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系統識別號 U0002-1207200617421000
中文論文名稱 華裔美人自我認同之反思:評析張純如中國歷史之研究
英文論文名稱 The Reflection of Chinese American’s Self-Identity: Critiques of Iris Chang’s Works on Chinese History
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 姚明俐
研究生英文姓名 Ming-Li Yao
電子信箱 x5205555@yahoo.com.tw
學號 693220138
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-01
論文頁數 94頁
口試委員 指導教授-尤本立
委員-李本京
委員-林立樹
中文關鍵字 張純如  南京大屠殺  自我認同  華裔美人  錢學森 
英文關鍵字 Iris Chang  The rape of Nanking  Self-identity  Chinese American  Tsien Hsue-shen 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 當《南京大屠殺》成《紐約時報》暢銷書,形成一股輿論的力量,張純如與社會大眾建立溝通與對話的管道,而喚起世人對南京大屠殺事件的省思。因此,張純如所帶領起關注南京大屠殺事件的風潮,引起許多美國人對南京大屠殺事件的關注與反省,張純如成為一個「重要他人」,成就她個人在歷史上所扮演的角色與意義,形成本文探索張純如個人以及其作品的起始點。

除了《南京大屠殺》,張純如尚有《中國飛彈之父—錢學森之謎》與《華人在美國》;基於個人研究動機以及研究目的之外,這兩本書並非如《南京大屠殺》一樣,引起廣泛的社會回響。然而,雖然這三本書看起來像是一個個單一的主題,但由文本的內容以及張純如個人對其著作的評論,卻可推論出華裔美人張純如自我認同的問題,說明張純如具有美式的西方思想,但其內心卻認為自己是中華民族的一份子。自我認同問題之所以有必要被討論,重點在於個人認同的立場影響到詮釋作品的視角;尤其當張純如的作品具有影響社會的力量之時,有關張純如自我認同的問題則需要被重視。

從個人自我認同的問題為研究起點,本文研究路線則由〈第貳章〉說明張純如的家庭以及生長環境如何影響其個人的思想,並發現張純如的性格如何主導作品內容。延續上一章,〈第參章〉則由張純如的性格特點與寫作動機與目的做一番聯繫,點出三本書的重點以及特點。在致力完成探索個人內在的前兩章,〈第肆章〉則從張純如如何利用其作品建立與社會之間的溝通管道;再由社會的輿論迴響,反向證明張純如與社會之間紐帶的強弱關係。有別於前三部分,〈第伍章〉則以張純如為連結點,連接與之有身分或主題相關的作家與作品,指出張純如眾多華作家以及中國研究專家當中,以《南京大屠殺》奠定其歷史上的地位。

整體而言,本文研究張純如,始於研究個人特質的微觀視角,進而漸漸推展到與社會做一番連結,最後在把張純如這個核心人物放到宏觀的時空框架之下,檢視張純如在歷史上的角色以及定位,說明張純如具有雙重自我認同的同時,帶給她的開放以及侷限性。
英文摘要 As the Rape of Nanking being the New York Times best seller for several months, Iris Chang found out a way to communicate with the society and tried to cost the concern and reflection of the forgotten holocaust of the WWII. Indeed, from various book reviews and reports, it is clear to say that Iris Chang had been disseminated her ideal successfully. Hence, Chang’s contribution demonstrated her role as a significant other and caused my concern to study.

Besides The Rape of Nanking, Iris Chang wrote two other books; one was The Thread of the Silkworm, and another was The Chinese in America. Even though three books were not so popular as The Rape of Nanking, which caused a tremendous echo, they played equal important roles when discussing Iris Chang’s self-identity. By reviewing these three books written by Chang, it can be identified that American and Chinese culture are mixed within her thought. Since the issue of identity will affect personal judgment and evaluation toward each issue; as a result, because Iris Chang became a famous writer, the issue of her self-identity should be seriously treated.

Starting from the question, self- identity, how the family and environment affect the individual is mainly discussed in chapter two. Besides, how can Chang’s personalities affect the structure of each context is the transition between this and next chapter. As in the last chapter, Chang’s study motivation and purpose are discussed in this chapter, and then, the specialty and importance of each will be told. After analyzing the individual, it needs to unearth the solidarity between Chang and the society; furthermore, from public opinions, it can be counter reasoned how strong the solidarity and connections between Iris Chang and the society. Different from previous three parts, chapter five took Iris Chang and her books as the starting point to compare with other writers and works, which are partially relevant to Iris Chang’s identity and writings. From this chapter, the historicity and significance of Iris Chang and her work, The Rape of Nanking can be identified.

