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中文論文名稱 文本修飾對台灣第二外語學習者透過閱讀習得片語動詞的影響
英文論文名稱 Effects of Textual Modifications on Incidental Phrasal Verb Acquisition through Second Language Reading by Taiwanese Learners of English
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 江悅慈
研究生英文姓名 Yueh-Tzu Chiang
學號 893010198
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2013-06-17
論文頁數 245頁
口試委員 指導教授-范瑞玲
共同指導教授-蔡振興
委員-陳秀潔
委員-陳純音
委員-黃月貴
委員-王藹玲
中文關鍵字 英文閱讀  片語動詞  文本修飾  閱讀頻率 
英文關鍵字 incidental reading  phrasal verbs  textual modifications  multiple exposures 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文旨在探索有效及有益的方法透過閱讀習得片語動詞,而非藉由直接的教學。由於片語動詞結構(verb- particle)在本質上無清楚明顯的界線(Bishop, 2004b),第二外語學習者常常對於片語動詞結構產生困難,尤其是文本依賴的情況,(亦即第二外語學習者直接從文本中讀字,不藉由他人的教導)。因此本研究探討文本修飾的影響,(為專注語言意義暨兼顧語言形式的一種教學法[focus on form]),這個方法使得目標項目在學習者知覺上能顯著,且期待能透過閱讀吸引學習者的注意力。本論文所探索的文本修飾,包括文字提升法,和修辭釋義法,這些方法對台灣第二外語學習者透過閱讀習得片語動詞的影響。本論文亦聚焦於學習者接觸文本的頻率,也就是目標片語動詞重複出現在一到五次的文章上。
參與者接觸十個目標片語動詞,透過閱讀六個版本的五篇不同文章,而這五篇文章包含十個目標片語動詞,也就是說學習者皆閱讀文章一至五次,六個不同版本代表六個不同的組別或組合。文字提升法的文章包括所有的目標片語動詞粗體字,以便在閱讀時增加學習者的注意力及專注力。外顯的修辭釋義文章則是在所有的目標片語後面插入which means,再加上該片語動詞的同義字或解釋;而內顯的修辭釋義文章則是插入該片語動詞的同位語(appositive)的解釋。本研究採用二因子變異係數分析統計與重複測量分析法,檢視文本修飾和接觸文章頻率在兩個後測上的表現,兩個後測分別為片語動詞形式-辨識測驗及片語動詞意義-辨識測驗。另外,本研究並採用階層式線性分析法,分析文字提升中之兩個階層,即片語動詞有粗體和沒粗體字,修辭釋義中之三個階層,即外顯、內顯和沒有修飾,以及接觸文本頻率在習得片語動詞的表現上,透過形式-辨識測驗及片語動詞意義-辨識測驗來檢視。
本研究結果顯示:(1) 文字提升法和修辭釋義法對習得片語動詞有正面的影響力,然而此正面效果經過一段時間後,對於學習片語動詞的形式較有影響,而非學習片語動詞的意涵,(2)外顯或內顯的修辭釋義法在學習片語動詞上並無顯著性的差別,(3)第二外語學習者接觸越多次的片語動詞,也就是說透過閱讀越多次這些片語動詞重複出現的不同文章,能夠學習越多的片語動詞,而學習者需要重複接觸目標片語動詞的基本次數為四到五次,再者,如能再加上文字提升法的提示,此正面效果會更擴大和顯著,(4)第二外語學習者受益最多的方法為在片語動詞後方置入外顯修辭釋義法,再加上文字提升法的粗體字。最後,教學實務上的建議根據測驗的結果也會提出。
英文摘要 The dissertation is to explore the effective and beneficial methods in the acquisition of phrasal verbs in incidental reading contexts, where no explicit or direct instruction of the phrasal verbs is implemented. The fundamental consideration is that due to the unclear boundaries of phrasal verb (PV) structure (Bishop, 2004b), L2 learners constantly have difficulties to signal this verb- particle pattern when there is text-dependent condition (i.e. L2 learners read the words directly from written texts). In this sense, the current study investigates the effects of textual modification (a technique under focus on form approach), an effort to make the target item perceptually salient, and presumably to draw learners’ attention via reading. The current study investigates the effects of textual modification entailing typographical enhancement and lexical elaboration on the acquisition of English phrasal verbs through reading by Taiwan EFL learners. It also sheds light on exposure frequency, which the target phrasal verbs occurred from one to five times on a number of written texts, on incidental acquisition of phrasal verbs.
Two hundred and ninety-eight pre-intermediate junior-college participants underwent a three-month experiment. Participants were exposed to 10 target PVs by reading one of six versions of five experimental written texts containing these PVs with one to five time exposures. Five reading texts were written by a native speaker of English with similar topic schemata. A typographical enhanced text contained all PVs set in boldface in order to increase learners’ focal attention to the PVs while reading. Explicitly lexically elaborated texts had all PVs immediately followed by which means plus a synonym-or definition-type PV explanation, whereas the PVs in implicitly lexically elaborated texts were immediately followed by an appositive PV explanation only. The study adopted a two-way ANOVA with repeated measure analysis to examine the effects on textual modifications and exposure frequency on form-recognition and meaning-recognition posttests. The study as well employed a Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) design in analyzing typographical enhancement with two levels (enhanced, unenhanced) and type of lexical elaboration with three levels (explicit, implicit, unelaborated) as well as exposure frequency on the performances of PV acquisition as measured by form-meaning recognition posttests.
The results of the study overall displayed that (1) both typographical enhancement and lexical elaboration had positive effects on the acquisition of phrasal verbs, but the effects perpetuated over time on form rather than meaning acquisition. (2) No differential effects were found in terms of explicit or implicit devices of lexical elaboration on acquisition of target PVs. (3) The more exposure to the target PVs, the more PVs L2 learners acquire, with the threshold of four to five time repeated encounters of such PVs, and the learning effect was particularly magnified with the employment of typographic cues. (4) L2 Learners benefits the most from reading written texts that were explicitly lexical elaborated and with the PVs boldfaced. Pedagogical implications were proposed accordingly with the experimental findings.
論文目次 ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………i
DEDICATION……………………………………………………………iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………..vi
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………….xi
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………….xiv

