淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1203200914363900
中文論文名稱 提升大學生口語流暢度:重覆閱讀練習之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of How to Improve College Students’ English Fluency in Speaking through Repeated Reading
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 王有慧
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Hui Wang
學號 694010637
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2009-01-09
論文頁數 85頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭岱宗
委員-黃月貴
委員-張世明
中文關鍵字 英語教學  口語  流暢度  重覆閱讀  快速  自動化 
英文關鍵字 repeated reading  RR  oral reading  speed  fluency  automaticity  transfer effect 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本論文的目的在於探討在指導之下的重覆閱讀是否能增進學生英文口讀速度,達到自動化程度(automaticity),進而增進口語流暢度,並研究不同的學習條件是否影響重覆閱讀的效果,包括性別、母語、參與實驗學習或使用英文的時間,以及前測成績之高低。
本研究以淡江大學大一學生為研究對象。一班主修國貿,一班主修統計。二班學生每週皆接受半小時的重覆閱讀指導,共計八週,並且接受前、後測及填寫前、後測問卷。本論文挑選完全參與前、後測,並出席五次以上的學生為有效研究對象,總計51名。在每週的實驗中,學生先接受單字和片語的指導,聆聽並隨著錄音快速朗誦三次後,自行快速朗讀一篇約100字的英文文章至少四次,每次練習時間為十分鐘,實驗期間,全班統一錄音。
本研究的結果摘要如下:
1. 重覆閱讀能夠顯著影響學生的口讀速度,本實驗中,學生八週後的口讀速度提升自130字/分至210字/分。
2. 即使是在台灣這個英語為外國語言的學習環境,重覆閱讀也並幫助學生達到自動化程度,使學生能快速閱讀文章,口讀速度為口語能力的檢測指標之一(如GEPT),因此重覆閱讀被證明能有效提升學生的口語能力。
3. 對於字彙重覆率低的文章,學生在練習過程中所累積進步的口讀速度也可以轉移到新的文章中,此現象並不侷限於英語為母語或第一語言的學習環境中,在台灣也可以成立。
4. 重覆閱讀能夠顯著提高學生的口讀速度,不論他們的性別、母語、參與實驗學習或使用英文的時間、和前測成績。本研究並發現,重覆閱讀對於發音有困難的和落後的同學有顯著幫助。而對於程度較優秀的學生,其學習效果則更甚於程度一般學生。
5. 重覆閱讀的訓練重點應是速度,而非重覆。重覆的目的只是為了要使速度更快,唯有當速度快到達到自動化程度時,重覆閱讀才會展現顯著的效果。

因此,本論文證明,在指導之下的重複快速朗讀,的確可以在短期之內有效地提升台灣學生說英文的流暢度。
英文摘要 This study is aimed at finding out the effect and efficiency of oral repeated reading (RR) on oral reading fluency in the EFL environment in Taiwan. By prompting oral reading speed and automaticity, RR proved to be an effective method to enhance both oral reading and speaking fluency. Fifty-one freshman students from Tamkang University participated in this study. The subjects experienced 30 minutes of instruction every week during the eight weeks of training intervention. They were required to do recordings for the sessions of pre-test, post-test, and after every class. They also filled out questionnaires before and after the intervention. SPSS 11.0 was adopted to do the quantitative analysis of the data as well as paired sample t-test, effective size, and one-way ANOVO. The results indicated that there was a significant improvement in oral reading speed before and after the intervention, regardless of the following factors: (a) gender, (b) native language, (c) time using/learning English during off-training time, (d) pre-test performance, and (e) improvement gained during the practice. Replies from post-test questionnaires also indicated a high acceptability of RR among subject groups. Accordingly, the adoption of RR for automaticity development and speed training in oral fluency instruction was recommended for future teaching in Taiwan.
論文目次 Table of Contents

CHINESE ABSTRACT i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study 3
1.4 Significance of the Study 4
1.5 Research Questions 5
1.6 Definition of terms 6

