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中文論文名稱 歐洲聯盟機構多語言機制分析─其多軌模式與歐洲整合之關聯性研究
英文論文名稱 Analysis of European Union's Institutional Multilingual Regime--How Its Multi-pronged Model Associated with European Integration
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 趙燕祉
研究生英文姓名 Yen-Chih Chao
電子信箱 chao0211@mail.chihlee.edu.tw
學號 892030031
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-04
論文頁數 305頁
口試委員 指導教授-許智偉
共同指導教授-林立
委員-梁崇民
委員-許仟
委員-郭秋慶
委員-卓忠宏
中文關鍵字 歐盟機構多語言機制  唯獨英語  公共語言問題  彈性  務實  彈性/差異整合 
英文關鍵字 English-only  public language problem  flexibility  pragmatism  flexible/differentiated integration 
學科別分類
中文摘要 歐洲聯盟多語的定義涵蓋語言服務及語言學習,本文則聚焦在語言服務。歐洲整合歷經五十多年的多次擴大,自創始初期的四種官方語言,爆增至今天的23種,基於「法理上」和「政治上」,歐盟必需實行延伸型的語言機制。規模居世界第一且具領航地位的歐盟翻譯機構,在須兼顧成本效益,並突顯歐洲整合的精隨即文化語言之多樣性的要求下,該當如何因應理想和務實的需求。
而各國學者專家曾就不同向度多方辯證,爭議點不外乎:一、如何界定官方語言或工作語言,且各機構無論是核心或專責組織,可名正言順,就本身之特質及需求制定自己的語言機制;二、將英文公訂為唯一之共通用語,優點是降低成本增加效率、且可因應歐盟的一再擴大,缺點則是違背歐盟的立法精神,挑戰多元文化的核心價值;三、為何獨厚英語,而非歐盟機構多數法律文件簽署的法語,亦或歐盟內占人口使用多數的德語,甚或任一種斯拉夫語,以拉攏中東歐對歐盟的認同。更有學者建議將差異整合的彈性作法,應用在歐盟的語言機制上。
本論文以歐洲差異整合主張的彈性務實策略,來解釋歐盟機構語言機制的多軌變化,探究歐盟整合中逐漸常態化的差異整合,對歐盟語言機制變異的影響。論文分成七章:第一章緒論、第二章語言機制的演變與歐盟多語政策的形成、第三章歐盟語言機制的獨特性與複雜性、第四章語言機制差異的法律分析與應用、第五章差異歐洲的概念及表現與語言安排的彈性應用、第六章多語機制對歐洲整合的重要性、第七章結論。
本研究重在探討歐盟機構的語言服務機制,近年如何呈現多軌的語言光譜。在此光譜上,彼端是兩三種慣用語,此端則是歐盟所有語言,中段再配以與議題利益直接相關者的語言組合。2000年起專家學者和歐盟官僚也陸續引用「差異和彈性」來形容歐盟的多語機制。此正對應歐盟語言入口網站的標章,一隻彩漾的變色龍,能配合週遭情境轉換膚色。歐盟多軌的多語機制,其功能外溢,關係到歐盟政治、經濟、社會、文化和教育各面政策的整合。歐盟機構多語機制整體的發展、變化和運作,與歐洲的整合進程,在時空上呈現互動的關聯性。
英文摘要 Over fifty years of European integration and through five enlargements, EU’s official languages have increased from initial 4 up to 23 because of “politically and legally necessary” using extensive linguistic regime. As a pioneer, with the largest translation and interpretation services in the world, what the optimal language set EU should adopt to trade-off the cost-efficiency and its crucial profile, multilingualism?
Many arguments have proclaimed to introduce a working lingua franca that assumed, would reduce both the costs and inefficiency of translation services. But which language is optimal? English-only, historically diplomatic French, German, the most widely-spoken language in the EU, or Polish that can more integrate Slav’s identity. Some suggested flexibility of differentiated integration should be applied on linguistic regime.
Since 2000 arguments have continuously mentioned to draw “differentiated or flexible approach” of integration to modify EU’s linguistic mechanism. Manifested by the logo of language Portal, a chameleon, different institutions or agencies, in order to adapt variable contexts, have developed their own multi-pronged or differentiated language arrangements which present a linguistic spectrum with automatic languages (mostly, English) at one end, all languages at the other end and various language sets directly pertinent to the relevant issues in-between two extremes. Such practice is actually associated with the increasing application of flexibility and pragmatism in European integration which is greatly and deeply affected by the regime’s spill-over. This dissertation is comprised of seven chapters as follows:
Chapter 1 Introduction.
Chapter 2 Explanation of EU institutional language regime and Multilingualism.
Chapter 3 Discussion of uniqueness and complexity of language regime.
Chapter 4 Analysis about the rules resulting in regime varieties.
Chapter 5 An emphasis on differentiated/flexible integration and its application to the multi-pronged linguistic regime.
Chapter 6 Linguistic regime’s spill-over discussion.
Chapter 7 Conclusion.

