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系統識別號 U0002-1206200711424000
中文論文名稱 適性化課程元件再利用性之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study on Reusability of Adaptive Learning Object
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 林曉雯
研究生英文姓名 Hsiau-Wen Lin
學號 892190082
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2007-06-06
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-許輝煌
委員-廖弘源
委員-吳家麟
委員-趙榮耀
委員-施國琛
中文關鍵字 共享內容元件參考模型(SCORM)  內容元件倉儲發現與解析架構(CORDRA)  重複利用性  適性化學習  派翠網路 
英文關鍵字 SCORM  CORDRA  reusability  adaptive learning  Petri Net 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 編製高品質數位教材往往是相當耗時的。而時間所增加的成本,就成了推廣遠距教學上的一個絆腳石。許多文獻中提到,高品質內容的分享,也就是學習元件的可重複使用性提升,是解決這個問題的可能方法。而共享內容元件參考模型(SCORM) 定義了一個學習元件如何交換與重覆使用的標準規範,這規範中包含了對於重複使用的最基本單位--學習元件,給予元資料的描述以利於再用性,也給予學習順序的設定以利於適性化學習。除外,尚有新提出的內容元件倉儲發現與解析架構 (CORDRA)來進一步提供學習元件的解析、發現與分享平台。然而這對於非SCORM等標準專家的一般課程設計者而言,要設計出符合標準的課程,無異是一個更大的難題。因此,我們的研究將聚焦於如何幫助課程設計者很容易地去建構出具有再用性的課程元件。
首先,我們提出MINE元資料精靈的機制,藉由使用者記錄檔、系統萃取資訊、互動問答以及推論規則來自動產生元資料,以減輕課程設計者對於龐雜元資料逐一填入的負擔。第二,針對SCORM2004版本中所規範的複雜順序定義模型,我們提出了以派翠網路為延伸的自動順序檢驗技術,不只整個課程順序架構得以清晰可見,並且能事先避免因為不當順序設定所引起的學習行為中斷。此外,當課程設計者欲重複利用已存在的學習元件時,我們提出的延伸CORDRA模型可以針對龐大的儲存體,提供有系統的查詢結果。並且,追蹤特定元件的重覆利用演化過程,將這過程以重複利用樹(Reusability Tree) 的架構予以記錄。藉由這三種方法,來確保可重複利用的課程元件得以被課程設計者發現與再用。
英文摘要 One stumbling block to the establishment of E-Learning is on the time consuming tasks to create high quality digital contents that can be used in instruction. In the literature, reusability of learning objects is addressed as a potential solution toward the sharing of high quality contents. SCORM provides a generic and standard mechanism to enable learning objects changeable, reusable. SCORM defines metadata of learning objects, which is used as the elementary reusable components in E-Learning; SCORM defines sequence of learning objects, which is used for setting adaptive E-Learning; even provides a common architecture for the resolution, discovery, and sharing of learning objects in new proposed CORDRA. However, there is another big stumbling block for most course designers (e.g. teachers) who are not SCORM specialists to create a SCORM compliant learning objects. Thus, our investigation focuses on how to help course designers to create reusable learning objects facilely.
First, we propose a mechanism called the MINE Metadata Wizard, by means of using user profiles, system extracted information, interactive questions, and influence rules to provide an automatic metadata generation mechanism to reduce the load of course designers. Second, the first technique for automatic sequencing testing is proposed to decrease the complexity of sequencing definition model in SCORM 2004. Petri Net is extended to make the course sequencing visible and avoid any irregular setting interrupting learning activity in advance. In addition, when course designers want to reuse exist learning objects, our extending CORDRA model provides systematic query results from huge repository. The evolution of reusing on a particular learning object in CORDRA can be tracked in a structure. We call the structure a Reusability Tree. As a consequence, reusable learning objects can be discovered and reused by many course designers.
論文目次 Table of Contents
List of Figures..........................................IV
List of Tables...........................................VI
Chapter 1 Introduction....................................1
1.1 Motivation............................................1
1.2 Problem Definition....................................5
1.3 Organization of Thesis................................8
Chapter 2 Related Works..................................10
2.1 SCORM ................................................10
2.1.1 Content Aggregation Model..........................11
2.1.2 Run-Time Environment...............................13
2.1.3 SCORM Sequencing and Navigation....................14
2.2 Repository...........................................19
2.2.1 CORDRA.............................................20
2.2.2 Federated CORDRA...................................22
Chapter 3 Facilitating Metadata Creation.................24
3.1 The Costs of Using IEEE LOM..........................24
3.2 The MINE Metadata Wizard.............................26
3.2.1 Metadata Wizard....................................27
3.2.2 Deduction Engine...................................28
Chapter 4 Automatic Sequencing Trap Detection............30
4.1 Sequencing Trap......................................30
4.1.1 Definition of Sequencing Traps.....................30
4.1.2 Sequencing Trap within Sequencing Control Modes....31
4.2 The Proposed Sequencing-Oriented Petri Net (SOPN)....34
4.2.1 Petri Net Model Revised............................35
4.2.2 Applying SOPN on Sequencing Control Modes..........36
4.2.3 Applying SOPN on Elements Composing in Sequencing Definition Model.........................................40
4.3 Sequencing Trap Detecting by Petri Net Model.........46
4.3.1 Detected by Petri Net Graph........................46
4.3.2 Detected by Flow Matrix............................47
4.3.3 The Proposed Algorithms............................52
Chapter 5 Extending CORDRA for Systematic Reuse..........55
5.1 Extending CORDRA with a Reuse Model – Reusability Tree.....................................................55
5.2. An Implementation of Revised CORDRA.................59
5.2.1 Registration Subsystem.............................60
5.2.2 Discovery Subsystem................................62
5.2.3 Search Subsystem...................................65
Chapter 6 Implementation.................................81
6.1 Integration of the Wizard in SCORM-based Authoring Tool.....................................................82
6.2 Implementation of a Trap Detection Tool..............85
6.3 Implementation of the MINE Registry..................87
Chapter 7 Conclusion.....................................90
Appendix.................................................93
References...............................................97
Paper List..............................................102