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE 9
2.1 Fluency 9
2.2 Repeated Reading (RR)
2.2.1 Method of repeated reading 13
2.2.2 Categories of repeated reading 14
2.2.3 Repeated Reading & Automaticity 15
2.2.4 Repeated Reading & Improvement on Reading Rate and Comprehension 19
2.2.5 Repeated Reading & Its Transfer Effect 20

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 22
3.1 Subjects 22
3.2 Instrument 23
3.3 Materials 26
3.4 Methodology 27
3.5 Data Analysis 29

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 32
4.1 The Performances of Subjects in the Pre-Test and Post-Test 32
4.1.1 Results of Total Improvement in terms of Speed, as measured by WCPMs, for Post-test versus Pre-test 32
4.1.2 Results of Total Improvement in terms of Accuracy, as measured in correct rates, for Post-test versus Pre-test 34
4.2 Factor Analysis for the Subject’s Performances 37
4.2.1 Results of “Gender/ Post-test—Pre-test 37
4.2.2 Results of “Native Language/ Post-test—Pre-test (WCPM) 39
4.2.3 Results of “Off-class Time Learning or Using English/ Post-test —Pre-test (WCPM) 41
4.2.4 Results of “Pre-test (WCPM)/ Post-test—Pre-test (WCPM) 44
4.2.5 Results of “Correlation between
Improvements of the Practice and of the Total Improvement.” 48
4.3 Detailed Report during the Eight Intervention Weeks 53
4.4 Answers to Research Questions 57
4.5 Other Findings and Discussions 61

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 64
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings and Some pedagogical Implications 64
5.2 Limitation of the Present Study and Suggestions for Further Researches 66

REFERENCES 68

APPENDICES 80
Appendix A The Pre-implementation Questionnaire 80
Appendix B The Pre-implementation Questionnaire (Chinese Version) 81
Appendix C The Post-implementation Questionnaire 82
Appendix D The Post-implementation Questionnaire (Chinese Version) 83
Appendix E Repeated Reading Tracking Sheet 84
Appendix F Fry’s Readability Graph (1977) 85

List of Tables

Table 1 Interrater Reliability by Kruskal-Wallis Test: WCPM 25
Table 2 Interrater Reliability: Descriptive Statistics of Correct Rate of the Pre-test 25
Table 3 Materials of Fry readability 27
Table 4.1 Descriptive Statistics of the Pre-test and the Post-test: expressed in terms of WCPM 33
Table 4.2 Comparison of subjects’ performance between the Pre-test and the Post-test: WCPM 34
Table 4.3 Descriptive Statistics of Pre-test Correct Rate (expressed in %) obtained from Post-test and Post-test 35
Table 4.4 Comparison of subjects’ performance between the Pre-test and the Post-test: Correct Rate 37
Table 5.1 Gender/ Post-test - Pre-test (WCPM) 38
Table 5.2 Descriptive Statistics of Gender 39
Table 6.1 Native Language/ Post-test - Pre-test (WCPM) 39
Table 6.2 Descriptive Statistics of Native Language 41
Table 7.1 Years of Learning English/ Post-test - Pre-test (WCPM) 42
Table 7.2 Descriptive Statistics of Years Learning English 43
Table 8.1 Off-class Time Learning/ Using English/ Post-test - Pre-test (WCPM) 44
Table 8.2 Descriptive Statistics of Off-class Time Learning/ Using English 45
Table 9 Correlation between Improvements of the Practice and of the Post-test 49
Table 10 Regression Table of all possible factors 50
Table 11.1 Weekly Practice Improvement: WCPM 55
Table 11.2 Pair Weekly Correct Rate 56

List of Figures

Figure 1. Gender 39
Figure 2. Native Language 41
Figure 3. Off-class Time Learning/ Using English 43
Figure 4. Pre-test (WCPM) 45
Figure 5. Post-test (WCPM) 47 38
Figure 6. Practice Improvement (WCPM of Week 8 -Week 1) 51
Figure 7. Total Improvement (WCPM of Post-test - Pre-test) 51
Figure 8. Distribution of Practice Improvement and Total Improvement 52

