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系統識別號 U0002-1207200717451700
中文論文名稱 西班牙社會主義勞工黨執政時期薪資協議之研究(1982-1996)
英文論文名稱 Wage Bargaining under Spanish Socialist Government (1982-1996)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 丁秋仁
研究生英文姓名 Chiou-Ren Ding
學號 693030339
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-28
論文頁數 172頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡政文
委員-朱景鵬
委員-卓忠宏
中文關鍵字 西班牙  組合主義  薪資協議  社工黨  全國總工會 
英文關鍵字 Spain  Corporatism  Wage Bargaining  PSOE  UGT 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 社會協定與協約已構成西班牙後佛朗哥時期民主決策過程中的一部分。其中工會依據所得政策節制勞工的薪資要求,有效控制通貨膨脹、提高公司獲利,並且成功創造就業機會。因此,社會協約向來受到社會民主黨政府的愛戴,以及工會及雇主的支持。不過西班牙的協約進程卻在「西班牙社會主義勞工黨」(Partido Socialista Obrero Español, PSOE)執政期間終止,政府甚至決定以緊縮經濟政策取代所得政策來節制勞工薪資。1988年12月,西班牙國內兩大工會聯合號召第二共和(1931-1936)以來規模最大的全國總罷工,此次罷工不但象徵著社會主義工會與政黨的關係決裂,亦代表往後的協約進程將更加艱難。
本文將研究重點放在工會、雇主與政府三方之間的策略互動關係對協約進程的影響,特別是工會與政府之間的關係。儘管全球化與新生產系統會威脅到社會協約的基礎,不過國內社會行為者之間的協約意願才是真正決定是否繼續集體協議的重要因素。
本文發現,西班牙協約的終止除了本身制度不夠完整外,與社工黨政府的集權程度也有重大的關聯。即使社會行為者已協議出一個確切的協定,卻欠缺立法制度的基礎,因此延襲自舊時的協約機制發揮的再完美,都無法算是能長期作為決策的工具,充其量不過仍是個暫時調解意見的途徑。雖然社工黨執政時期的社會協議仍保有國家組合主義的遺影,但是社會行為者的政治學習過程將讓西班牙協約進程不止於此。西班牙在1999年正式加入歐洲貨幣聯盟後,政府更是需要透過協約來節制勞工薪資,而工會與雇主團體亦需要藉此發展集體財,以提升國內公司的競爭力,同時保護勞工在勞動市場上的權益。由此可見,社會協約在西班牙面臨經濟挑戰時,意含著不可或缺的重要性。
英文摘要 Social pacts and concertation have become established as part and parcel of the post-Franco policy process in Spain. While unions cooperate to moderate wage demands in accord with income policy, based on the agreements among unions, employers and at times the government, it would contribute to keep inflation low, increase profitability and thus create jobs. In this regard, social democratic governments have traditionally been more open to the participation of unions and employers in collective bargaining and macroeconomic policy making.
The concertation, however, collapsed during the government of Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE). By December 1988, the two major unions in Spain called an ever most unprecedented general strike since the Second Republic to oppose some of government’s unilateral programmes. The significance of this strike meant not only the break-up of the socialist party-union relations in Spain, but also the difficulties to be emerged from the path to a successful concertation.
This study focus on the impacts of the strategic interaction among tripartite, particularly the subsidiary role played by socialist union to government, on the concertation process. Given the institutional immaturity of Spanish concertation itself, the unchallengeable and decisive power on PSOE government’s hands is another major cause to the collapse of policy process. Even where pacts had been concluded, these were not on the basis of institutional and legislative arrangements. Although the social bargaining during the government of PSOE had something to do with the legacy of the statist corporatism, the efforts of political learning of social actors tend not end concertation process at which it has been. As a formal member in European Monetary Union (EMU), there is an exact need for Spanish government to moderate wage demand through social concertation; meanwhile, it is also necessary for unions and employer associations to develop collective goods in the same way, so as to enhance competitiveness of domestic firms, and to defend labours’ rights and interests on the labour market.
論文目次 目次......................................................i
圖表目次..................................................v
專有名詞翻譯對照表......................................vii
社會協定、條約與政策計劃譯名對照表.......................ix

緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的.................................1
第二節 研究途徑與方法.................................4
第三節 研究範圍與架構.................................9
第四節 資料來源與研究限制............................11

