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中文論文名稱 多元文化主義的論辯與實踐 - 1970年後墨西哥裔移民的國家認同
英文論文名稱 Multiculturalism in the United States: National Identity of Mexican Immigrants Since 1970
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 黃逵玉
研究生英文姓名 Kuei-Yu Huang
學號 694220186
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-01-07
論文頁數 127頁
口試委員 指導教授-紀舜傑
委員-李本京
委員-謝國斌
中文關鍵字 多元文化主義  國家認同  墨西哥裔移民 
英文關鍵字 Multiculturalism  National Identity  Mexican Immigrant 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 70年代開始,多元文化主義隨著60年代民權運動的鼓舞與啟迪,以及美國國內的許多的族裔、弱勢群體們,追求自我認同、自我權力的同時也開始嶄露其頭角。而其訴求的正是,任何一個族裔群體與文化不應該或必須去掩蓋它者與自己;同時每一個族裔群體得保持著對自身文化的認同。社會提供了多種文化的平等、交流、保存的平台與條件,然而最終達成群體的和諧與認同。
這種保留各族裔原汁原味的想法,有人將之比喻為一道內容豐富的生菜沙拉並與當下的大熔爐形成對比。即是各族裔文化不應再受融化與強迫性的同化,轉而更重要的是社會上不同階級與族裔之間的公平性與代表性,並以此理念轉化為國家分配資源的政治過程與產出物。
於此後美國國內開始出現了對多元文化主義的論辯,主要的思考焦點分布於多元文化主義是否打破了美國傳統的同化精神?人民對於國家認同是否會因之而分化?如生活在美國國內的各族裔保存自我文化,那又何謂美國文化?等等的懷疑。
同樣也是發生在70年代的開端,美國國境內湧入大量的墨西哥裔移民,以驚人的數量與速度進入國境內。墨西哥族裔相較於美國而言代表著全然不同的文化、語言、生活習慣,以及族裔認同,而此即本文探討的重點。多元文化主義本身的理念對於幫助墨裔移民融入新環境的短程過渡期,與長程的形塑國家認同的幫助與影響。
本文內容以介紹國家認同的概念為開端,接續介紹多元文化的意義與其在美國國內的論辯與實踐。而墨裔移民在移入美國境內之後,他們的背景、過程與社經地位將有助於了解墨裔移民於美國國內的生活現況,並最後以多元文化之思想、實踐政策與其對墨裔移民的美國國家認同之影響作結。
最後得出關鍵在於多元文化主義如何幫助墨裔移民多與美國社會接觸。並且需要解決的主要問題是,第一,提升墨裔移民教育程度與英語能力。第二,消除環境上的偏見與歧視問題。當移民與國家還有國家內的一切呈現良好的互動,那麼國家認同自然會產生,多元文化主義與其政策如能提供一切平等、互相尊重、不帶偏見和歧視的遠景,那麼對於墨裔移民與美國社會正常化的接觸,還有墨裔移民分享美國國家認同程度是會有其幫助的。
英文摘要 From the 60’s, Civil Rights Movements along with lots of ethnic and minority groups in the United States started to pursuit their right, identity and self-approval. Multiculturalism was ignited by this momentum and started to gain power during 70’s. Multiculturalism sought that any ethnic groups and cultures should not be covered by each other. Simultaneously each ethnic group should maintain their own cultural identity and self-approval. The society had to provide many kinds of cultural exchange and preserved platform, and then achieved the harmony and identification of the whole community.
This is so different from melting pot. Someone described multiculturalism as a salad bowl which represents diverseness. Therefore all kinds of ethnic groups and cultures should not assimilate into one. Instead their fairness and representation in the whole society are more important. This is also the same idea of multiculturalism political process and policy.
The debates had started to go on, since the idea of melting pot been overthrown. Debates mainly focused on the principles whether multiculturalism had broken the spirit of assimilation. What is the identity of American, if every immigrant can preserve their own culture?
It was also happened in 70’s, when massive Mexican immigrants crowded into the border of United States with astonishing quantity and speed. Mexicans compare with Americans is a totally different cultural, linguistic, and racial group. So do their habits and customs. Then this thesis will focus on if multiculturalism can help Mexican immigrants accommodate to the new country and to shape their new national identity in the United States.
The article concluded with two findings: In order to keep Mexican immigrants in touch with the U.S. society constantly, we should promote their education attainment and English ability. Second, eliminates the prejudice and the discrimination in the U.S, society. When immigrants and the society present good interactions, the share of national identity will be easier. If multiculturalism can provide the evenness society, and civics in the society show respect to each other, it will help Mexican immigrants share the national identity in the United States.
論文目次 第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與研究目的…………………………………01
第二節 研究方法與章節提要…………………………………05

