||A Study of How to Improve College Students’ English Fluency in Speaking through Repeated Reading
||Department of English
||This study is aimed at finding out the effect and efficiency of oral repeated reading (RR) on oral reading fluency in the EFL environment in Taiwan. By prompting oral reading speed and automaticity, RR proved to be an effective method to enhance both oral reading and speaking fluency. Fifty-one freshman students from Tamkang University participated in this study. The subjects experienced 30 minutes of instruction every week during the eight weeks of training intervention. They were required to do recordings for the sessions of pre-test, post-test, and after every class. They also filled out questionnaires before and after the intervention. SPSS 11.0 was adopted to do the quantitative analysis of the data as well as paired sample t-test, effective size, and one-way ANOVO. The results indicated that there was a significant improvement in oral reading speed before and after the intervention, regardless of the following factors: (a) gender, (b) native language, (c) time using/learning English during off-training time, (d) pre-test performance, and (e) improvement gained during the practice. Replies from post-test questionnaires also indicated a high acceptability of RR among subject groups. Accordingly, the adoption of RR for automaticity development and speed training in oral fluency instruction was recommended for future teaching in Taiwan.
||Table of Contents
CHINESE ABSTRACT i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study 3
1.4 Significance of the Study 4
1.5 Research Questions 5
1.6 Definition of terms 6
CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE 9
2.1 Fluency 9
2.2 Repeated Reading (RR)
2.2.1 Method of repeated reading 13
2.2.2 Categories of repeated reading 14
2.2.3 Repeated Reading & Automaticity 15
2.2.4 Repeated Reading & Improvement on Reading Rate and Comprehension 19
2.2.5 Repeated Reading & Its Transfer Effect 20
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 22
3.1 Subjects 22
3.2 Instrument 23
3.3 Materials 26
3.4 Methodology 27
3.5 Data Analysis 29
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 32
4.1 The Performances of Subjects in the Pre-Test and Post-Test 32
4.1.1 Results of Total Improvement in terms of Speed, as measured by WCPMs, for Post-test versus Pre-test 32
4.1.2 Results of Total Improvement in terms of Accuracy, as measured in correct rates, for Post-test versus Pre-test 34
4.2 Factor Analysis for the Subject’s Performances 37
4.2.1 Results of “Gender/ Post-test—Pre-test 37
4.2.2 Results of “Native Language/ Post-test—Pre-test (WCPM) 39
4.2.3 Results of “Off-class Time Learning or Using English/ Post-test —Pre-test (WCPM) 41
4.2.4 Results of “Pre-test (WCPM)/ Post-test—Pre-test (WCPM) 44
4.2.5 Results of “Correlation between
Improvements of the Practice and of the Total Improvement.” 48
4.3 Detailed Report during the Eight Intervention Weeks 53
4.4 Answers to Research Questions 57
4.5 Other Findings and Discussions 61
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 64
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings and Some pedagogical Implications 64
5.2 Limitation of the Present Study and Suggestions for Further Researches 66
Appendix A The Pre-implementation Questionnaire 80
Appendix B The Pre-implementation Questionnaire (Chinese Version) 81
Appendix C The Post-implementation Questionnaire 82
Appendix D The Post-implementation Questionnaire (Chinese Version) 83
Appendix E Repeated Reading Tracking Sheet 84
Appendix F Fry’s Readability Graph (1977) 85
List of Tables
Table 1 Interrater Reliability by Kruskal-Wallis Test: WCPM 25
Table 2 Interrater Reliability: Descriptive Statistics of Correct Rate of the Pre-test 25
Table 3 Materials of Fry readability 27
Table 4.1 Descriptive Statistics of the Pre-test and the Post-test: expressed in terms of WCPM 33
Table 4.2 Comparison of subjects’ performance between the Pre-test and the Post-test: WCPM 34
Table 4.3 Descriptive Statistics of Pre-test Correct Rate (expressed in %) obtained from Post-test and Post-test 35
Table 4.4 Comparison of subjects’ performance between the Pre-test and the Post-test: Correct Rate 37
Table 5.1 Gender/ Post-test - Pre-test (WCPM) 38
Table 5.2 Descriptive Statistics of Gender 39
Table 6.1 Native Language/ Post-test - Pre-test (WCPM) 39
Table 6.2 Descriptive Statistics of Native Language 41
Table 7.1 Years of Learning English/ Post-test - Pre-test (WCPM) 42
Table 7.2 Descriptive Statistics of Years Learning English 43
Table 8.1 Off-class Time Learning/ Using English/ Post-test - Pre-test (WCPM) 44
Table 8.2 Descriptive Statistics of Off-class Time Learning/ Using English 45
Table 9 Correlation between Improvements of the Practice and of the Post-test 49
Table 10 Regression Table of all possible factors 50
Table 11.1 Weekly Practice Improvement: WCPM 55
Table 11.2 Pair Weekly Correct Rate 56
List of Figures
Figure 1. Gender 39
Figure 2. Native Language 41
Figure 3. Off-class Time Learning/ Using English 43
Figure 4. Pre-test (WCPM) 45
Figure 5. Post-test (WCPM) 47 38
Figure 6. Practice Improvement (WCPM of Week 8 -Week 1) 51
Figure 7. Total Improvement (WCPM of Post-test - Pre-test) 51
Figure 8. Distribution of Practice Improvement and Total Improvement 52
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