第一章  西班牙民主化後國內情勢之發展
第一節  民主化後經濟情勢發展...........................13
第二節  政治發展與社工黨執政...........................19
第三節  雇主組織聯合會的發展...........................29
第四節  工會運動的沿革.................................34

第二章  西班牙社會行為者之間的關係
第一節  政府與資方之互動關係...........................43
第二節  資方與勞方之產業關係...........................48
第三節  政府與勞方之聯繫關係...........................55

第三章  西班牙社會協約過程
第一節  西班牙的五次成功協約經驗.......................63
第二節  1988年全國總罷工運動...........................76
第三節  繼1988年總罷工後對協約的嘗試...................81

第四章  後協約時期政府對經濟情勢之政策回應
第一節  後協約時期政府政策目標的轉變...................91
第二節  政府對經濟目標及情勢的政策回應.................94
第三節 社工黨政府後協約時期政策之評估................97
第四節 「經濟暨社會委員會」的成立.....................98

第五章  影響西班牙協約進程的因素
第一節  內在因素......................................101
第二節  外在因素......................................110
第三節  政黨與工會關係之因素..........................123

第六章  西班牙協約之評估與展望
第一節  西班牙集權式協議的成效評估....................129
第二節  理論評估......................................137
第三節  展望..........................................144

結論....................................................153
參考文獻................................................159
附錄....................................................169

圖表目次
表目次
表1-1 歐洲八國的經濟表現,1974-1985 年............................................................15
表1-2 罷工統計,1975-1986 年...............................................................................16
表1-3 西班牙經濟表現,1986-1995 年(%).............................................................19
表1-4 外國資金對西班牙的直接投資,1970-1993 年............................................28
表1-5 工廠層次代表規定名額................................................................................37
表1-6 歷屆工廠委員會代表選舉結果,1978-1995 年............................................38
表2-1 雇主們對罷工行動的認同調查(%).............................................................49
表2-2 西班牙工廠領導者對公司內罷工次數之觀感............................................52
表2-3 工廠委員會領導者中政黨黨員身份與政黨支持者調查............................59
表3-1 締結社會協定行為者一覽表,1979-1994 年................................................63
表3-2 西班牙罷工統計,1987-1996 年...................................................................81
表4-1 社工黨執政期間通膨率的變化,1982-1996 年(%)....................................92
表5-1 西班牙接受結構與凝聚基金補助金額,1992-1998 年(億西幣)..............117
表5-2 全國總工會與勞工委員會之薪資要求、集體協議的薪資增長,
及社工黨任期間通膨預期率與結果,1983-1989 年.................................121
表6-1 薪資最終漲幅,1979-1986 年.....................................................................131
表6-2 政府預期通膨值與最終薪資漲幅,1984, 1987-1996 年............................131
表6-3 最終薪資與預期和最終通貨膨脹,1978-1988 年(%)...............................133
表6-4 勞資衝突統計表,1977-1988 年..................................................................134
表6-5 集體協議於各層次舉行的比例,1984-1996 年..........................................151
西班牙社會主義勞工黨執政時期薪資協議之研究(1982-1996)

圖目次
圖0-1 論文研究架構圖............................................................................................11
圖1-1 「西班牙雇主組織聯合會」組織簡圖............................................................32
圖4-1 政府公共開支占國內生產總額比例(%)....................................................93
附表
附錄一:1977 年至1996 年西班牙國內大選結果...................................................169
附錄二:西班牙薪資與經濟表現,1977-1990 年(%).......................................170
附錄三:1979-1986 年間協議內容摘要...................................................................171
附錄四:西班牙社會行為者在協議中的競合點...................................................172
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二、期刊