論文目次 章節目次
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 文獻探討與名詞釋義 6
一、文獻探討 6
二、名詞釋義 11
第三節 研究方法與架構 15
一、基本假設 15
二、研究方法 16
三、研究限制 17
四、內容架構 18
第二章 語言機制的演變與歐盟多語政策的形成 21
第一節 語言服務之必要性 21
第二節 口譯服務機制 23
一、各機構口譯服務單位 23
二、執委會口譯總署 24
三、口譯總署東擴因應概況 27
四、歐洲議會的口譯方式 32
第三節 筆譯服務機制 33
一、歐盟主要機構附設筆譯服務處 33
二、世界最大的翻譯機構—筆譯總署 34
三、歐盟筆譯中心 43
四、筆譯機制—以筆譯總署對內原則與程序為例 46
五、因應擴大筆譯策略 48
六、筆譯員新血培訓計畫 52
第四節 翻譯員甄選及翻譯預算開銷 54
一、聯合甄選 54
二、翻譯預算 58
三、強調機構間之協調合作 61
第五節 歐盟之多語政策及多語執委 63
一、歐盟的語言政策—多語言 63
二、歐盟式多語的概念 64
三、歐盟多語執委 67
第六節 小結 74
第三章 多語機制的獨特性與複雜性 75
第一節 語言機制的應然面—多語的理想 75
一、法理上 75
二、政治上 77
三、文化上 81
第二節 語言機制的實然面 85
一、歐盟多語的背景與現況 85
二、各機構行政語言的選擇 90
三、成本管理 91
第三節 語言議題的複雜性 93
一、兼顧語言多樣與成本效率的兩難 93
二、多語原則應用之例外暨限制 96
三、英文的威脅 99
第四節 多語對英語的雙峰現象 103
一、全球語言的新次序—多語言 103
二、全球英語的強勢 106
三、歐盟語言的傾斜 108
四、英語在歐盟定位問題 112
五、英語對他語的排列/位階模式 113
第五節 共通用語的爭議 117
一、政治的敏感性 117
二、語言權的爭議 122
三、共通用語之選擇 127
四、可能之對策選項 133
第六節 小結 138
第四章 語言機制差異的法律分析與應用 141
第一節 語言機制相關的法律判例 141
一、法源的漏洞 141
二、法院判例對語言平等及多樣性原則之限制 143
三、合法採行限制型語言機制之條件 145
四、歐盟監察使對執委會語言歧視的決定 146
第二節 歐洲中央銀行對歐元稱謂的法律解釋 148
一、歐元拼字爭議的緣起 148
二、歐洲央行的法律答辯 150
三、小結 152
第三節 各機構內部語言機制相關程序規則摘要暨執行細則 153
一、歐洲議會之語言機制 153
二、歐盟理事會之語言機制 155
三、歐盟執委會之語言機制 156
四、歐洲法院之語言機制 157
五、歐盟審計院之語言機制 158
六、歐盟各廳處之語言機制 159
七、歐洲中央銀行之語言機制 160
第四節 語言機制的差異處理模式 162
一、區別語言服務對象及計費分流制 162
二、語言機制的變異 163
三、語言分類術語暨語言位階 163
第五節 彈性對策之多軌模式 165
一、多軌的語言機制 165
二、變異幾何型語言光譜解析 167
第六節 小結 173
第五章 差異歐洲彈性整合的概念暨表現 175
第一節 差異整合—彈性的概念和表現 175
一、媒體及一般的概念 176
二、CEPR的報告 176
三、史達的論點 177
四、葛嵐特的觀點 180
五、傑奈克的觀點 181
六、奈伊的一致整合vs差異整合 183
第二節 差異歐洲的概念 186
一、同質整合vs異質整合 186
二、差異歐洲的模式、影響和評論 190
三、小結 193
第三節 建構整合的途徑和語言機制的差異模式 194
一、建構整合依循的原則和策略 194
二、歐盟語言機制的運作策略 196
三、語言機制的差異/彈性模式 197
第四節 小結 199
第六章 多語機制對歐洲整合的重要性 201
第一節 語言面的研發與創新 201
一、掙脫語言階級的印象 201
二、少數語言的復興與再造 202
三、語言產業及語言科技的開發 203
四、培育多語翻譯人才 207
第二節 語言服務功能的外溢 212
一、利於健康經濟—語言即商機 213
二、政治面的多層次治理 216
三、社會的融合與凝聚 220
四、語言教育 223
第三節 小結 225
第七章 結論 227
第一節 研究概要 227
第二節 研究發現 229
一、歐洲整合與語言機制的關聯性 229
二、認習第二母語的遠景 231
三、唯獨英語的隱憂 232
四、共通用語和翻譯的關係 233
第三節 後續研究建議 234
參考文獻 239
附錄 277
附錄一 第一號語言規章原文 279
附錄二 歐盟的語言族譜 282
附錄三 「歐洲會議口譯員碩士訓練計畫」合作夥伴大學清冊 283
附錄四 執委會的筆譯趨勢統計表 285
附錄五 2009年歐盟筆譯總署員額現況 286
附錄六 筆譯員人數統計表(1958-2009) 287
附錄七 歐洲議會程序規則138條「語言」 288
附錄八 歐洲議會多語行為準則 289
附錄九 歐洲議會語言服務預算控制決議案 302


