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系統識別號 U0002-1203201815350900
中文論文名稱 數位製造技術與方法研究
英文論文名稱 A Study on Digital Fabrication Technologies and Methods
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 鄭凱方
研究生英文姓名 Kai-Fang Cheng
學號 600360571
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2018-01-15
論文頁數 137頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳珍誠
指導教授-陸金雄
委員-張恭領
委員-柯純融
中文關鍵字 數位製造  電腦輔助設計  電腦輔助製造  電腦輔助建築設計  典範移轉 
英文關鍵字 Digital Fabrication  Computer-Aided Design(CAD)  Computer-Aided Manufacturing(CAM)  Computer-Aided Architecture Design(CAAD)  Paradigm Shift. 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 建築發展與工業技術趨勢一脈相承,歷代工業革命所引領的經濟效應,則與社會消費趨勢有著連動關係。現代主義衍生而來的大規模建築系統,強調精細分工和快速製造。而當前工業技術與科技趨勢的革命浪潮,引導建築產業不斷更新製造技術。第三次工業革命結合資通訊技術的各種創新研發,使後工業時代的建築設計,得以結合電腦輔助設計、電腦輔助製造、電腦輔助工程等數位程序概念進行系統化生產。當麻省理工學院帶動自造者風潮,德國工業4.0Industrie 4.0與美國企業大數據Big Data應用引發全球「第四次工業革命」,信息技術與網絡科技進入急遽成長期,從而影響建築數位製造設計的工具與程序,帶動建築設計與新科技協作的嘗試。「數位製造」技術與方法的「量身訂製」,成為建築設計沒有標準答案時突破框架的成果。

建築產業採納電腦輔助設計與製造,被建築史視為意義重大的程序轉變。本研究闡述數位製造的技術原理、方法與材料應用,並以相關案例與文獻回顧,探討科技趨勢下,數位製造促進的建築領域的「典範轉移」與專業適應性,包括整合資通訊科技軟硬體、建構跨領域技術平台、輔助設計脫離無重力虛擬環境 、展望數位時代構築美學。建築設計與數位製造的程序系統變化,促進設計與技術的結合,材料、工法、結構與機具成為設計思維的基礎。

數位製造重新定義與整合工業製造邏輯,使傳統建築生產程序面臨重大挑戰。相較於經濟效益導向的實務界,建築學院提供眾多實驗研究與理論發展;設計者得以透過編程與各種方法,進行「由上而下」或「由下而上」的邏輯創建。本研究最終以尺度、工具、材料、典範移轉、優化競爭等面向,思考數位製造在建築設計中的意義與趨勢。設計者須具備抽象思考的設計描述力,與控制叢集型設計結果的能力。透過建築教育、營建自動化、遠端製造與勞動力市場的展望分析,勾勒新興科技蓬勃發展下數位製造的發展輪廓。自「數位製造」技術與方法發端,建築師與設計者將獲得更多工具方法,搭建傳統工藝與現代構築的橋樑,奠定產業領域更深厚、更寬廣的技術底蘊。
英文摘要 Architecture has been developing hand in hand with industrial technology. Economic takeoffs led by generations of industrial revolutions were co-related to consuming trends in the society. The large-scale building construction system derived from modernism, emphasizing delicate division of labour and rapid manufacturing. The revolutionary trends of current industrial technology and technical advances have been driving the architecture industry to continuously upgrade manufacturing technology. The third industrial revolution combined fruits of innovative R&D of information and communication technology (ICT), and architecture in post-industrial age has been combining with systematic manufacturing procedures, including computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer-aided engineering (CAE). When Maker Movement was ushered in by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIA) and the Fourth Industrial Revolution took shape because of Industrie 4.0 of Germany and Big Data introduced by the US enterprises, the growing importance of information technologies has become widespread. Hence, the tools and procedures of digital fabrication have been trending the collaboration of architectural design and new technologies. When architectural design procedure is integrated with rapid manufacturing, independent procedure and smaller-scale of manufacturing becomes possible, so to meet demands in detail-oriented delicate design and customized manufacturing. Therefore, “Tailor-made” has become the brainchild that transcended boundaries and added values for customers with digital technology when no standard solution is readily available for an architectural problem.