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background and Motivation…………………………………………..1
1.2 Statement of the Problems……………………………………………..8
1.2.1 Phrasal verbs in second language learning……………………....8
1.2.2 Learning vocabulary incidentally via reading modified input…11
1.3 Purpose of the Study…... ……………………………………….........14
1.4 Research Questions………....…………………………………..........15
1.5 Significance of the Study…………………………………………….16
1.6 Definition of Key Terms……………………………………………...17
1.7 Organization of the Dissertation …………………………………….19

Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Background……………………………………………...20
2.1.1 The role of input in second language acquisition………….......20
2.1.2 Focus on forms vs. focus on meaning vs. focus on form………22
2.1.2.1 Focus on form(s)………………………………………..22
2.1.2.2 Focus on meaning……………………………………….23
2.1.2.3 Focus on form…………………………………………...25
2.2 Modification on Input in Second Language Acquisition …………….29
2.2.1 Attention, focus on form and input enhancement ……………...29
2.2.1.1An Overview...……………………………..……….29
2.2.1.2 Input enhancement of the written text…………………..32
2.2.1.3 Empirical studies with textual enhancement …………...33
2.2.2 Input Elaboration ……………………………………………...40
2.2.2.1 Input simplification and elaboration …………………...40
2.2.2.2 Empirical studies of input simplification/elaboration….42
2.2.3 Integration of input enhancement and input elaboration………48
2.3 The Role of Vocabulary in Reading …………………………………50
2.3.1 Incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading…………….51
2.3.1.1 Exposure frequency …………………………………….53
2.3.1.2 Text coverage in reading………………………………..56
2.4 Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through Modified Written Text….57
2.5 A Summative Review of Incidental Reading and Modified Texts…...58
2.6 Formulaic Sequences and the Related Issues………………………...59
2.6.1 Definitions and terminology…………………………………..59
2.6.2 SLA research on formulaic sequences…………………………62
2.6.3 Possible accounts for the difficulties in acquiring formulaic sequences………………………………………………….......64
2.7 A Review of English Phrasal Verbs…………………………………..69
2.7.1 The classification of phrasal verbs……………………………..69
2.7.2 Identification of characteristics of phrasal verbs……………….71
2.7.3 Acquisition of incidental phrasal verbs through modified texts..72 2.8 A Summative Review of Formulaic Sequences and Modified Texts...73
2.9 Summary……………………………………………………………..76