參考文獻 參考文獻
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賴守正 (2008),「歐盟口譯總署暨筆譯總署參訪心得」,《編譯論叢》,1(1): 201-212,台北縣:國立編譯館。
鍾志明 (2005),「歐洲聯盟擴大後的統合策略」,《歐洲國際評論》,1:103-123,嘉義縣:南華大學歐洲研究所。
藍玉春 (2009),「從建構主義探討形塑中的歐洲認同」,《全球政治評論》,25:81-116,台中市:中興大學國際政治研究所。
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Van Els, T. (2001), “The European Union, its Institutions and its Languages: Some Language Political Observations”, Current Issues in Language Planning, 2(4), 311-360, Netherlands: University of Nijmegen.
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European Commission. (2004), “Many tongues, one family Languages in the European Union”, Europe on the move series. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
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European Commission. (2010), Translation at the European Commission – a history, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Fidrmuc, J. & Ginsburgh, V. (2007), “Languages in the European Union: The Quest for Equality and its Cost”, European Economic Review, 51, 1351-1369.
Fidrmuc, J., Ginsburgh, V. & Weber, S. (2009), “Voting on the Choice of Office Languages in the European Union”, European Journal of Political Economy, 25, 56-62.
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Ginsburgh, V., & Weber, S. (2001, January), “L anguage Disenfranchisement in the European Union”, (2005b, June) (Electronic version). Journal of Common Market Studies, 43(2), 273-286.
Grant, C., “Variable Geometry save EU enlargement?” (Electronic version). Centre for European Reform (CER) Bulletin, issue 44,. http://www.cer.org.uk/articles/44_grant.html
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Balzan, A. Maltese create stir about euro spelling, http://euobserver.com/index.phtml?search_string (3/8/2006).

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Bernas, J. “EU languages: cash or equality? Critiques and proposals for a multilingual Europe”, Tiscali.Europe, http://europe.tiscali.co.uk/index.jsp?section=/current%20Affairs&level-previe w&content=34 (11/5/2005)
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“Commission: Translation moves into heart of policy-making”, EurActiv. http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri=tcm:29-142810-16&type=News (20/7/2005)
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Grane, M. “Catalan: A language of technical documentation in Europe. The challenges of multilingualism, from the point of view of a non-official EU language”. Presented at Fifth Brussels Colloquium for User-friendly Product Information. Technical Documentation in the enlarged EU: First round-up on the organizational, technical and economic impacts, http://www.arena.uio.no/events/ (14/3/2005)

Guardian, “English yes, but equal language rights first”, http://www.guardian.co.uk/GWeekly/Story/0,3939,475284,00.html (19/4/2001)
“Interview news: EU communication needs radical decentralisation, not ‘streamlining’”, EurActiv, http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri+tcm:29-142045-16&type=News ()8/7/2005
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“Irish to become official EU Language”, Brussels, http://news.webindia.123.com/news/showdetails.sap?id=88295&cat=World (14/6/2005)
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Jerneck, M. (2005), “Flexibility as an Elastic Ordering Principle in the European Union”, Department of Political Science, Lund University, Sweden, http://www.snee.org/filer/papers/38.pdf (11/10/2006)

