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系統識別號 U0002-1206200722152300
中文論文名稱 尿素生化感測器之研究發展
英文論文名稱 Development of Urea Biosensor
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 化學學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Chemistry
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 賴建宏
研究生英文姓名 Chien-Hung Lai
學號 694170019
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-05-22
論文頁數 86頁
口試委員 指導教授-林孟山
委員-陳壽椿
委員-傅明仁
委員-莊子超
中文關鍵字 尿素  生化感測器  流動注射系統 
英文關鍵字 Urea  Biosensor  Flow injection analysis 
學科別分類 學科別自然科學化學
中文摘要 本實驗利用一氧化二銅(Copper(I) oxide)催化NH3還原的特性,配合Urease (EC 3.5.1.5)可將尿素水解產生NH3,將酵素與一氧化二銅分別修飾在雙玻璃碳電極之上下游,結合流注系統發展低電位氧化模式偵測,並以恆電位儀控制電位及接收訊號,以達發展尿素生化感測器之目的。
此尿素生化感測器之最佳化製備條件是用碳膏與20%一氧化二銅均勻混和後,修飾在下游電極表面,置於40 ℃烘箱30分鐘乾燥後在上游電極滴加0.5 unit Urease (EC 3.5.1.5),靜置於4℃乾燥後再滴1 % 0.5 μl小牛血清蛋白,靜置於4 ℃乾燥後再1 % 0.5μl戊二醛,靜置於4 ℃乾燥即完成電極製備。在最佳化條件下,偵測環境為0.05 M pH 9 碳酸鹽緩衝溶液,偵測電位為200 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl),載體流速為0.5 ml/min,樣品迴路體積為50 μl,進行尿素的量測,所得此感測器分析特性如下:線性範圍為1-10 mM(R=0.99),電流密度為85.736 nA/mM,偵測極限(S/N=3)為85 μM,在精確度方面連續重覆偵測尿素20次操作下,所得到的相對標準差(RSD)為1.8%。且若在雙電極系統的上游電極修飾PbO2進行氧化前處理,可以避免環境中易氧化干擾物如多巴胺、腎上腺素、血清素、組織胺、乙醯苯酚、尿酸、抗壞血酸等。最後將此生化電極與標準方法進行相關性探討,其相關係數為0.995。
英文摘要 The copper(I) oxide based urea biosensor was fabricated in this experiment, and it possessed reduced overvoltage for ammonia determination. The enzyme Urease (EC 3.5.1.5) was drop-coated on the up-stream of dual electrode and subsequently
the NH3 was determination through copper(I) oxide modified down-stream
electrode.

The preparation of this biosensor was as follows, carbon ink and 20% copper(I) oxide had been well mixed and drop-coated on the downsteam electrode ; the urease (0.5 unit) was dropped on the upstream and dried secondly;the 1% 0.5 μl bovine serum albumin drop-coated on the upstream and dried; the 1% 0.5 μl glutaraldehyde dropped on the upstream and dried finally. The optimized conditions in the 0.05M pH 9 carbonate buffer ; applied potential was 0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) ; flow rate was 0.5 ml/min; sample loop was 50 μl. The analytical performances of biosensor equipped with linear range upto 10 mM(R=0.99) and sensitivity is 85.736 nA/mM, detection limit (S/N=3) was 85 μM, and precision is 1.8% by twenty successive measurement. In order to eliminate interference, PbO2 was used to pre-oxidize those easily oxidative compounds, such as ,dopamine, epinephrine, serotonin, histamine , acetaminophen ,uric acid, ascorbic acid. Compared with standard method (sigma640), the correlation coefficient was 0.995.
論文目次 目錄 (Contents)
論文提要內容………………………………………………………I
Abstract…………………………………………………………II
目錄………………………………………………………………III
圖表目錄…………………………………………………………VI
第一章 序論………………………………………………………1
1-1 生化感測器的定義與組成……………………………………1
1-1-1辨識元固定方法………………………………………2
1-1-1-1 物理吸附法………………………………………2
1-1-1-2 陷阱法……………………………………………2
1-1-1-3 電沉積法…………………………………………3
1-1-1-4 混合法……………………………………………4
1-1-1-5 交聯法……………………………………………4
1-2化學修飾電極簡介……………………………………………5
1-2-1 化學吸附法……………………………………………6
1-2-2 共價鍵結法……………………………………………6
1-2-3 高分子薄膜塗佈法……………………………………7
1-2-4 非均相材料混合法……………………………………8
1-3 一氧化二銅性質與應用………………………………………10
1-3-1 一氧化二銅性質………………………………………10
1-3-2 一氧化二銅應用………………………………………11
1-4 流動分析系統…………………………………………………12
1-5 銨根之研究……………………………………………………15
1-5-1光化學法………………………………………………15
1-5-2 電化學法………………………………………………17
1-6 尿素之研究……………………………………………………19
1-6-1 尿素形成與代謝………………………………………19
1-6-2 尿素的臨床意義………………………………………22
1-6-3 治療……………………………………………………22
1-7 尿素生化感測器………………………………………………25
1-7-1 光化學法………………………………………………25
1-7-2 電化學法………………………………………………27
1-8 本研究的目的………………………………………………34