Chapter 3 Methodology
3.1 Participants……………………………………………………........77
3.2 Materials……………………………………………………………79
3.2.1 Preparation and selection of five reading unmodified baseline NS texts……………………………………………………………79
3.2.2 Elaboration and enhancement of the reading texts……………..81
3.2.3 Readability characteristics of the five texts…………………….81
3.2.4 Adaptation of lexical elaboration and the elaborated texts……..84
3.2.4.1 Readability characteristics of the modified texts……….85
3.2.5 Adaptation of typographical enhancement and the enhanced texts……………………………………………………………86
3.2.5.1 Layout of the modified texts……………………………87
3.2.6 Selection of the target phrasal verbs (PVs)…….………………89
3.2.7 Implementation of the tests…………………………………….94
3.3 Research Design…………………………………………………....95
3.4 Instrumentation…………………………………………………….95
3.4.1 Pretest 1: Nation’s Vocabulary Levels Test……………………95
3.4.2 Pretest 2: Self-reported phrasal verbs checklist………………96
3.4.3 Pretest 3: Synonyms of target PVs test……………………….97
3.4.4 Overall reading comprehension………………………………98
3.4.5 Rationale for administration of recognition posttests…………99
3.4.5.1 Posttest 1: Form-recognition test……………………..101
3.4.5.2 Posttest 2: Meaning-recognition test…………………103
3.5 Procedures……………………………………………………..103
3.5.1 Pilot study…………………………………………………….103
3.5.2 Main Study……………………………………………………106
3.6 Scoring and Analyses……………………………………………….107
3.6.1 Nation’s Vocabulary Levels Test and self-reported checklist…107
3.6.2 Form-recognition test and meaning recognition test………….108

Chapter 4 Results
4.1 Nation’s Vocabulary Levels Test …………………………………109
4.2 Self-reported phrasal verbs checklist……………………………….110
4.3 Synonyms of target PVs test………….……………………………110
4.4 Reading comprehension test……………………………..…………111
4.5 Form-recognition test and meaning-recognition test……………….112
4.6 Typographical enhancement………………………………………..112
4.7 Lexical elaboration…………………………………………………119
4.7.1 Two types of lexical elaboration ……………………………..125
4.8 Typographical enhancement combined with lexical elaboration…….126
4.9 Frequency of exposure……………………………………………….131
4.10 The overall effects of six groups……………………………………137
4.11 Summary…………………………………………………………….140

Chapter 5 Discussion
5.1 The effects of typographical enhancement…………………………141 5.2 The effects of lexical elaboration…………………………………...148
5.2.1 The effects of two types of lexical elaborations………………150
5.3 The effects of typographical enhancement combined with lexical elaboration………………………………………………………….152
5.4 The effects of exposure frequency………………………………….156
5.5 The overall effects of six groups……………………………………159
5.6 Summary……………………………………………………………161

Chapter 6 Conclusion
6.1 Summary of the findings……………………………………………163
6.2 Pedagogical implications……………………………………………166
6.3 Limitations and suggestions for future study……………………….167
6.4 Concluding remarks………………………………………………...169