Kubosova, L. “MEPs back Romanian commissioner despite ‘indecent’ job task”, http://euobserver.com/?aid=23046 (6/12/2006)

Kuchier, T. “Latvia prepared t006F fight spelling of ‘eiro’ in court”, http://euobserver.com/index.phtml?search_string_top (4/1/2006)

“Labour barriers could harm German language, Spidla says”, EUobserver, http://euobserver.com/?aid=21490 (2/5/2006)

“Language use in the EU”, EurActive, http://www.euractiv.com/en/rpint/culture/language-use-eu/article-137663 (29/1/2010)
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“Orban designated multilingualism commissioner”, EurActiv, http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/orban-designated-multilingualism-commissioner/article (31/10/2006)

“Orban: Importance of Multilingualism ‘will not diminish” An interview with EurActiv”, EurActiv. Romania. http://www.euractiv.com/en/culture/orban-importance-multilingualism-diminish/article-171265 (1/4/2008)

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Rapacki, M. (2005), “Polish MEP Bronislaw Geremek would like to see just one working language”, Gazeta, http://serwisy.gazeta.pl/ue/1,36173,2696067.html (8/5/2005)

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http://www.adetocqueville.com/cgi-binloc/searchTTC.cgi?displayzZop+13786 (9/9/2003)

De Swaan, A. (2005), “GLOBALIZATION: Europe’s English-speaking peoples”, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_11-9-2005_pg3_6 (11/9/2005)
De Swaan, A. (2007), “The Language predicament of the EU since the Enlargement”, University of Amsterdam, http://www.deswaan.com/engels/from_our_archives/EU_langauge_predicament_2007.htm (10/5/2008)

Tannock, C. (MEP), (2005), “Love of the Tower of Babel”, http://www.charlestannock.com/index.asp (3/6/2005)

Vella, M. (2005), “Maltese, the EU’s special case, could stagger for years to come”, Malta Today, http://www.maltatoday.com.mt/2005/04/10/t7.html (10/4/2005)
Vision Europe 2020,
http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri=tcm:29-117195-16&type=Analysis (25/6/2002)
Zanasi, L. (2003), “Languages in a Globalising World”, Review: Sociolinguistics: Maurais & Morris (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/linguistic/issues/14/142141html (12/8/2003)


歐盟翻譯服務單位的相關網站,及學術研究網站:
1. 歐盟語言入口網站
http://europa.eu/languages/en/home
2. 歐盟執委會教育文化教育總署多語言政策網站
http://ec.europa.eu/education/languages/eu-language-policy/index_en.htm
3. 歐盟多語執委Leonard Orban專屬網站
http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/index_en.htm
4. 歐盟執委會筆譯總署網站
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/index_en.htm
5. 歐盟執委會口譯總署網站
http://ec.europa.eu/scic
6. 歐盟各廳處翻譯服務中心網站
http://www.cdt.europa.eu/cdt/ewcm.nsf/_/8F422D256807CD0DC1256E9000364EC6?OpenDocument
7. 歐洲議會多語言網站
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?language=EN&id=155
8. 歐洲法院網站
http://www.curia.europa.eu/en/instit/services/index.htm
9. 歐洲審計院
http://www.eca.europa.eu/eca/organisation/eca_organisation_secgen_en.htm
10. 歐盟官方公報
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOIndex.do?ihmlang=en
11. 歐洲中央銀行網站
http://www.ecb.int/pub/scientific/lps/date/html/index.en.html

歐盟機構公告
Commission of European Communities, “European Indicator of Language Competence”, COM(2005)356 final, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2005:0356:FIN:EN:PDF (1/8/2005)

Commission of the European Communities, SEC(2008) 2443, “Multilingualism: an asset for Europe and a shared commitment”, COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Accompanying document to the COMMUNICAITON FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE RETGIONS. AN INVENTORY OF COMMJUNITY ACTIONS IN THE FIELD OF MULTILINGUALISM AND RESULTS OF THE ONLINE PUBLIC CONSULTATION, http://ec.europa.eu/education/languages/pdf/com/inventory_en.pdf. (18/9/2008)
COUNICL of THE EUROPEAN UNION, “Council Resolution on a European strategy for multilingualism”. 16207/08, http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/08/st16/st16207.en08.pdf (21/12/2008)
Directorate General Communication., “Inauguration of Irish interpretation course in Galway today”, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/press_release/090330_Irish_interpretation_course.pdf (30/3/2009)