第二章 現代美國的國家認同…………………………………09
第一節 國家認同的定義與特色………………………………09
第二節 美國國家認同與其認同的挑戰與危機………………17

第三章 多元文化主義在美國…………………………………28
第一節 多元文化主義之起源與內涵…………………………28
第二節 美國多元文化主義的實踐……………………………38
第三節 美國多元文化主義的論辯……………………………47

第四章 一九七0年後美國墨西哥裔移民之分析……………55
第一節 墨西哥裔移民的背景與過程…………………………56
第二節 墨西哥裔移民在美國的社會與經濟地位……………65
第三節 墨西哥裔移民和母國的關係與其在美國之困境……77

第五章 墨裔移民之美國國家認同……………………………85
第一節 多元文化主義政策對墨西哥裔移民認同之影響……86
第二節 墨西哥裔移民的國家認同問題………………………96

第六章 結論……………………………………………………106

參考書目 ………………………………………………………115
<圖表目錄>
表4-1: 2000 年美國國民與墨裔移民的職業類別分佈比例……………………70
表4-2: 2000 年美國原生國民、墨裔移民、所有移民
社經地位綜合比較表……………………………………………………77
表5-1: 墨西哥裔之自我稱呼(2002 年)………………………………………… 85
表5-2: 感受美國於學校內、工作場合裡的歧視問題(2002 年)……………… 92
表5-3: 2002 年墨裔移民對於美國社會的觀感…………………………………100
圖4-1: 1970-2000 年美國國內所有外國出生之移民人數………………………62
圖4-2: 1999 年墨裔移民在美國國內地理分佈圖(百分比) …………………… 64
圖4-3: 1970-2000 年墨裔移民於美國國內之人數與墨西哥
母親於墨西哥國內之生育數…………………………………………….66
圖4-4: 1970-2000 墨裔移民在所有移民中所佔之比例…………………………67
圖4-5: 2000 年美國國民、所有移民、墨裔移民之受教育程度高低比例…… 68
圖4-6: 2000 年墨裔移民受教育程度比例圖…………………………………… 69
圖4-7: 美國原生國民與墨裔移民於2000 年
的平均收入與以居住時間長短計算之………………………………… 71
圖4-8: 2000 年美國國內貧窮與接近貧窮者…………………………………… 72
圖4-9: 1999 年國外出生之移民的人口數與貧窮率…………………………… 73
圖4-10: 1999 年國外出生之移民健康保險擁有率………………………………74
圖4-11: 2000 年美國國民、墨裔移民社經地位之比較…………………………75
圖4-12: 2000 年美國原生國民、所有移民、墨裔移民
使用社會福利補助率…………………………………………………... 76
圖5-1: 墨西哥裔於第一次(或僅有一次)自我介紹時
的自我稱呼(2000 年)……………………………………………………..97
圖5-2: 1980 年與2000 年墨裔移民與其他移民的語言融入情形…………… 99
圖5-3: 2002 年拉美裔、白人、非裔美人與墨西哥裔對於
華盛頓政府施政的信任度……………………………………………..101
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Thomas, W.I., Robert Park, and Herbert Miller. Old World Traits Transplanted. (New Jersey: Patterson Smith, 1971)
Tiedt, Pamela L. and Iris M. Tiedt, Multicultural Teaching: A Handbook of Activities, Information, and Resources. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 3rd ed., 1990)
Trueba, Henry T. Cirenio Rodriguez, Yali Zou, Jose Cintron. Healing Multicultural America: Mexican Immigrants Rise to Power in Rural California. (London: The Falmer Press, 1993)
Watson, C. W. Multiculturalism. (Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2000)
Wieseltier, Leon. Kaddish. (New York: Knopf, 1998)
Young, Iris M. Justice and the Politics of Difference. (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990)

