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系統識別號 U0002-1107201109211500
中文論文名稱 整合GPS與無線定位感測器應用於室內定位追蹤
英文論文名稱 Integration of GPS and Wireless Localization Sensors for Indoor Localization Tracking
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 王鴻志
研究生英文姓名 Hung-Chih Wang
學號 698410239
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2011-06-24
論文頁數 53頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳瑞發
委員-方鄒昭聰
委員-林偉川
委員-王英宏
委員-陳瑞發
中文關鍵字 Zigbee  RSSI定位  全球定位系統  室內定位  無線感測器網路  座標轉換 
英文關鍵字 Zigbee  RSSI-based Localization  GPS  Indoor Localization  Wireless Sensor Network  Coordinate Conversion 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要   近年來,無線感測網路的定位功能發展迅速,造就現在的發達且普及,並廣泛使用在生態環境觀察、軍事用途、採礦人員監控…等上使用,而本論文使用IEEE802.15.4/Zigbee的模組,所採用低耗電且低成本的優點,透過RSSI的定位演算法,並將座標傳送到使用者的接收端,讓使用者得知目前所有Nodes的位置。
  本論文研究利用GPS,取得實際經緯度座標後轉換為Zigbee可接受的座標,並自動寫入Reference Node,作為Blind Node的參考座標,而讓使用者迅速得知目前所有Nodes的座標,並設計Reference Nodes的擺放位置,讓Blind Node計算出較精確的座標數值。透過本論文提出兩個方法,擴大定位範圍,所以可以使用於臨時或緊急情況需要的定位系統。
英文摘要   In recent years, for the prevailing of WSNs, the function of Localization tracking had widely in environmental observation. Such as: military, mining, personnel monitoring ... and so on. The equipment used in the thesis is IEEE802.15.4/Zigbee of module which is low-power and low cost. By using the RSSI localization algorithm, user can know the localization of all the Nodes.
  In this thesis, using GPS to get the latitude and longitude coordinates and translate to the format of coordinates of Zigbee. It will automatically update the reference node, as a reference coordinate of blind node, users can know the coordinates of all existing nodes. In this thesis, we find a better position layout of the reference nodes, so blind node calculate the better accurate coordinate. We proposed two methods to expand the utilized range and can also be used for emergency system.
論文目次 第一章 緒論......1
1.1 研究動機及研究目的......1
1.2 論文架構......3
第二章 相關研究......4
2.1 A Location Algorithm Integrating GPS and WSN in Pervasive Computing......4
2.2 An Intelligent Positioning Approach: RSSI-Based Indoor And Outdoor Localization Scheme In Zigbee Networks......6
2.3 A Novel Indoor RSS-Based Position Location Algorithm Using Factor Graphs......9
2.4 Distributed sensor network localization using SOCP relaxation......12
第三章 研究內容與方法......15
3.1 系統架構......15
3.2 整合GPS與Reference Node的座標......19
3.2.1 整合GPS與Reference Node的座標步驟......19
3.2.2 GPS座標數值格式......21
3.2.3 GPS度分秒與地理區域距離......21
3.2.4 GPS與定位系統座標轉換......22
3.3 定位系統流程......24
3.4 定位覆蓋範圍......27
第四章 模擬實作與結果討論......34
4.1 模擬實作說明......34
4.1.1 模擬實作目標......34
4.1.2 模擬實作環境......34
4.1.3 模擬實作界面......35
4.2 模擬結果與討論......36
4.2.1 整合GPS與Reference Node座標的模擬結果......36
4.2.2 Reference Node影響Blind Node計算座標的模擬結果......37
第五章 結論與未來相關研究......42
5.1 結論......42
5.2 未來相關研究......43
參考文獻......44
附錄—英文論文......47

圖目錄
圖2.1 GPS-WSN Node 模擬示意圖......5
圖2.2 Indoor and Outdoor localization Schemes系統架構圖(source:[Kuo 10])......6