Directorate-General for Translation., “Dealing with the new languages”. http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/translation/enlargement/new_languages_en.htm (31/12/2004)

Directorate-General for Translation., “EMT Roll-out Strategy”, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/external_relations/universities/documents/emt_strategy_en.pdf (12/3/2009)

DG Press and Communication, “Applicant Countries Eurobarometer 2001: Public Opinion in the Countries Applying for European Union Membership”, European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/cceb_en.htm (31/12/2003).

European Commission, COM (2002)597 final, “The Implementation and Results of the European Year of Languages 2001”, presented by the European Commission in accordance with Article 11 of Decision no 1934/2000/EC, http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/lang/doc/rap_en.pdf (12/12/2002)

European Commission, COM(2003) 449 final, “Promoting language learning and linguistic diversity. An Action Plan 2004-2006”. Communication from the commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2003:0449:FIN:EN:PDF (24/7/2003)

European Commission, IP/04/679, “Commission adopts measures to match supply and demand for translation”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/04/679&type=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (26/5/2004)

European Commission, MEMO/04/35, “Interpretation – the challenge of Enlargement”, http://europa.eu.int/comm/scic/interpreter/assuniversities_en.htm (17/2/2004)
European Commission, COM(2005) 596 final, “A new Framework Strategy for Multilingualism”, Communication from the commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, http://europa.eu.int/comm (22/11/2005)

European Commission, IP/05/1451, “Multilingualism in the EU: the European Commission calls for action to promote languages and launches a new Web portal”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/05/1451&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (22/11/2005)

European Commission, IP/05/163, “Language teaching: 50% of young Europeans learn a foreign language from primary school onwards”, http:europa.eu.int/repid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/05/163&format=HTML (10/2/2005)
European Commission, MEMO/05/10, “Translation in the Commission: Where do we stand eight months after the enlargement?”, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/about_us/press_archive_en.htm (13/1/2005)
European Commission, “ELAN: Effects on the European Economy of Shortages of Foreign Language Skills in Enterprise, Executive Summary”, http://ec.europea.eu/education/politics/lang/doc/elan_executive_summary_en.pdf (31/12/2005)

European Commission, IP/06/1221, “High Level Group on Multilingualism Launched by Commissioner Figel”, http://Europa.eu/.../06/1221&format=PDF&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=fr (20/9/2006)

European Commission, IP/06/1417, “Commission launches cooperation with universities in translator training”, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translaiton/events/emt2006/index_en.htm (18/10/2006)
European Commission. IP/06/1854, “Commission ready to welcome three new official languages on 1 January 2007”, http://www.europa.eu/rapid/Press/releasesa/ction.do?reference=IiP/06/1854 (20/12/2006)
European Commission, MEMO/06/173, “Translation in the Commission: where do we stand two years after Enlargement?” http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/index_en.pdf (27/4/2006)

European Commission, IP/07/962, “A single database for all EU-related terminology (InterActive Terminology for Europe) in 23 languages to the public”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/07/962&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (25/7/2007)

European Commission, IP/07/1396, “Enhancing motivation for language learning- the recommendations of the High Level Group on Multilingualism”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/07/1396&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (26/9/2007)

European Commission, MEMO/07/76, “Translation: where do we stand after completion of the fifth enlargement ?”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/07/76&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (23/2/2007)

European Commission, MEMO/07/77, “Interpretation: Where do we stand after completion of the fifth enlargement?”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/07/77&format=HTML&aged=0&l anguage=EN&guiLanguage=fr (23/2/2007)

European Commission, COM(2008) 566 final, “Multilingualism: an asset for Europe and a shared commitment”, COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION O THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/press_release/080918_Multilingualism_an_asset_for_Europe/COMM_PDF_COM_2008_0566_F_EN_COMMUNICATION.pdf (18/9/2008)

European Commission, EAC C5/PB/DS D(2008), CITIZEN SUMMARY “Subject: communication ‘Multilingualism: an asset for Europe and a shared commitment”, http://ec.europa.eu/education/languages/pdf/com/summary-citizen_en.pdf (17/7/2008)
European Commission, IP/08/60, “European Commission makes computer-assisted translation easier and more accessible”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/60&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=fr (18/1/2008)