第二章 實驗部份

2-1 儀器…………………………………………………………35
2-2 藥品…………………………………………………………35
2-3 實驗步驟……………………………………………………36
2-4 最佳化條件探討……………………………………………37
2-4-1 辨識層組成最佳化探討……………………………37
2-4-1-1 酵素修飾方法探討………………………………38
2-4-1-2 酵素含量之探討…………………………………38
2-4-1-3 小牛血清蛋白與戊二醛比例之探討……………38
2-4-1-4 一氧化二銅與導電碳膠組成(催化劑含量)…39
2-4-2 偵測操作條件探討…………………………………39
2-4-2-1 偵測電位探討……………………………………39
2-4-2-2 環境酸鹼度之探討………………………………39
2-4-2-3 緩衝溶液種類之探討……………………………39
2-4-2-4 緩衝溶液濃度之探討……………………………39
2-4-2-5 電解質氯化鈉濃度之探討………………………40
2-4-2-6 載體流速之探討…………………………………40
2-4-2-7 載體迴路體積之探討……………………………40

2-5 尿素生化感測器特性探討…………………………………40

第三章 結果與討論

3-1 電化學偵測機制的探討……………………………………41
3-2 偵測條件之最適化…………………………………………45
3-2-1 辨識層組成最佳化探討……………………………45
3-2-1-1 酵素修飾方法探討………………………………45
3-2-1-2 酵素含量之探討…………………………………47
3-2-1-3 小牛血清蛋白與戊二醛比例之探討…………50
3-2-1-4 一氧化二銅與導電碳膠組成(催化劑含量) … 50
3-2-2 偵測操作條件探討…………………………………53
3-2-2-1 偵測電位探討……………………………………53
3-2-2-2 偵測環境之酸鹼度探討…………………………53
3-2-2-3 緩衝溶液種類之探討……………………………55
3-2-2-4 緩衝溶液濃度之探討……………………………57
3-2-2-5 電解質氯化鈉濃度之探討………………………57
3-2-2-6 載體流速之探討…………………………………60
3-2-2-7 載體迴路體積之探討……………………………63

3-3 相關性探討………………………………………………………69

3-4 結論………………………………………………………………71
圖表目錄
圖(一) : Cu2O修飾電極之循環伏安圖………………………………42
以循環伏安法檢視修飾50% Cu2O修飾電極之電化學行為,在0.05 M pH 7 碳酸鹽緩衝溶液中,掃描速率為50 mV/sec。
圖(二) : 循環伏安法探討50% Cu2O修飾電極對於銨根偵測特性.44
50% Cu2O修飾電極,在0.05 M pH 9 碳酸鹽緩衝溶液中,連續添加1 mM氯化銨之循環伏安法電化學行為,掃描速率為50 mV/sec。
圖(三): 尿素生化感測器之電子傳遞機制示意圖…………………46
圖(四): 酵素修飾方法之探討………………………………………48
圖(五): 酵素修飾比例之探討………………………………………49
圖(六): 小牛血清蛋白與戊二醛比例之探討………………………51
圖(七): 一氧化二銅與導電碳膠組成 (催化劑含量)………………52
圖(八): 偵測電位探討………………………………………………54
圖(九): 環境酸鹼度之探討…………………………………………56
圖(十): 緩衝溶液種類之探討………………………………………58
圖(十一): 緩衝溶液濃度之探討……………………………………59
圖(十二): 電解質氯化鈉濃度之探討………………………………61
圖(十三): 載體流速之探討…………………………………………62
圖(十四): 載體迴路體積之探討……………………………………64
圖(十五): 校正曲線…………………………………………………66
圖(十六): 尿素生化感測器再現性探討……………………………68
圖(十七): 相關性探討………………………………………………70
表(一) 實驗最佳化條件與分析特性……………………………65
表(二) 尿素生化感測器之干擾物分析…………………………67
附圖 (A) 實驗裝置示意圖…………………………………………72
附圖 (B) 流體三電極反應槽裝置圖………………………………73





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