In conclusion, this thesis begins at the micro perspective to study Chang’s identity and characteristics, then goes into the analyzing the connection between the individual and society, and finally reach to the macro perspective to point out the achievement of iris Chang when comparing other writers and works. Therefore form the study, we can learn how the dual self-identity opens and restricts Iris Chang’s horizons.
論文目次 目 錄


第壹章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與問題意識…………………………………………………1
第二節 研究方法與限制……………………4

第貳章 重要他人張純如
第一節 從自我認同的問題談起……………10
第二節 張純如研究動機與動力……………13
第三節 張純如的成就與自殺………………18

第參章 詮釋的視角:張純如著作分析
第一節 文本與作者……………………………25
第二節 價值觀的投射:《中國飛彈之父—錢學森之謎》中的思想變遷…29
第三節 《南京大屠殺》的企圖與張純如……35
第四節 充滿個人風格的《華人在美國》……39

第肆章 張純如與美國社會
第一節 《南京大屠殺》的宣傳性質…………………………45
第二節 美國社會與張純如……………………………………48
第四節 張純如著作與社會輿論……………………………51



第伍章 華人文學的特點:論張純如著作的地位
第一節 尋求張純如的歷史地位……………………56
第二節 華人作家與張純如…………………………59
第三節 美國人與中國人眼中的中國………………62
第四節 《南京大屠殺》的特點…………………68

第陸章 結論………………………………………76

參考書目………………………………………………84
參考文獻 參考書目

中文專書

張純如,《南京大屠殺》,台北: 天下文化,2001。

---------,張定綺、許耀雲譯,《中國飛彈之父—錢學森之謎》,台北: 天下,1996。

王振寰,瞿海源編,陳杏枝著,〈社會化〉,《社會學與台灣社會》,台北: 巨流,2003。

周明泉譯,哈伯馬斯 (Jurgen Habermas)著,〈自由與決定論〉,《哲學與文化》,vol.32,no. 10。

郭官義、李黎合譯,哈伯馬斯著,《認識與旨趣》,台北:風雲論壇,2001。

劉北成、楊遠嬰譯,傅柯(Michel Foucault)著,《瘋癲與文明》,台北﹕桂冠,1992。

黃丘隆譯,涂爾幹著,《自殺論》,台北: 結構,1989。

張亞中,孫國祥,《美國的中國政策》,台北:生智,pp.111-196,1999。

古鴻廷、李文朗、王秀麗合撰,〈美國人心目中國人〉,《人與社會》,Vol.1,No.5,Dec 1973。

渠東譯,涂爾幹著,《社會分工論》,台北:左岸,2002。
陳明福譯,柯林烏(Robin George Collingwood),《歷史的理念》,台北:桂冠,1992。

盧嵐籣譯,舒茲(Alfred Schutz)著,《舒茲論文集(第一冊)》,台北:桂冠,2002。

陳惠堃譯,曾根一夫著,《南京大屠殺親歷記》,台北﹕黎明,1986。

孫宅巍,《一九三七南京悲歌》,台北:先智,1995。

----------,《侵華日軍南京大屠殺史稿》,南京:古籍出版社,1987。

----------,《南京大屠殺》,北京:北京出版社,1997。

----------,《1937南京悲歌》,台北:先智,1995。

----------,《南京保衛戰史》,台北:五南,1997。

----------,《南京大屠殺------事實及記錄》,北京:中國文史出版社,1997。

----------,《侵華日軍在江蘇的暴行》,北京:中共黨史出版社,2001。

----------,《南京大屠殺史料集:遇難者的屍體掩埋》,南京:江蘇人民出版社,2005。

周業謙、周光淦譯,David Jary and Julia Jary,《社會學辭典》,台北:貓頭鷹出版,2005。

洪漢鼎,《詮釋學史》,台北: 桂冠,2003。


中文報章期刊

平濤編輯,楊夏鳴著,〈傾情注翰墨 筆端揭真相〉,《南京史志》,Jan 1999。

陳黎,〈著名華裔女作家張純如: 忘記過去是可恥的〉,《時代人物週報》,二OO四年,十二月二十三日,http://www.sina.com.cn 。

網路資源

《An Eye on Books》interview with Iris Chang, http://eyeonbooks.com/ibp.php?ISBN=0670031232 .