參考文獻 References
Allington, R. L. (1983). Fluency: The neglected goal of the reading program. The Reading Teacher, 36, 556–561.
Askov,E.,andOtto,W.(1985) Meetingthe challenge:Corrective readinginstruction in the classroom.Coombus:Charles E.MerrillPublishingCompany.Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bahrick, H. P. (1984). Semantic memory content in permastore: Fifty years of memory for Spanish learned in school. Journal of Experimental Psychology, General, 113, 1-29.
Begeny, J., Daly, E, & Valleley R. (2006). Improving oral reading fluency through response opportunities: a comparison of phrase drill error correction with repeated readings. J Behav Educ: 15, 229-235
Bowers, P. G. (1993). Text reading and rereading: Determinants of fluency beyond word recognition. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25(2), 133-53.
Bradley, J. M., & Thalgott, M. R. (1987). Reducing reading anxiety. Academic Therapy, 22(4), 349-358.
Bristow, P. S. and Leslie, L. (1988). Indicators of reading difficulty: Discrimination between instructional- and frustration-range performance of functionally illiterate adults. Reading Research Quarterly, 23(2), 200-218.
Brown, J. I., Fishco, V. V., & Hanna, G. (1993). Nelson-Denny reading test technical report. Chicago: The Riverside Publishing Company.
Bryant, D.P., Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., Ugel, N., Hamff, A., & Hougen, M. (2000). Reading outcomes for students with and without reading disabilities in general education middle-school content area classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 23, 238—252.
Carbo, M. (1978). Teaching reading with talking books. The Reading Teacher, Volume 32, Number 3, pp. 267-273.
Carver, R. P. and Hoffman, J. V. (1981). The effect of practice through repeated reading on gain in reading ability using a computer-based instructional system. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 374-390.
Chard, D. J., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective intervention for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 386-406
Chen, G. Y. (2005). Effects of pen-based and web-based tests on English testing performances of junior high school students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Chen, Y. C. (2003). A study of choral reading on EFL students’ spoken abilities and reading miscue types. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.
Chomsky, C. (1976). After decoding: What? Language Arts, 53, 288-296.
Clay, M. M. (1993). A guidebook for reading recovery teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Conte, K. L., & Hintze, J. M. (2000). The effects of performance feedback and goal setting on oral reading fluency within curriculum-based measurement. Diagnostique, 25, 85-98.
Conway, Martin A.ed.(1997). Cognitive Models of Memory, U.K.: Biddles Ltd.
D.F. Gundersen - R. Hopper (1976). "Relationships between Speech Delivery and Speech Effectiveness", Communication Monographs 43.2, 158-165
Dahl, P. J. (1974). An experimental program for teaching high speed word recognition and comprehension skills. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education, Office of Research. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 099812)
Dahl, P. R. (1979). An experimental program for teaching high speed word recognition and comprehension skills. In J. E. Button, T. Lovitt, & T. Rowland (Eds.), Communications research in learning disabilities and mental retardation (pp. 33-65). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.
Dahl, P.R., & Samuels, S.J. (1974). A mastery based experimental program for teaching poor readers high speed word recognition skills. Unpublished manuscript,University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Day, R.R. and Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
DeFord, D. E. (1991). Fluency in initial reading instruction: A Reading Recovery lesson. Theory Into Practice, 30, 201-210.
Dowhower, S. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 389-406.
Dowhower, S. (1994). Repeated reading revisited: Research into practice. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 10, 343-358.
Dowhower, S. L. (1989). Repeated reading: Research into practice. The Reading Teacher, 42, 502-507.
Dowhower, S. L. (1994). Repeated reading revisited: Research into practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 10, 343-358.
Dubin, F. and Bycina, D. (1991). Academic reading and the ESL/EFL teacher. In Celce-Murcia, M. (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (2nd ed.) (pp. 195-215). New York: Newbury House.
Faulkner, H. J. and Levy, B. A. (1994). How text difficulty and reader skill interact to produce differential reliance on word and content overlap in reading transfer. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 1-24.