REFERNECES…………………………………………………………………170
APPENDICES……………………………………………………………………..201

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 The cognitive correlates of focus on form in micro-processes…………..28
Table 2.2 Studies on Input Simplification……………………………………….....43
Table 2.3 Studies on Simplification, Elaboration, L2 Comprehension and L2
Vocabulary………………………………………………………….…..44
Table 3.1 Readability Characteristics of the Five Baseline Texts………………….82
Table 3.2 Interpretation of Flesch Reading Ease Scores…………………………...83
Table 3.3 Score Mapping Table…………………………………………………….83
Table 3.4 Readability Characteristics of the Modified Texts………………………86
Table 3.5 Target Phrasal Verbs ………………………………...………………….91
Table 3.6 Pseudo-phrasal verbs Used on Form-Recognition Test………………...103
Table 3.7 Time Frame of the Study ………………………………………………107
Table 4.1 Descriptive statistics for Nation’s Vocabulary Levels Test……………110
Table 4.2 Univariate ANOVA of Nation’s Vocabulary Levels Test……………..110
Table 4.3 Descriptive statistics of synonyms of target PVs test…………………..111
Table 4.4 Univariate ANOVA of synonyms of target PVs test…………………...111
Table 4.5 Descriptive statistics for reading comprehension test of five texts…….112
Table 4.6 Descriptive statistics for -EL+EN on form and meaning recognition
tests ……………………………………………………………………114
Table 4.7 Result of two-way ANOVA for -EL+EN group………………………..114
Table 4.8 LSD Test on form and meaning recognition tests for -EL+EN group…115
Table 4.9 LSD Test on exposure frequency for -EL+EN group………………….115
Table 4.10 Descriptive statistics for -EL-EN on form and meaning recognition
tests……………………………………………………………….......117
Table 4.11 Result of two-way ANOVA for -EL-EN group……………………….117
Table 4.12 LSD Test on form and meaning recognition tests for -EL-EN group...118
Table 4.13 LSD Test on exposure frequency for -EL-EN group…………………118
Table 4.14 Descriptive statistics for EX-EN on form and meaning recognition
tests……………………………………… ...........................................120
Table 4.15 Result of two-way ANOVA for EX-EN group………………………..120
Table 4.16 LSD Test on form and meaning recognition tests for EX-EN group…121
Table 4.17 LSD Test on exposure frequency for EX-EN group…………………..122
Table 4.18 Descriptive statistics for IM-EN on form and meaning recognition
tests…………………………………………………………………...123
Table 4.19 Result of two-way ANOVA for IM-EN group………………………...124
Table 4.20 LSD Test on form and meaning recognition tests for IM-EN group….124
Table 4.21 LSD Test on exposure frequency for IM-EN group…………………..125
Table 4.22 LSD Test for the effect of elaboration on FT over time………………126
Table 4.23 LSD Test for the effect of elaboration on MT over time……………...126
Table 4.24 Descriptive statistics of six groups on form-recognition test over
time…………………………………………………………………...127
Table 4.25 Descriptive statistics of six groups on meaning-recognition test over
time…………………………………………………………………..127
Table 4.26 Results of HLM of groups and times on form-recognition test………128
Table 4.27 Results of HLM of groups and times on meaning-recognition test…..128
Table 4.28 LSD Test for group on form-recognition test…………………………130
Table 4.29 LSD Test for group on meaning-recognition test……………………..131
Table 4.30 Post-hoc LSD Test on time……………………………………………136
Table 4.31 Descriptive statistics on form-recognition test from 1st to 5th time…...137
Table 4.32 Descriptive statistics on meaning-recognition test from 1st to 5th
time…….................................................................................................137
Table 4.33 Results of two-way ANOVA for time and group……………………..139
Table 4.34 Post-hoc LSD Test on groups ………………………………………...139

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Taxonomies of Cotemporary Second Language Teaching……………22
Figure 2.2 Memory in Language Processing……………………………………...27
Figure 2.3 Levelt’s Production Model (1993)…………………………………….67
Figure 2.4 Lexical Comprehension/ Production Model for Oral and Written
Modalities……………………………………………………………...68
Figure 4.1 Test x Time Interaction Plot for -EL+EN group……………………..116
Figure 4.2 Test x Time Interaction Plot for EX-EN group………………………121
Figure 4.3 Plot of six groups on form-recognition test over time……………….133
Figure 4.4 Plot of six groups on meaning-recognition test over time…………...133
Figure 4.5 Plot of EX+EN form vs. meaning recognition test over time……….134
Figure 4.6 Plot of IM+EN form vs. meaning recognition test over time……......134
Figure 4.7 Plot of -EL+EN form vs. meaning recognition test over time………134
Figure 4.8 Plot of EX-EN form vs. meaning recognition test over time………..135
Figure 4.9 Plot of IM-EN form vs. meaning recognition test over time………...135
Figure 4.10 Plot of -EL-EN form vs. meaning recognition test over time……….135
Figure 4.11 Mean scores on five-time readings on form-recognition test………..138
Figure 4.12 Mean scores on five-time readings on meaning-recognition test……138














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