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Fina, Lluís and Richard I. Hawkesworth. “Trade Unions and Collective Bargaining in Post-Franco Spain.” Labour and Society, Vol.9, No.1 (January, 1984), pp.3-27.
Fishman, Robert M. “The Labor Movement in Spain. From Authoritarianism to Democracy.” Comparative Politics, Vol.14, No.3 (April, 1982), pp.281-305.
Foweraker, Joe. “Corporatist Strategies and the Transition to Democracy in Spain.” Comparative Politics, Vol.20, No.1 (October, 1987), pp.57-72.
Gillespie, Richard. “The Break-up of the Socialist Family: Party-Union Relations in Spain, 1982-1989.” West European Politics, Vol.31, No.1 (January, 1990), pp.47-62.
Hall, Peter A. “Policy Paradigms, Social Learning, and the State: The Case of Economic Policymaking in Britain.” Comparative Politics, Vol.25, No.3 (April, 1993), pp.275-296.
Hamann, Kerstin. “Linking Policies and Economic Voting. Explaining Reelection in the Case of the Spanish Socialist Party.” Comparative Political Studies, Vol.33, No.8 (October, 2000), pp.1018-1048.
Hamann, Kerstin. “The Resurgence of National-Level Bargaining: Union Strategies in Spain.” Industrial Relations Journal, Vol.32, No.2 (June, 2001), pp.154-172.
Hassel, Anke. “The Politics of Social Pacts.” British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol.41, No.4 (December, 2003), pp.707-726.
Hernández, Francesc y Francesc Mercadé. “Crecimiento, Educación y Empleo en España.” Sistema, No.62 (September, 1984), pp.37-50.
Jordana, Jacint. “Reconsidering Union Membership in Spain, 1977-1994: Halting Decline in a Context of Democratic Consolidation.” Industrial Relations Journal, Vol.27, No.3 (September, 1996), pp.211-224.
Lawlor, Teresa and Michael Rigby. “Contemporary Spanish Trade Unions.” Industrial Relations Journal, Vol.17 (Autumn, 1986), pp.249-265.
Lucio, Miguel Martinez. “Employer Identity and the Politics of the Labour Market in Spain.” West European Politics, Vol.14, No.1 (January, 1991), pp.41-45.
Lucio, Miguel Martinez and Paul Blyton. “Constructing the Post Fordist State? The Politics of Labor Market Flexibility in Spain.” West European Politics, Vol.18, No.2 (April, 1995), pp.340-360.
Pérez, Sofía A. “From Labor to Finance. Understanding the Failure of Socialist Economic Policies in Spain.” Comparative Political Studies, Vol.32, No.6 (September, 1999), pp.659-689.
Pérez, Sofía A.. “From Decentralization to Reorganization. Explaining the Return to National Bargaining in Italy and Spain.” Comparative Politics, Vol.32, No.4 (July, 2000), pp.437-458.
Pérez-Diáz, Víctor. “Los Empresarios y la Clase Política.” Papeles de la Economía Española, No.22 (January,1985), pp.2-37.
Pérez-Diáz, Víctor. “Economic Policies and Social Pacts in Spain during the Transition: The Two Faces of Neo-Corporatism.” European Sociological Review, Vol.2, No.1 (May, 1986), pp.1-19.
Quintana, Enrique Fuentes and José Barea Tejeiro. “El Déficit Público de la Democracia Española.” Papeles de Ecconomía Española, No.68 (July, 1996), pp.86-191.
Regini, Marino. “Between Deregulation and Social Pacts. The Response of European Economies to Globalization.” Politics & Society, Vol.28, No.1 (March, 2000), pp.5-33.
Rigby, Mike and Mari Luz Marco Aledo. “The Worst Record in Europe? Comparative Analysis of Industrial Conflict in Spain.” European Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol.7, No.3 (November, 2001), pp.287-305.
Rijnen, Harry. “El Asociacionismo Empresarial en la Industria Española.” Papeles de Economía Española, No.22 (January, 1985), pp.161-177.
Royo, Sebastián. “From Contention to Social Bargaining: Labour Unions and Democratic Consolidation in Spain.” Democratization, Vol.12, No.1, (February, 2005) pp.60-84.
Royo, Sebastián. “Beyond Confrontation. The Resurgence of Social Bargaining in Spain in the 1990s.” Comparative Political Studies, Vol.39, No.8 (October, 2006), pp.969-995.
Ruíz, Javier Astudillo. “Without Unions, but Socialist: The Spanish Socialist Party and Its Divorce from Its Union Confederation (1982-96).” Politics & Society, Vol.29, No.2 (June, 2001), pp.271-294.
Schmitter, Philippe C. “Still the Century of Corporatism?” The Review of Politics, Vol.36, No.1 (January, 1974), pp.85-131.
Smith, W. Rand. “Industrial Crisis and the Left. Adjustment Strategies in Socialist France and Spain.” Comparative Politics, Vol.28, No.1 (October, 1995), pp.1-24.
Stoleroff, Alan D. “Between Corporatism and Class Struggle: The Portuguese Labour Movement and the Cavaco Silva Governments.” West European Politics, Vol.15, No.4 (October, 1992), pp.118-150.
Vatta, Alessia. “Employers’ Organizations and Concertation: Internal Dynamics and Institutional Influence.” European Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol.5, No.3, (November, 1999), pp.245-264.
Zufiaur, José María. El Sindicalismo Español en la Transición y la Crisis. Papeles de Economía Española, No.22 (January, 1985), pp.202-234.