《Identity Theory》interview with Iris Chang, http://www.identitytheory.com/interviews/birnbaum109.html .

BBC reported the Nanking Incident, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi//223038.stm







英文

英文專書

Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking, New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

-------------. The Chinese in America, New York: Viking, 2003.

-------------.Thread of the Silkwarm, L.L.C. : Basic Books, 1995.

Chan, Sucheng ed., Exclusion and the Chinese Community in America, 1882-1943, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

Fairbank, John King. The United States and China, N.Y.: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Giddens,Anthony. The Constitution of Society, Berkeley: California University Press, 1986.

-------------------------. Modernity and Self-identity, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.

G. Victor and Nee, Brett de Bary. Longtime Californ’: A Documentary Study of an American Chinatown, N.Y.: Panthein Books,1972.

Harvey, O.J. ed., Garfinkel, Harold. “A Conception of, and Experiments with, ‘Trust’ as a Condition of Stable and Concerned Actions,” Motivation in Social Interaction, New York: Ronald, 1963.

Kung, S.W. Chinese in American Life: Some Aspects of Their History, Status, Problems, and Contributions , Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1962.

Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of A Girlhood among Ghosts, New York: Vintage Books, 1977.

-----------------------------. China Men, New York: Borzoi Books, 1980.

Leitch,.Vincent B. ed., Hofstadter, Albert trans., Heidegger, Martin “Language,”The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, N.Y.: Norton, 2001.

---------------------------, Heath, Stephen trans., Barthes, Roland “From Work to Text,” The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, N.Y.: Norton, 2001.

Lee, Rose Hum. The Chinese in the U.S.A., Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1960.

McKee, Delber W. Chinese Exclusion and the Open Door Policy, 1900-1906: Clashes over China Policy in the Roosevelt Era, Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1977.

Mead, George Herbert. Mind, Self and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorists, Chiago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.

-------------------------. Movements of Thought in the Nineteenth Century, Chicago: University of Chicago, 1936.

----------------------------. The Individual and Social Self: Unpublished Work of George Herbert Mead, Chiago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Riggs, Fred W. Pressures on Congress: A Study of The Repeal of Chinese Exclusion, N.Y.: King’s Crown Press, 1950.

Sung, Betty Lee. Mountain of Gold: The Story of Chinese in America, N.Y.: Macmillian Press, 1967.

Sandmeyer, Elmer Clarence. The Anti-Chinese Movement in California, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1939.

Saxton, Alexander. The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969.

Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club, (N.Y.: Ivy Books Press), 1989.

Tsai, Shihshan Henry. China and the Overseas Chinese in the United States,1868-1911 , Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1983.

英文報章期刊

Barde, Bobert. “Plague in San Francisco: An Essay Review,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Science, Vol.59, No.3, Jul 2004.

Chai, Barbara. “Overdue History," Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol.166, Iss.34, Aug 28, 2003.

Chu, Yungdeh Richard. “The Presentation Brief at Iris Chang’s Memorial Service”, Chinese American Forum, Vol.XX, January 2005.

-----------------------------.“Iris Chang’s Menorial Service,” Chinese American Forum, Vol.XX, No.3, Jan. 2005.

Chang, Iris. “Exposing The Rape of Nanking,” Newsweek , Dec 1, 1997, Vol.130, No.22.

--------------. “Fear of SARS, Fear of Strangers,[Op-Ed],” New York Times, May 21, 2003.

DeVorkin, David. “Chinese Missile Guide,” Nature, Mar 1996, vol.380, Iss. 6570.

Duckworth, Michael. “ Chinese Writers Cope with Life in Exile, “Chinese Writers Cope with Life in Exile,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., Mar 14,1991.

Feng,Da Hsuan. “A Thank You Note to Iris Chang,” Chinese American Forum, Vol. XX, No.3, Jan 2005.

Hong, Terry. “Living With Loss,” Chinese American Forum, N.Y., Vol.XX, No.3, Jan 2005.

Ignatius, Adi and Sterba, James P. “Rival Army Forces Clash in China; Bush Bans Military Sales to Regime – Massacre in Beijing Divides the Troops. Tanks Patrol Streets,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., Jun 6,1989.