Felton, R. (2003). Research to practice: developing fluency in poor readers, NCIDA Spring Conference (2003, Hickory, NC)
Fleisher, L. S., Jenkins, J. R. and Pany, D. (1979). Effects on poor readers comprehension of training in rapid decoding. Reading Research Quarterly, 15, 30-48.
.Flor, R. F. (1995). An assessment of individual differences in the development of automaticity in a psychomotor learning task and the effects of original learning environment on memory. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1995). Dissertation Abstracts International, 56 (03A).
Fry, E. (1968), A readability formula that saves time. Journal of Reading, 11 (7), 265-71
Fry, E. (1977). Graph for estimating readability. Elementary reading instruction (p. 217). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 239-256.
Gereighty, C. J. (2005). Effects of repeated reading on adults' fluency and reading comprehension. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Southern Mississippi, United States -- Mississippi. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 3209680).
Guion, S., Flege, J., Liu, H., & Yeni-Komshian, G. (2000). Age of learning effects on the duration of sentences produced in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21, 205-228.
Harris. A.J., & Sipay, E.R. (1990). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental & remedial methods. New York: Longman.
Herman, P. A. (1985). The effect of repeated readings on reading rate, speech pauses, and word recognition accuracy. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 553-564.
Hintze, J. M., Daly III, E. J., & Shapiro, E. S. (1998). An investigation of the effects of passage difficulty level on outcomes of oral reading fluency progress monitoring. School Psychology Review, 27, 433-445.
Hintze, J. M., Shapiro, E. S., Conte, K. L., & Basile, I. M. (1997). Oral reading fluency and authentic reading material: Criterion validity of the technical features of CBM survey-level assessment. School Psychology Review, 26(4), 525-553.
Hollingsworth, P. M. (1970). An experiment with the impress method of teaching reading. The Reading Teacher, 24, 112–114,187.
Homan, S.P., Klesius, J.P., & Hite, C. (1993). Effects of repeated readings and nonrepetitive strategies on students' fluency and comprehension. Journal of Educational Research, 87, 94-99.
Hoskisson, K. (1979). Learning to read naturally. Language Arts, 56, 489-496.
Hsu, Y. W. (2004). An Investigation of Oral Communication Strategies: From the Perspectives of English Majors and Professors. Unpublished master’s thesis, TamKang University, Taiwan.
Huang, T. L. (2006) A Study of Applying Portfolio Assessment in an Interpreter Training Course. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
Huang, Y. K. (1995). Developing your students’ communicative competence: some practical ideas for the classroom teachers. In C. F. Lee (ed.). The Ninth Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China. Taipei: Crane.
Hudson, R.F., Mercer, C.D., & Lane, H.B. (2000). Exploring reading fluency: A paradigmatic overview. Unpublished manuscript, University of Florida, Gainesville
Huey, E. (1968). The psychology and pedagogy of reading. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. (Originally published 1908)
Hulme, C., & Roodenrys, S. (1995). Verbal working memory development and its disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 36, 373-398.
James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.
Johnston, Don (2008). Ways to Use Repeated Reading to Improve Fluency. Don Johnston Ltd. Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://www.donjohnston.co.uk/djlearning/repeatedreading.htm
Kamps, D.M., Barbetta, P.M., Leonard, B.R., & Delquadri, J. (1994). Classwide peer tutoring: An integration strategy to improve reading skills and promote peer interactions among students with autism and general education peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 49—61.
Keller, J. M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2-10.
Kruidenier, J. (2002). Research-based principles for adult basic education reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy. Retrieved February 8, 2005, from www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/html/adult_ed/index.html
Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 3-21.
Kuo T. T. (2004). Public Speaking with Confidence. Taipei: Bookcake.
Kuo, T. T. (2006). Simultaneous Interpretation. Taipei: Bookcake.
LaBerge, D. and Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293-323.
Langford, K., Slade, K., & Barnett, A. (1974). An examination of impress
Li, J. S. (2005). The effects of peer interaction and teacher-student interaction on the oral communication of low achievers of English. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