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Dimension of an E-Learning Environment[12].....6
Figure 1.2 Research Scope Diagram.........................7
Figure 2.1 An Activity Tree within Five Clusters.........16
Figure 2.2 Sequencing Control Flow Behaviors.............17
Figure 2.3 Sequencing Control Forward Only Behavior......18
Figure 2.4 Overall CORDRA Model [3]......................21
Figure 2.5 Federated CORDRA Model [3]....................23
Figure 3.1 Trade off between Searching Costs and Filling-in Metadata Costs...........................................25
Figure 3.2 The decrement of Total Costs with Metadata Wizard...................................................26
Figure 3.3 The MINE Metadata Wizard Framework............27
Figure 4.1 An example of Sequencing Trap on parent activity.................................................33
Figure 4.2 An example of Sequencing Trap on Active Activity.................................................34
Figure 4.3 Sequencing Control Flow and Forward Only Construction.............................................38
Figure 4.4 Sequencing Control Choice Construction........39
Figure 4.5 Sequencing Control Choice Exit Construction...40
Figure 4.6 Composing Construction of Sequencing Control Flow and Forward Only....................................43
Figure 4.7 Composing Construction of Sequencing Control Flow and Choice..........................................45
Figure 4.8 Sequencing Trap detecting by Petri Net........47
Figure 4.9 An Example of Limit Condition Attempt Limit...49
Figure 4.10(a) Trap Path of the Flow Matrix..............50
Figure 4.10(b) Workable Path of the Flow Matrix..........51
Figure 5.1 An Illustration of the Reusability Tree.......58
Figure 5.2 Components of the Subsystem for Leaning Object Registration.............................................61
Figure 5.3 Components of the Subsystem for Leaning Object Discovery and Reuse......................................64
Figure 5.4 Examples of Similarity between a Query LO and a Target LO ................................................72
Figure 5.5 Examples of Diversity Values..................76
Figure 5.6 An Example Relevancy Value....................80
Figure 6.1 The GUI of the Hard SCORM Authoring Tool......82
Figure 6.2 The “Metadata” Drop Down Menu...............83
Figure 6.3 The Question Agent and Deduction Engine interface................................................84
Figure 6.4 The Sequencing Editor in Hard SCORM Authoring Tool.....................................................86
Figure 6.5 Sequencing Testing Mode in the Hard SCORM Authoring Tool...........................................87
Figure 6.6 Registration Interface of the MINE Registry and Upload Result............................................88
Figure 6.7 Search Interface of the MINE Registry and Increamental Search Results..............................89


List of Tables
Table 3.1 Distributions of metadata items................24
Table 4.1 All possible composing within Sequencing Control Mode and the results of Sequencing Trap..................32
Table 5.1 values of the match function applied to descendant objects.......................................71
Table 5.2 Similarity Values among Learning Objects in Figure 5.5...............................................72
Table 5.3 Diversity Values among Learning Objects in Figure 5.5......................................................74
Table 5.4 (Symmetric) Diversity Values According to the New Definition...............................................75
Table 6.1 Automatic generation of Content Model Component (CMC)....................................................85


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[2]ADL Technical Team, “ADL SCORM Metadata Generator”, Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL), http://www.adlnet.org/
[3]ADL Technical Team, “Content Object Repository Discovery and Registration/Resolution Architecture (CORDRA)”, ADL 1’st International Plugfest, June 07, 2004
[4]ADL Technical Team, DOD Learning Repositories Use Cases Version 1.0, Oct. 23, 2003
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[16]H. W. Lin, Timothy K. Shih, Wen-Chih Chang, and Chun-Chia Wang, "A Petri Nets-based Approach to Modeling SCORM Sequence," in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2004), Taipei, Taiwan, June 27 - June 30, 2004, pp. 1247-1250
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