Ignatius, Adi. “Wariness About Business in China persists – U.S. Executive Who Fled After Beijing Massacre Wait for Dust to Settle,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., Jun 15, 1989.

----------------. “Solo Act: In Beijing, Chinese rock Star In The Last Protester – One Year After Tiananmen, Only Hou Dejian Dares To Speak Out in Public,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., May 31, 1990.

Jones, Steven. “Flow of Money From China Uncertain – Region’s Future Depends On Incentives, Immigration,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition),N.Y., Aug 4,1989.

Minnick, Wendell. “Returned to Sender,” Far Eastern Economic Review, Sep. 1996, Vol.159, Iss. 36.

Tam, Marilyn. “Iris Chang(1968-2004), Historian, Author, World Change Agent,” Chinese American Forum, N.Y., Vol.XX, No.3, Jan 2005.

McGregor, James. “Good Will Eludes China in Asian Games – Populace, Sponsors Can’t Forget Tiananmen,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., Sep 14, 1990.

----------------------.“China’s trade Status ? Most Annoying – Obscure Policies Block U.S. Firms’ Opportunities,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., May 3, 1991.

-----------------------. “ Mao’s Widow Killed Herself, China Reports – Hesitation in Announcing May 14 Death points To a Political Fragility,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., Jun 5,1991.

----------------------.“Chinese Police, Three U.S. Lawmakers Square Off Briefly in Tiananmen Square,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., Sep 5, 1991.

Neufeld, Michael J. “Orbits of A Rocketeer,” Science, Apr. 1996, Vol.272, Iss.5259.

Owens, Cynthia and Leung, Julia. “ Financial problems For Chinese Projects Become More Acute – Hotels and Office Building Have Troubles That Stem From Massacre in Beijing,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., Sep 26, 1989.

Peng, Jeff. “On iris Chang’s Death,” Chinese American Forum, Vol. XX, No.3, Jan 2005.

Peng, Tzy C. “In Memory of A Justice Fighter, Iris Chang (1968-2004),” Chinese American Forum, N.Y., Vol.XX, No.3, Jan 2005, p.10-11.

Perkins, Garry. “Prejudice or Prudence,” New York Times, May 23, 2003.

Rasmussen, Kent. “Thread of the Silkworm,” Library Journal, New York: May 15, 1999, vol.124, Iss.9.

Rotella, Mark. Gold, Sarah. Andriani, F. Scharf, LynnMichael. Chenoweth, Emily. “The Chinese in America: A Narrative History,” Publishers Weekly, Vol.250, Iss.18, May 2003.

Rotella, Mark. “The Chinese in America: A Narrative History,” Publishers Weekly, Vol.250, Iss.18, May 5, 2003.

----------------.Gold, Sarah F. Andriani, Lynn. Scharf, Michael. Chenoweth, Emily. “The Chinese in America: A Narrative History,” Publishers Weekly, Vol.250, Iss.18, May 2003.

Rogers, David. “House 390-25, Rejects Bush’s Veto of Law Allowing Chinese students to Stay in U.S.” ,Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., Jun 25,1990.

Southerland, Danial. “The U.S. genius Who Armed China,” Washington Post, Jan 21, 1996.

Schrag, Peter. “Journey to the West,” Washington Post, May 18, 2003.

Schall, James V. “Letters to the Editor: China and the Tiananmens to Come,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), N.Y., Jul 17,1989, pg.1.

Tam, Marilyn. “Iris Chang(1968-2004),” Chinese American Forum, Vol.XX, No.3, Jan.2005.

Wang, Zuoyue. “Thread of the Silkworm,” Csis, Vol.91, No.3, Sep. 2000.

Whitten, Robert C. “The Rape of Nanking, The forgotten Holocaust of WWII,” Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Summer 2001, Vol.29, Issue 1.

Yutang, Lin. My Country and My People, N.Y.: The John Day Company Press, 1939.

Yang, Daquing.“Convergence or Divergence? Recent Historical Writings on the Rape of Nanjing,” The American Historical Review, Vol.104, No.3, Jun 1999.

Zagoria, Donald. “The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II,” Foreign Affairs, Mar/Apr 1998,Vol.77, Iss.2.

網路資源

張純如官方網站,
http://www.irischang.net/previous_lectures.cfm .
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