英文期刊
Alba, Richard. “Mexican Americans and the American Dream.” Political Science and Politics, Vol. 4, No. 2. (June, 2006), pp.289-296.
Alba, Richard. “Immigration and the American Realities of Assimilation and Multiculturalism.” Sociological Forum, Vol.14, No.1. (March,1999), pp.3-25.
Bean, Frank D., Susan K. Brown and Rubén G. Rumbaut. “Mexican Immigrant Political and Economic Incorporation.” Political Science & Politics, Vol. 4, No. 2. (June, 2006), pp.309-313.
Bogardus, Emory S. “The Mexican Immigrant and Segregation.” The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 36, No. 1. (1930), pp.74-80.
Citrin, Jack., Amy Lerman, Michael Murakami, and Kathryn Pearson. “Testing Huntington: Is Hispanic Immigration a Treat to American Identity.” Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 5, No.1. (March, 2007), pp.31-48.
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Doyle, Rodger “How Do The Apartheid Become ?” Scientific American, (March, 2004)
Edward, Ashbee. “National Identity, and Conservatism in the United States.” Politics, Vol. 18, No. 2. (May, 1998), pp.73-80.
Etzioni, Amitai. “The Real Threat: An essay on Samuel Huntington.” Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 34, No.5. (September, 2005), pp.477-485.
Fraga, Luis R. and Gray M. Segura. “Culture Clash? Contesting Nations of American Identity and the Effects of Latin American Immigration?” Perspectives, Vol. 4, No. 2. (June, 2006), pp.279-287.
Glazer, Nathan. “The Closing Door.” The New Republic. (December, 1993)
Hadley, Eleanor M. “A Critical Analysis of the Wetback Problem,” Law and Contemporary, Vol. 21, No. 2. (1956), pp.334-357.
Hoffmann, Stanley. “More Perfect Union: Nation and Nationalism in America.” Harvard International Review Vol. 20, No. 1. (Winter 1997/1998)
Joppke, Christian. “Multiculturalism and Immigration: A Comparison of the United States, Germany, and Great Britain.” Theory and Society, Vol. 25, No. 4. (Augst, 1996), pp.449-500.
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Marcelli, Enrico. and W. A. Cornelius, “The Changing Profile of Mexican Migrants to the United States: New Evidence from California and Mexico.” Latin American Reserch Review, Vol. 36, No. 3. pp.105-131.
Ravitch, Diane. “Multiculturalism: E Pluribus Plures.” American Scholar, Vol.59, No. 3. (1990)
Reviewed work(s): Schierup, Carl-Ulrik. “Paradoxes of Multiculturalism.” European Sociological Review, Vol.9, No.1. (May, 1993)
Segura, Gary M. “Symposium Introduction: Immigration and National Identity.” Political Science & Politics, Vol. 4, No. 2. (June, 2006), pp.276-278.
Suro, Roberto. “The Reserch Challenges Posted by the Latino Experience.” Latino Reserch, Vol. 3, No. 3. (December, 2006), pp.1-16.
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Urciuoli, Bonnie. “Producing Multiculturalism in Higher Education: Who’s Producing What for Whom?” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, Vol.12, No.3. (July, 1999), pp.287-298.

英文報紙:
“Culture and Democracy in the United States.” The Nation.No.124, Feb.18, 1915
U.S. News to World Report, February 13, 1995, p.35

政府出版品
Camarota, Steven A. Immigration from Mexico Assessing the Impact on the United States. (Washington D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies, 2001)
Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, National Roster of Black Elected
Officials, (Washington D. C., 1993), p. xxv.
Rosenfeld, Michael. “Mexican Immigrants and Mexican American Political Assimilation.” Mexico- United States Binational Study in Migration: Migration Between Mexico and the United States. (Washington D.C., 1998)
Schmidley, A. Dianne, “Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2000.”Current Population Reports, (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001), p.23-206.
U.S. Bureau of the Cencus. Department of Commerce. Current Population Survey: Annual Demographic Files 1998-2002, (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002)
U.S. Bureau of the Cencus. Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2000, (Washington D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 2001)
Suro, Roberto. A Developing Identity: Hispanic in the United States, Pew Hispanic Center.
Fryer, Roland G. Jr., Glenn C. Loury and Tolga Yuret. Color-Blind Affirmative Action. (Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003)

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