The adoption of CAD/CAM processes in the architectural industry has been considered as a redical shifts in architectural history concerning the procedural implications. The study illustrates principles, methods and material application of digital fabrication, and explores paradigm shifts and adaptability for professional purposes in the field of architecture driven by digital fabrication under the current technology trends through cases and literature review. It examines the integration of ICT software and hardware, establishment of cross-disciplinary technical platform, how design happens outside of a simulated zero gravity environment, and envisions construction aesthetics of the digital age. The transformation of working methods through digitally integrated workflows suggests new hierarchies within existing office structures as well as new models of practice. The systematic changes in architectural design and the digital workflows have enabled to advance the design-technology integration such that material, method, structure and machinery become the foundation of design thinking.

Digital fabrication redefines and integrates interfaces of industrial manufacturing, imposing significant challenges to traditional architecture construction procedures. Comparing to the industry that focuses on economic benefits, the architecture academia proposed a variety of experiments, research and theories. Through programming and other different methods, designers can create based on top-down or bottom-up logics. The study reconsiders the meaning and trends of digital fabrication in architecture design on aspects of scale, tool, material, paradigm shift, and competitiveness optimisation. It is suggested that designers should equipped with abstract thinking for the design illustration and to control the flexibilities of this algebra of collections. Through architecture education, automation of construction, remote manufacturing and prospect analysis of labor market, the study outlines the development trajectory of digital fabrication as emerging technology thrives. Architects and designers will be enabled by technology and methods of digital manufacturing and build the bridge between traditional crafts and modern construction, laying a deeper and wider technical foundation for the industry.
論文目次 目錄

第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-1-1 回顧台灣經濟起飛 1
1-1-2 向台灣工業科技先驅致敬 3
1-1-3 台灣資通訊產業與自動化機械發展 4
1-1-4 現代工業轉型模式的觀察 4
1-1-5 建築實作精神與自造者風潮 5
1-1-6 第四次工業革命下的台灣優勢 5

1-2 研究目的 6
1-2-1 國內外數位製造相關研究的整理 6
1-2-2 跨學科領域合作模式的舉例說明 6
1-2-3 數位製造原理技術的基本分類 7
1-2-4 研究領域與建築實務應用的觀察 7
1-2-5 數位製造成為產業創新或轉型的潛力觀察 7


第二章 數位製造技術與方法 8
2-1 數位製造原則與精神 11
2-1-1 「由下而上」與「由上而下」 11
2-1-2 「高度定義」與「零容錯度」 12
2-1-3 「數位構築」與「數位製造」 16

2-2 設計 17
2-2-1 類比設計過渡至數位運算 18
2-2-2 拓樸學建構邏輯 19
2-2-3 參數化設計 21
2-2-4 快速成形 21
2-2-5 腳本撰寫 22
2-2-6 雲端運算 23
2-2-7 設計信息系統 23
2-2-8 開源程式 25
2-2-9 形體轉換數據 26
2-2-10 網格系統(Grid System) 26
2-2-10-1 潘洛斯鋪設法(Penrose Tiling) 27
2-2-10-2 準晶體排列(Quasicrystal Pattern) 27
2-2-10-3 沃羅諾伊圖騰(Voronoi Diagram) 28
2-2-11 演算法與建築設計的未來 28

2-3 製造 30
2-3-1 數位製造方法 30
2-3-1-1 剖切(Sectioning) 31
2-3-1-2 嵌飾(Tessellating) 33
2-3-1-3 摺疊(Folding) 35
2-3-1-4 輪廓(Contouring) 38
2-3-1-5 成形(Forming) 38
2-3-1-6 骨架(Skeleton) 39
2-3-2 數位製造原理 40
2-3-2-1 切割法(Cutting) 42
2-3-2-2 成形法(Formation) 43
2-3-2-3 加法製造(Addition) 43
2-3-2-4 減法製造(Substraction) 44
2-3-3 數位製造機具 45
電腦數位控制(Computer Numerical Control,CNC) 46
快速成形(Rapid Prototyping,RP) 47
技術原理與生產程序 48
2-3-3-1 數控雷射切割機(CNC laser cutting) 48
2-3-3-2 數控噴射切割機(CNC Jet Cutting Machine) 49
2-3-3-3 數控車床(CNC Milling Machine) 49
2-3-3-4 等離子切割機(Plasma Cutting Machine) 50
2-3-3-5 真空成形機(Vacuum Forming Machine) 50
2-3-3-6 3D列印機(Three-dimentioned Printer) 50
2-3-3-7 機器人(Robotics) 51
機器人定義 52
機械手臂的誕生 52
機械手臂構造 52
機械手臂應用先驅 53
機械手臂新型製造 54
機械手臂與雲端運算 54
機械手臂:建築數位製造新產業鏈 55
機械手臂與建築教育 55
機械手臂與NCCR 56

