoy, 7 de Febrero, 2008.
Guevara, F. “Víctor Mesalles Vargas supermercados del istmo se agrupan frente a Wal-Mart,” El Financiero, 24 de Febrero, 2008.
González, C. D. “Alianza de supermercados pretende ahorros operativos,” El Financiero, 11 de Febrero, 2008.
Henríquez, J. L. “Invitamos al sector privado a invertir en lo social y en capital,” El Diario de Hoy, 9 de Junio, 2010.
——. “Agresivo plan de expansión de Súper Selectos,” El Diario de Hoy, 12 de Septiembre, 2011.
“Las 200 empresas más grandes de América Central,” ElPeriódico, 3 de Noviembre,
2008.
López, K. “Súper Selectos abarata precios por la crisis,” La Prensa Gráfica, 2 de Marzo, 2009.
——. “El Salvador: Supermercado Selectos comprará más a pequeños productores,” La Prensa Gráfica, 18 de Julio, 2012.
Mejia, E. “El precio de la delincuencia en El Salvador,” Revista Mercados y Tendencias, 4 de Junio, 2012.
Menjívar, C. “Calleja, S.A. va a la caza del consumidor del interior del país,” El Diario de Hoy, 11 de Agosto, 2000.
Ortiz, C. “Selectos lanza tienda en línea en Virginia, EUA,” La Prensa Gráfica, 2 de Septiembre, 2013.
Ramírez, M. “Selectos, el súpermercado de los salvadoreños,” El Salvador Magazine, 2 de Julio, 2012.
Rodas, A. “Walmart y USAID crearán un consorcio de servicios con Pymes,” El Diario de Hoy, 13 de Junio, 2013.
Saavedra, M. J. “Grupo Calleja busca eficiencia energética,” La Prensa Gráfica, 1 de Marzo, 2012.
“Se frustra en El Salvador la venta de los supermercados Europa,” AméricaEconomía, 11 de Febrero, 2012.
“Supermercados Europa cierran operaciones,” El Mundo, 3 de Febrero, 2013.
Trigueros, G. “Diez supermercados, la meta de Paiz,” El Diario de Hoy, 22 de Mayo, 2001.
——. “Grupo Calleja prevé crecer en el país y en Centroamérica,” El Diario de Hoy, 18 de Junio, 2013.
Velasco, S. “Walmart se ahorra en energía $1.1 millones,” El Mundo, 18 de Julio, 2012.
Vividor, G. E. “Top Brand Award 2009,” El Diario de Hoy, 27 de Octubre, 2009.
“Walmart, un socio de más de 400 pequeños productores locales,” El Diario de Hoy, 15 de Junio, 2011.

二、期刊論文
Larios, P. et al. “Diseño de un modelo de estrategias de e-marketing para incrementar la competitividad de las cadenas de supermercados, ubicadas en el municipio de San Salvador,” Universidad Francisco Gavidia, 2008.

三、網路資訊
Banco Mundial. “Crimen y violencia en Centroamérica: Un desafío para el desarrollo,” Informe Principal, Vol.1, 2011. Disponible 1 de Diciembre, 2013, en:
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2011/04/19/000333038_20110419235903/Rendered/PDF/567810ESW0P0951white0cover01PUBLIC1.pdf
Corte Suprema de Justicia de El Salvador. “Ley de Inversiones,” Centro de Documentación Judicial, 1999. Disponible 16 de Septiembre, 2013, en:
http://www.jurisprudencia.gob.sv/VisorMLX/Documento/Documento.aspx?
Data=EJAuSTIh5WvED+BdOt8OmKr1fxQBLDV9PKy00E3M3xhEnMNBoU+8AsU0je4z/+RoQ8GYqZbbNUa2McPLEYzLTAcD87urkqB6h2sak7RJiLPrkFp82YihizYMOH64pPXsaIzPlHpeh7HGAqKjdD8Xe3uwwyzblYdVS1Yv2HrAA0duuRbBfZEdsq7oL/atYHyGIQ==
DC. “Informe del plan de inspecciones en supermercados,” Defensoría del Consumidor, 15 de octubre, 2012, p.14. Disponible 25 de Enero, 2014, en:
http://www.defensoria.gob.sv/images/stories/descargas/plan_inspeccion_supermercados_jun-sep.pdf
Fusiones & Adquisiciones. “Wal Mart de México compró el 100% de WalmartCentroamérica en US$ 2.840,7 millones,” Diario de Fusiones & adquisiciones, 2009. Disponible 20 de April, 2013, en:
http://www.diariodefusiones.com/?Wal_Mart_de_Mexico_compro_el_100%25_de_Walmart_Centroamerica_en_US__2.840%2C7_millones&page=ampliada&id=32&_s=&_page=centro_caribe
GS1 AISBL. “Estudio de faltantes de mercadería en góndola,” GS1 El Salvador, 2013. Disponible 8 de Noviembre, 2013, en:
http://www.gs1sv.org/uploaded/content/article/872150421.pdf
Walmart. “Informe financiero y de responsabilidad social 2012,” Walmart de México y Centroamérica, 2013. Disponible 1 de Octubre, 2013, en:
http://web_wmia12_up.s3.amazonaws.com/pdf/wm_analisis.pdf
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