European Commission, IP/08/100, “Budding translators win a trip to Brussels”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/100&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (29/1/2008)

European Commission, IP/08/129, “Promoting a “personal adoptive language” strengthens multilingualism and intercultural dialogue, concludes the EC group of intellectuals”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/129&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (31/1/2008)

European Commission, IP/08/572, “European Commission hosts Public Hearing on Multilingualism”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/572&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (15/4/2008)

European Commission, IP/08/1631, “The Commission organizes a debate in Brussels on translation, ‘the language of Europe’”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/1631&format=PDF&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (5/11/2008)

European Commission, MEMO/08/497, “Recommendations from the Business Forum for Multilingualism established by the European Commission”, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/press_release/080711_Brussels_memo/EN_memo.pdf (11/7/2008)

European Commission, MEMO/08/579, “Translation – DG providing high-quality written translations and linguistic advice – our daily mission. Brussels”, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/speeches/080923_memo-dgt/m08_579.en.pdf (23/9/2008)

European Commission, IP/09/191, “Second EU translation contest winners announced”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/09/191&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (30/1/2009)

European Commission, IP/09/405, “Towards an EU wide Master's in translation”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/09/405&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (16/3/2009)

European Commission, IP/09/592, “Conference on Literary Translation and Culture to show how Translation contributes to consolidating the European idea”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/09/592&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (20/4/2009)

European commission, MEMO/09/74, “English, a rare language?”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/09/74&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (19/2/2009)

European commission, MEMO/09/75, “Questions & Answers on Interpretation”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/09/75&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (19/2/2009)

European commission, MEMO/09/76, “Wanted: English-language translators”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/09/76&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (19/2/2009)

European Commission, MEMO/09/97, “Commission and more than 70 EU Universities prepare a new generation of interpreters”, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/09/97&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (6/3/2009)

European Commission, “EU Commissioner-designate Androulla VASSILIOU outlines her priorities for multilingualism at European Parliament hearing”, http://ec.europa.eu/education/languages/news/news3774_en.htm (19/1/20/10)
The European Ombudsman, Press Release No. 6/2008, http://ombudsman,europa.eu/release/en/2008-05-27.htm (27/5/2008)

European Parliament, “Within the EP: the new Code of Conduct for Multilingualism. Lingua Franca”, News from within and beyond the EP, http://www.europarl.eu.int/interp/online/lf99_one/v07_no5/page5.html (30/9/2005)
European Parliament, “Summary of hearing of Leonard Orban, Commissioner-designate for Multilingualism’, News Press, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/expert/infopress_page/008-329-331-11-48-901-20061127 (27/12/2006)

Figel, J. (2005), “Multilingualism policy in the European Union. The changing European Classroom”. Luxembourg, http://www.men.lu/edu/fre/president/CLIL/speechjan/Figel.pdf (10/3/2005)

INRA, Eurobarometer Special 54. “Europeans and Languages”, International Research Associates, http://ec.europa.eu/education/languages/pdf/doc627_en.pdf (31/12/2001)

Lönnroth, K.-J. “Tower of Babel or Cultural Crossroads? Meeting the Commission”, Stockholm, Director-General, Directorate-General for Translation, European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/about_us/dg/dg.en.htm (31/3/2004)

Lönnroth, K.-J. “Welcoming the staff members from the new member states”, Video message to the DGT staff, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/about_us/dg/dg_en.htm (5/5/2004)

Lönnroth, K.-J. “Inter-Agency Meeting on Language Arrangement”, Documentation and Publications, (IAMLAPD), http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translatin/about_us/dg/dg.en.htm (8/7/2004)

Lönnroth, K.-J. “Translation in DGT – State of Play one year after enlargement” (revised) - KJL Speech on the occasion of the Translation Centre’s 10th Anniversary, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/about_us/dg/dg.en.htm (17/3/2005)
Lönnroth, K.-J. “The building of a multilingual Europe”, European Commission, Kommunikations-og Sprog Forum, Copenhagen, http://europa.eu.int/comm/translation/reading/articles/pdf/20051006_copenhagen_kjl_en.pdf (6/10/2005)

Lönnroth, K.-J. “From global to local: multilingualism in action”, Heads of Representation meeting 19 September 2006, Brussels, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/about-us/dg/dg_en.htm (19/9/2006)