Lorenz. L., & Vockell, E. (1979). Using the neurological impress method with learning disabled readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 12, 420-422.
Lian, T. (1993). A 20-Year-Old Bride. Taipei: Bookcake.
Lian, T. (2001). Speak up to Tammy. Taipei: Bookcake.
Liang, Y., M. (2003). The Study on the Effects of Auditory Multi-media Instrument on the Development of English Oral Abilites for Taiwanese EFL Elementary-school Children---the Application of Talkworks. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan.
Lipson, M.Y. & Bouffard Lang, L. (1991). Not as easy as it seems: Some unresolved questions about fluency. Theory Into Practice, 30(3), 218-227.
Ma, K. C. (2005). An investigation of the attitudes toward an online daily speaking program between high and low English achievers in senior high schools. National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung.
Madsen, H. S. (1983). Techniques in testing. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mayer M. & Felton, R. (1999). Repeated reading to enhance fluency: old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia. 49, 283-306.
Mayer, L. V. (1996). Fundamentals of voice & articulation (11th ed.). 20-80. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
McKenna, M. C., & Robinson, R. D. (1977). Teaching through text: A content literacy approach to content area reading. New York: Longman.
Medcalf, J. (1989). Comparison of peer tutored remedial reading using the pause prompt and praise procedure with an individualised tape-assisted reading programme. Educational Psychology, 9 (3), 253-261.
Mercer, C. D., Campbell, K. U., Miller, M. D., Mercer, K. D., & Lane, H. B. (2000). Effects of a reading fluency intervention for middle schoolers with specific learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, 179-189.
Meyer, M. S., & Felton, R. H. (1999). Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 283-306.
Miccinati, J. L. (1985). Using prosodic cues to teach oral reading fluency. The Reading Teacher, 39, 206-212.
Moyer. B. (1982) Repeated reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15(10), 619-622
Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (2001). Modeling perceptions of the comprehensibility and accentedness of L2 speech: The role of speaking rate. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 451-468.
Munro, M. J., & Derwing. T. M. (1998). The effects of speaking rate o listener evaluations of native and foreign-accented speech. Language Learning, 48, 159-182.
Naslund, J. C. (1987). The effect of automaticity on individual variation and retention. Unpublished manuscript, Max-Planck Institute for Psychological Research.
National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Washington, D.C.
Neill, K. (1980). Turn kids on with repeated readings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 12, 63-64.
Neville, M.H. (1968). Effects of oral and echoic responses in beginning reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 59, 362-369.
Nuttall, C. (1996). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language (2nd ed.) Oxford: Heinemann.
O’Shea, L., Sindelar, P., and O’Shea, D. (1985). The effects of repeated readings and attentional cues on reading fluency and comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior 17(2), 129-142.
O'Shea, L. J., Sindelar, P. T, & O'Shea, D. J. (1987). The effects of repeated readings and attentional cues on the reading fluency and comprehension of learning disabled readers. Learning Disabilities Research, 2(2), 103-109.
Perfetti, C. A. (1985). Reading Ability. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rashotte, C. A. and Torgesen, J. K. (1985). Repeated reading and reading fluency in learning disabled children. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 180-188.
Rasinski, T.V. (1990). Effects of repeated reading and listening-while-reading on reading fluency. Journal of Educational Research, 83(3), 147-150.
Rees, A. L. W. (1980). Reading aloud – suggestions for classroom procedure. English Language Teaching Journal, 14(2), 112-121.
Samuels, S. J. & Flor, R. F. (1997). The importance of automaticity for developing expertise in reading. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 13 (2), 107-122.
Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 32, 403-408.
Samuels, S. J. (1994). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading, revisited. In R. B. Ruddell, M. R. Ruddell, and H. Singer (Eds), Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed.) Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Samuels, S. J. (2002). Reading fluency: Its development and assessment. In A. Farstrup & S. Samuels (Eds.) What research has to say about reading instruction (pp. 166-183). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Schneider, W. & Fisk, A. D. (1983). Attentional theory and mechanisms for skilled performance. In R. A. Magill (Ed.), Memory and control of action (pp.119-143). NY: North-Holland Publishing Company.