2-4 材料 57
2-4-1 木料(Timber / Wood) 57
2-4-2 磚塊(Bricks) 58
2-4-3 石材(Masonry) 59
2-4-4 陶土(Ceramic) 60
2-4-5 混凝土(Concrete) 61
2-4-6 金屬(Metals) 62

2-5 德國工業4.0 與第四次工業革命 65
工業4.0(Industrie 4.0) 65
第四次工業革命(The fourth Industrial Revolution) 68

2-6 自造者運動 (Maker Movement) 70


第三章 相關文獻研究 73
3-1 建築四要素 73
The Four Elements of Architecture and Other Things(Gottfried Semper)
3-2 構築文化之研究 75
Studies in Tectonic Culture: The Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Architecture(Kenneth Frampton)
3-3 數位設計與製造─CAD/CAM於建築與設計領域之應用 76
Digital Design and Manufacturing: CAD/CAM Applications in Architecture and Design(Schodek, D., Bechthold, M., Grigs, K., Kao, K. M., Steinberg, M.)
3-4 突破框架─建築與信息技術 77
Jenseits des Rasters – Architektur und Informationstechnologie Beyond the Grid – Architecture and Information Technology(Ludger Hovestadt)
3-5 數位製造─建築材料技術 78
Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material Techniques(Lisa Iwamoto)
3-6 新興科技與設計─走向建築生態典範 78
Emergent Technologies and Design: Towards a Biological Paradigm for Architecture(Michael Hensel, Achim Menges, Michael Weinstock)
3-7 製造建築─數位設計與製造選讀 79
Fabricating Architecture:Selected Readings in Digital Design and Manufacturing(Robert Corser Ed.)
3-8 建築領域數位製造 81
Digital Fabrication in Architecture(Nick Dunn)
3-9 數位製造的材料策略 82
Material Strategies in Digital Fabrication(Christopher Beorkrem)


第四章 案例研究 83
Sci-ARC 美國南加州建築學院 85

ETH-Zurich 蘇黎世聯邦理工學院 89
2010-2011 Michael Hansmeyer + ETH-Zurich
Subdivided Column 90
2011-2012 Gramazio & Kohler + Raffaello D'Andrea
Flight Assembled Architecture 91
2015-2016 Gramazio & Kohler + MIT Self-Assembly Lab
Rock Print 94
2016 Gramazio & Kohler
Spatial Wire Cutting 96

Universität Stuttgart 德國司徒加特大學 98
2010-2011 Research Pavilion 98
2014-2015 Research Pavilion 100
2015 Landesgartenschau 103
2015-2016 Research Pavilion 107


第五章 結論與建議 111
5-1 結論 111
5-1-1 尺度 111
5-1-2 材料 111
5-1-3 工具 112
5-1-4 典範移轉 112
5-1-5 精準訂製與量化客製 113
5-1-6 溝通橋樑 113
5-1-7 優化競爭 114
5-1-8 實務界與學研界的認知差異 114
建築尺度 114
人力專業 115
成本計算 115
施工效率 115
智慧財產權與專利保護 115
5-1-9 未來展望 116
建築教育 116
建築營造 116
新技術 117
現場製造 117
遠端製造 118
營建自動化 118
勞動力市場 119
5-2 後續研究建議 120

參考文獻 121
中文文獻 121
英文文獻 124

註釋 134
參考文獻 參考文獻


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