三、學術研究及會議文章

Allard, Gayle and José Bolorinos. Spain to 2005. Making Room for the Private Sector. (London: The Economist Intelligence Unit Research Report, 1996).
Boix, Carles. Building a Socialdemocratic Strategy in Southern Europe: Economic Policy under the González Government (1982-93). (Harvard University: CES Working Paper, 1994).
Bustelo, Carlos. Economic Policy in Spain’s Democracy: Dilemmas and Constraints. (Cambridge: CES Working Paper Series No.15,1986).
Ferreiro, Jesus and Carmen M. Gómez. New Income Policy in Spain. Paper presented in Macroeconomics and Macroeconomic Policies. Alternatives to the Orthodoxy. (Berlin, 28-29 October, 2005).
Goñi, Eduardo Zapico. Budget for Results in Spain: Lessons Learned After Two Decades of Reform. Conference Paper, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (28 February, 2003)
Koelble, Thomas. Recasting Social Democracy in Europe: ‘Nested Games’ and Rational Choices in Strategic Adjustment Process. (Cambridge: CES Working Paper Series No.12, 1991).
Milner, Simon and Gustavo Nombela. Trade Union Strength, Organisatioin and Impact in Spain. (London: Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper No.258, 1995).
Molins, Joaquim and Rosa Noell. “The Country Studies: Spain,” in Franz Traxler co., Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and Business Interest Organizations in the European Union. UEAPME Workpaper, (2005).
Moscoso, Leopoldo. Social Democracy and Industrial Conflict: The Breakdown of Concertation in Spain, 1982-1994. (Harvard University: Harvard-Tufts Iberian Study Group, 1995).
Pérez, Sofía A. Imported Credibility and the ‘Strong Peseta’: Bundesbank Dominance and Spanish Economic Policy in the EMS. Paper prepared for the Ninth Annual International Conference of Europeanists. (Chicago Illinois, 1994).
Pérez, Sofía A. Yet the Century? The Return to National Social Bargaining in Italy and Spain, and Some Possible Implications. Paper Presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association (Boston, August, 1998).
Richard, Andrew and Javier García Polavieja. Trade Union, Unemployment and Working Class Fragmentation in Spain. (Madrid: Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias Sociales Working Paper No.112, 1997).
Ruiz, Javier Astudillo. The Spanish Experiment: A Social Democratic Party-Union Relationship in a Competitive Union Context. (Cambridge: Center for European Studies Working Paper No.83, 2002).


四、政府公報

Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. Boletín de Estadísticas Laborales. No.131 (1996).
Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Boletín de Estadísticas Laborales, (2001).




五、報章雜誌

西班牙國家報   EL PAÍS
西班牙世界報   EL MUNDO
金融時報     Financial Times
國際先驅論壇報  International Herald Tribune


六、網路資源

全國總工會(Unión General de Trabajadores, UGT)
http://www.ugt.es/
西班牙政府勞動暨社會事務部(Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, MTAS)
http://www.mtas.es/
西班牙國家報(EL PAÍS)
http://www.elpais.com/
西班牙國會網站(Congreso de los Diputados)
http://www.congreso.es/
西班牙雇主組織聯合會(Condederación Española de Organizationes Empresariales, CEOE)
http://www.ceoe.es/
西班牙經濟暨社會委員會(Consejo Economic y Social, CES)
http://www.ces.es/
國際勞工組織網站(International Labour Organization, ILO)
http://www.ilo.org/
勞工委員會(Comisiones Obreras, CC.OO.)
http://www.ccoo.es/csccoo/
經濟合作與發展組織(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD)
http://www.oecd.org/
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