Lönnroth, K.-J. “Translation Practices in the Commission”, CICEB Conference, Committee of the Regions, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/about-us/dg/dg_en.htm (21/9/2006)

Lönnroth, K.-J. “Efficiency, Transparency and Openness: translation in the European Union”, Speech given at XVIII World congress of the International Federation of Translators on Translation and culture diversity, http://ec.europa.eu/translation/reading/articles/pdf/20080801_shanghai_en.pdf (4/8/2008)

Orban, L. “Less a burden than an opportunity”, http://europa.eu:80/languages//en/document/94 (1/1/2007)

Orban, L. “Issues relating to interpreting and translation”. SPEECH/07/61. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/61&format=PDF&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (2/2/2007)

Orban, L. “Tradition and Cultural Diversity: Multilingualism as Instrument for a Trans-boundary Europe”, Speech at Clingendael Institute for International Relations, http://ec.europea.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/080402_speech-Hague/EN_Tradition_and.cultural_Diversity_Multilingualism.pdf (2/4/2008)
Orban, L. “Multilingualism and immigration: a challenge for Europe and the Mediterranean”, Speech at University for Foreigners of Perugia, Perugia, Italy, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/080508_Perugia/EN_Perugia_mai_2008.pdf (8/5/2008)

Orban, L. “Court Interpreting and Legal Translation-Issues of Professionalization”, Address to the Ninth International Forum on Interpreting and Translating at Court and for Public Authorities. Tempere, Finland, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/080530_Tampere/EN_Tampere_speech.pdf (30/5/2008)

Orban, L. “The Latvian Language in the European Union – Multilingualism in Practice”, Speech/08/368, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/08/368&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=fr (3/7/2008)

Orban, L. “Adoption of the Communication on Multilingualism” on Press Conference, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/081017_exeter/_/EN_Speech_exeter_17th_October.pdf (18/9/2008)

Orban, L. “The Importance of Looking Outwards, Not Inwards”, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/080918_Speaking_points_pres_conference/Speaking_points_EN_pres_conference.pdf (17/10/2008)

Orban, L. “Address to the first National Forum on the Maltese Language”, Speech at Valetta, Malta, http://ec.europa.eu/commission-barroso/orban/newsdocs/speeches/081113_Valetta_speech/Malta_Nov_2008_EN.pdf. (13/11/2008)

Orban, L. “Multilingualism—in its own right”, SPEECH at Berlin, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/090212_Berlin/Speech%20Bundestag%20-%20Final.pdf (12/2/2009)

Orban, L. “New opportunities in translator training”, European Master’s in Translation Conference, SPEECH, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/090316_Brussels/EMT_RO_March_2009_en.pdf (16/3/2009)

Orban, L. “Multilingualism and European identity”, Speech at University “A.I.Cuza”, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/090413_Iasi/Iasi_EN.pdf (13/4/2009)

Orban, L. “Language Technologies at the Service of Efficiency and Quality at the European Commission”, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/090414_Bacau/Speech_DGT_Bacau_EN.pdf (14/4/2009)

Orban, L. “Multilingualism in the EU: promoting intercultural dialogue, linguistic diversity and language”, ALTE Conference, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/090424_ALTE_conference/ALTE_conferencere_EN.pdf (24/4/2009)

Orban, L. Multilingualism: a policy for uniting Europeans. Speech at London School of Economics, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/090519_London_School_Economics/London_School_Economics_May_2009_en.pdf (19/5/2009)

Orban, L. “The external dimension of EU multilingualism”, Speech at the Ca’Foscari University of Venice, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/090612_VENICE/Speech_Venice_EN.pdf (12/6/2009)

Orban, L., “Fostering Personal Identity in a Multicultural Europe”, Lecture at Bolzano University, http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/orban/news/docs/speeches/090615_Bolzano/Speech_Bolzano_EN.pdf (15/6/2009)

Special Eurobarometer 237–Wave 63.4– TNS Opinion & Social, “Europeans and Languages”, http://europa.int.eu (31/12/2005)

Special Eurobarometer 243 / Wave 64.3– TNS Opinion & Social, “Europeans and their Languages”, http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_sum_en.pdf (30/2/2006)
Special Eurobarometer 255/Wave 65.2 TNS Opinion & Social, “Attitudes towards European Union Enlargement”, http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_255_en.pdf (31/7/2006)



歐體/歐盟法律文件
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