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中文論文名稱 直接土壓力模式應用於側潰影響之樁基波動方程分析
英文論文名稱 Study on Lateral Spread Affected Piles Using Direct Earth Pressure Model and Wave Equation Analysis
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 劉凱方
研究生英文姓名 Kai-Feng Liu
學號 694311076
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-01-07
論文頁數 136頁
口試委員 指導教授-張德文
委員-李維峰
委員-邱俊翔
中文關鍵字 液化、土壓力、側潰、樁基礎、波動方程 
英文關鍵字 liquefaction, earth pressure, lateral spreading, pile foundation, wave equation 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 本研究係以日本道路協會(JRA)之方法,模擬樁基礎於液化地盤內受側潰流動之動態反應。吾人使用Fortran程式語言開發程式為分析工具,藉Excel試算表程式表示Tokimatsu and Yoshimi 液化潛能評估準則進行地盤液化分析。研究採直接土壓力模式進行波動方程分析,利用有限差分法求解,並使用簡易Bouc-Wen 模式進行樁身剛度值迭代分析,而了解樁基礎於地盤側潰時之變形行為與破壞機制。研究結論如下:(1)針對未液化底層土壤之處理模式,本研究建議以Ishihara土壓力模式將底層土壤之柔度納入分析,進行模擬其土壤非線性行為,以取代傳統完全束制之模擬方式。(2)進行液化潛能評估吾人可得知液化潛能指數與推算液化土層之厚度。液化潛能指數乃JRA法參數之一,對液化土層頂部上方之土層土壓力影響甚大;本研究結果證實液化土層厚度對於樁體反應之影響相當密切。(3)本研究樁頂採固接端,所得結果最大位移量發生於樁頂;於樁頂與液化層底部附近,將發生較大之彎矩值,以上模擬結果可針對地盤受震後土壤發生液化使土層發生流動,對樁基礎頂部變位量與彎矩破壞之影響,亦可考量液化層底部附近將產生彎矩破壞之情形。
英文摘要 This study following the methodology suggested by JRA, is to study the single pile dynamic behavior under lateral spreading of soil. It applies the programming language of Fortran to exploit the analysis. Liquefaction potential analysis in this study is Tokimatsu and Yoshimi method, which applies by Microsoft Excel. The research result is essentially founded on the model of wave equation analysis, and the difference equations are used to solve the problem. The stiffness of piles are started iterative analysis by using simplified Bouc-Wen model. This study aims to examine the deformation and destruction of the pile foundation. Three research results are derived in this conclusion: First, this study suggests adopting Ishihara’s theory of lateral earth pressure, in replace of the traditional fixed head, into consideration in order to the flexibility of non-liquefiable and base layer. Second, the data of the liquefaction potential index and the depth of liquefiable layer by calculating can be gathered by Liquefaction potential analysis. The liquefaction potential index is one of the JRA method parameters, and it can influence the earth pressure of the layer which is upon the liquefiable layer very much. The result of this study proves that the depth of liquefiable layer influences the behavior of pile foundation a lot. Third, the head of pile in this study is fixed head. The max displacement of pile occurs on the head of pile foundation. The larger value of the bending moment of pile occurs on the head of pile foundation or near the base of the liquefiable layer. According to the result of this study, the layer liquefies and make the soil flow when the earthquake is happened. The result of this study make us know well that the displacement and the deformation of pile foundation, and can consider that the destruction owing to the bending moment of pile foundation which is near the base of the liquefiable layer.
論文目次 中文摘要 一
英文摘要 二
本文目錄 I
表目錄 III
圖目錄 III
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機與目的 1
1-2 研究方法與內容 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 前言 4
2-2 土壤液化之定義與機制 6
2-3 土壤液化之影響因素 11
2-4 液化損壞型態 15
2-5 液化潛能評估方法之Tokimatsu 與Yoshimi 簡易經驗法 18
2-6 使用靜態土壓力法於土壤液化之簡易模擬 29
2-7 彈性基礎樑分析模式 32
2-8 樁基礎非線性行為模擬 34
2-9 地盤反力模數 41
2-9-1 地盤反力常數 43
2-9-2 地盤反力係數 46
2-10 內摩擦角和SPT-N值之關聯性 47
第三章 理論推導與方法 50
3-1 前言 50
3-2 波動方程於土壓力與樁身位移公式推導 52
3-3 採用JRA法之動力分析模式 57
3-3-1 液化底層土壤之分析模式 58
3-3-2 樁體非線性處理模式 60
第四章 參數研究 67
4-1 前言 67
4-2 假設案例之介紹與參數影響 68
4-3 樁體於液化地盤內之反應分析 71
第五章 案例研究 86
5-1 前言 86
5-2 案例一 Kobe TANK TA72 87
5-3 案例二 Kobe Pier 211 99
第六章 結論與建議 111
6-1 結論 111
6-2 展望與建議 113
參考文獻 114
附錄 127


表 目 錄

表2-1 依地震規模之Cs建議值(摘自 吳偉特,1997) 24
表2-2 液化潛能指數分級與災害示意表(摘自 Iwasaki et al., 1982) 27
表2-3 依離水際線距離變化之修正係數cS 31
表2-4 非液化土層中流動力之修正係數cNL 31
表2-5 依基樁種類與土層種類係數整理 (摘自 房性中,1994) 42
表2-6 砂土參數與SPT-N值之關係 (摘自 Terzaghi, 1955) 43
表2-7 砂土相對密度與土壤彈簧之關係 (摘自 Group 3.0使用手冊) 44
表2-8 水位以上之砂土地盤反力常數 與SPT-N值之關係
44
表2-9 水位以下之砂土地盤反力常數 與SPT-N值之關係
(摘自 Johnson and Kavanaugh, 1968) 45
表2-10 砂之相對密度、 角與SPT-N值之關係表(摘自 房性中,1994)
49
表3-1 各樁徑與α、z參數之關係表 ( 摘自 張紹綸,2008 ) 63
表4-1 參數研究對照表 69
表5-1 人工回填島之土壤參數表(TANK TA72) 88
表5-2 基樁材料性質參數(TANK TA72) 88
表5-3 土壓力法設定參數值(TANK TA72) 89
表5-4 現地土壤參數表(Pier 211) 100
表5-5 基樁材料性質參數(Pier 211) 100
表5-6 土壓力法設定參數值(Pier 211) 101