Schneider, W. and Shiffrin, R.M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84(1), 1-66.
Schreiber, P. (1980). On the acquisition of reading fluency. Journal of Reading Behavior, 12, 177-186.
Shapiro, E.S. (1996). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention (2nd edition). New York: Guilford Press.
Shimabukuro, S. M. (2006). The effects of assisted repeated reading on the oral reading fluency and prosody of adolescents with reading difficulties. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, United States -- Hawaii. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 0388626).
Silberstein, S. (1994). Techniques and resources in teaching reading. New York: Oxford University Press.
Skinner, C. H., Johnson, C. W., Larkin, M. J., Lessley,D. J., & Glowacki, M. L. (1995). The influence of rate of presentation during taped-words interventions on reading performance. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 214–223
Snow, C.E., burns, M., & Griffin, P.. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.
Stanovich, K. (1992). Differences in Reading Acquisition. Causes and Consequences, Reading Forum, NZ Reading Association No. 3, 1992
Su, P.C. (1995). The effects of video instruction on college students’ oral English performance.e高雄師大學報, 第六期, 287-313..
Taguchi, E. (1997). The effects of repeated readings on the development of lower identification skills of FL readers. Reading in a Foreign Language, 11, 97-119. techniques in remedial reading. Academic Therapy, 9, 309–319.
Therrien, W. J. (2004). Fluency and Comprehension Gains, as a Result of Repeated Reading: A Meta-Analysis. Remedial & Special Education, 25(4), 252-261.
Therrien, W. J., & Kubina, R. M. (2006). Developing reading fluency with repeated reading. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41, 156-160.
Tobias, S. (1986). Anxiety and cognitive processing of instruction. In R, Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-related cognition in anxiety and motivation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tresidder, A. (1940). Reading to others. 156-162. USA: Scott, Foresmand and Company.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Weinstein, G., & Cooke, N.L. (1992). The effects of two repeated reading interventions on generalization of fluency. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15, 21—28.
Welsch, R.G. (2006). 20 ways to increase oral reading fluency. Intervention in School. and Clinic, 41(3), 180-183.
Willcutt, J. (2004). Effect of Modeled and Oral Repeated Reading on English Language Learners’ Reading Performance. Unpublished master’s thesis. The University of Minnesota, Minnesota.
Wolf, M. (1997). A provisional, integrative account of phonological and naming-speed deficits in dyslexia: Implications for diagnosis and intervention. In Cognitive and Linguistic Fundations of Reading Acquisition: Implications for Intervention Research. B. Blachman, ed. Hillsdale, NF: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Wolf, M., and Bowers, P. (1999). The double deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexia. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 415-438.
Wolf, M., Miller, L. and Donnelly, K. (2000). Retrieval, Automaticity, vocabulary, elaboration, orthography (rave-o): a comprehensive, fluency-based reading intervention program. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(4), 375-386
Wood﹐D.J. ﹐Bruner﹐J.S. ﹐& Ross﹐G (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Child Psychology﹐17﹐89 – 100.
Woodbury, J. (1979). Choral reading and readers theatre: oral interpretation of literature in the classroom. In C. L. Monson & D. K. McClenathan (Eds.), Developing active readers: Ideas for parents, teachers, and librarians (pp. 65-72). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Yoshimura, F. (2000). Automaticity Theory and EFL in Japan: With Some Specific Applications for Reading. Literacy Across Cultures (4; Spring/Summer): pp 1 (1-10). http://www.aaasa.ac.jp/-dcdycus/LAC2000/yoshimura.htm.
Young, A. , and Bowers, P. (1995). Individual differences and text difficulty determinants of reading fluency and expressiveness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 60, 428-454.
Young, A. R., Bowers, P. G., and MacKinnon, G. E. (1996). Effects of prosodic modeling and repeated reading on poor readers fluency and comprehension. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17, 59-84.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2009-03-18公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2009-03-18起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信