圖 目 錄

圖1-1 研究分析流程圖 3
圖2-1 飽和沙土不排水試驗液化潛能狀態示意圖
( 摘自 葉健輝,2006 ) 7
圖2-2 流動液化發生機制示意圖(重繪自 Kramer, 1996) 8
圖2-3 反覆流動性發生機制示意圖(重繪自 Kramer, 1996) 10
圖2-4 邊坡滑動破壞示意圖 16
圖2-5 結構體常見的損壞型態 18
圖2-6 土壤液化評估方法分類(重繪自 翁作新等人,2004) 20
圖2-7 Tokimatsu and Yoshimi簡易經驗法(1983)分析流程 25
圖2-8 根據Tokimatsu and Yoshimi簡易經驗法編譯
Microsoft Excel試算表 28
圖2-9 水底高程差及離水際線的距離(摘自 JRA, 1996) 29
圖2-10 流動力之計算模式(摘自 JRA, 1996) 31
圖2-11 樁基礎側向荷載之溫氏基礎模式
(摘自 Prakash and Sharma, 1990) 33
圖2-12 箍筋圍束下混凝土應力與應變模式(摘自 Kent and Park, 1971) 35
圖2-13 慣性矩I II對彎矩-轉角關係的影響(摘自 楊宗勳,2000) 38
圖2-14 基樁之有效長度概念(重繪自Bhattacharya et al., 2004) 40
圖2-15 樁體破壞試驗結果(摘自Knappett and Madabhushi, 2005) 40
圖2-16 地盤反力係數 與不排水剪力強度之關係圖
(摘自 Group 3.0使用手冊) 46
圖2-17 使用標準貫入試驗所得之相對密度、 角與SPT-N值之關係圖形(摘自 房性中,1994) 48
圖2-18 砂之內摩擦角 與SPT-N值之對應關係圖(摘自 房性中,1994)
49
圖3-1 液化流動地盤中樁-土互制行為模擬模型(摘自 鐘明劍,2006) 50
圖3-2 分析流程圖 51
圖3-3 樁頂邊界條件(固接) 52
圖3-4 基樁之節點與虛擬點 (摘自 葉健輝,2006) 55
圖3-5 JRA法-底層地盤採Ishihara and Cubrinovski(2004)建議之分析模式示意圖 57
圖3-6 樁體彎曲特性雙線型模式(重繪自 JRA, 2002) 61
圖3-7 樁體彎曲特性三線型模式(重繪自 JRA, 2002) 61
圖3-8 樁身剛度折減示意圖 (摘自 張紹綸,2008) 63
圖3-9 彎矩回歸分析結果 (摘自 張紹綸,2008) 64
圖3-10 曲率回歸分析結果 (摘自 張紹綸,2008) 65
圖4-1 基樁與地盤之假設情境模式 68
圖4-2 設計標準案例之土層側向力與樁身變位、彎矩與剪力結果 75
圖4-3 最大地表加速度PGA設為0.3g 76
圖4-4 流動化範圍土層之SPT-N值設為18 77
圖4-5 地下水位深度設於地表 78
圖4-6 地下水位深度設於地表下4m 79
圖4-7 地震規模設為6.5 80
圖4-8 地震規模設為7.5 81
圖4-9 設距水際線距離之修正係數
82
圖4-10 土層細料含量 (%)
83
圖4-11 土壤彈簧修正係數
84
圖4-12 土壤彈簧修正係數
85
圖5-1 Mikagehama Island地理位置圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 90
圖5-2 人工島上儲油槽Tank TA 72位置示意圖 90
圖5-3 儲油槽結構剖面與土層分佈概況
(摘自 Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 91
圖5-4 液化地盤之簡化分析模式(TANK TA72) 92
圖5-5 高強度預鑄混凝土樁之彎矩-曲率圖
(摘自 Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 92
圖5-6 No.2(a)與No.9(b)基樁之側向位移及樁身損害示意圖 93
圖5-7 樁身位移分佈圖(摘自 Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 94
圖5-8 樁身彎矩分佈圖(摘自 Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 94
圖5-9 神戶地震(1995)加速度歷時曲線圖 95
圖5-10 樁身所受之側向土壓力與樁身位移、彎矩、剪力圖(TANK TA72) 97
圖5-11 位移與彎矩分佈比較圖(TANK TA72) 98
圖5-12 Osaka與Kobe之高速公路系統圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 102
圖5-13 地層高低輪廓示意圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 102
圖5-14 Hanshin公路破壞示意圖 103
圖5-15 地表永久變位圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 103
圖5-16 碼頭結構與樁基系統示意圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 104
圖5-17 Pier 211之樁基彎矩與曲率關係圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 105
圖5-18 樁基損害示意圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 105
圖5-19 樁身位移與彎矩分佈曲線(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 106
圖5-20 液化地盤之簡化分析模式(Pier 211) 107
圖5-21 樁身所受之側向土壓力與樁身位移、彎矩、剪力圖(Pier 211) 109
圖5-22 位移與彎矩分佈比較圖(Pier 211) 110










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