圖2.3 三種方法在室內定位環境下 (source:[Kuo 10])......7
圖2.4 The 7th building of Yuan-Ze University-Method 1 (source:[Kuo 10])......7
圖2.5 The 7th building of Yuan-Ze University-Method 3 (source:[Kuo 10])......8
圖2.6 典型RSS室內PL System與two training point的距離 (source:[Huang 09])......9
圖2.7 PL system的Factor graph 找出(x, y, p)的座標 (source:[Huang 09])......10
圖2.8 模擬測試數據 (source:[Huang 09])......11
圖2.9 Tracking a mobile sensor node實驗(source:[Srirangarajan 08])......13
圖3.1 系統架構圖......16
圖3.2 GPS定位系統流程圖......20
圖3.3 球體示意圖......21
圖3.4 定位系統示意圖......24
圖3.5 定位系統-室外定位步驟示意圖......25
圖3.6 定位系統-室外到室內定位步驟示意圖......26
圖3.7 擴充二維平面定位範圍距離......28
圖3.8 Reference Node擴充X、Y數值......29
圖3.9 每30公尺放置一個Reference Node......29
圖3.10 產生64X64公尺定位範圍......31
圖3.11 Reference & Blind Node擴充X、Y儲存空間......32
圖3.12 擴充X、Y儲存空間後的定位過程......32
圖4.1 Reference Node的GPS Mode......35
圖4.2 定位系統-顯示Reference Node位置......36
圖4.3 定位系統-顯示Blind Node計算位置......37
圖4.4 Reference Node 擺放位置......38
圖4.5 Reference Node與Blind Node擺放位置......39
圖4.6 Blind Node座標(25,25)數據......40
圖4.7 Blind Node座標(25,15)數據......40
圖4.8 Blind Node座標(25,25)與(25,15)比較數據......41

表目錄
表3.1 擴充後範圍......27
表4.1 環境平台軟硬體設備......35
表4.2 Reference Nodes Information的GPS資料......36
參考文獻 參考文獻
中文部份:
[陳奕瑞 2011] 陳奕瑞(2011)。利用動態安裝參考節點應用於室內定位追蹤(未出
版之碩士論文)。私立淡江大學,新北市。
英文部分:
[Aamodt 2006] Aamodt, K. (Ed.). (2006). CC2431 Location Engine, Application Note
AN042 (Rev.1.0), SWRA095, Texas Instruments.
[Ahn 2009] Ahn, H. S., & Ko, K. H. (2009). Simple Pedestrian Localization
Algorithms Based on Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 56(10), 4296 – 4302.
doi:10.1109/TIE.2009.2017097
[Boukerche
2007]
Boukerche, A., Oliveira, H.A.B., Nakamura, E.F., & Loureiro, A.A.F.
(2007). Localization systems for wireless sensor networks. IEEE
Wireless Communications, 14(6), 6-12. doi:10.1109/MWC.2007.4407221
[Huang 2009] Huang, C. T., Wu, C. H., Lee, Y. N., Chen, & J. T. (2009). A Novel
Indoor RSS-Based Position Location Algorithm Using Factor Graphs.
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 8(6), 3050 – 3058.
doi:10.1109/TWC.2009.080452
[Jardak 2009] Jardak, N., & Samama, N. (2009). Indoor Positioning Based on
GPS-Repeaters: Performance Enhancement using an Open Code Loop
Architecture. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, 45(1), 347 – 359. doi:10.1109/TAES.2009.4805284
[Kuo 2010] Kuo, W. H., Chen, Y. S., Jen, G. T., & Lu, T. W. (2010). An Intelligent
Positioning Approach: RSSI-Based Indoor And Outdoor Localization
Scheme In Zigbee Networks. 2010 International Conference on
Machine Learning and Cybernetics (ICMLC), 6, 2754 – 2759.
doi:10.1109/ICMLC.2010.5580783
45
[Lee 2009] Lee, S. G., Lee, D. H., & Lee, S. W. (2009). Network-oriented road
map generation for unknown roads using visual images and
GPS-based location information. IEEE Transactions on Consumer
Electronics, 55(3), 1233 – 1240. doi:10.1109/TCE.2009.5277982
[Mazuelas
2008]
Mazuelas, S., Lago, F. A., González, D., Bahillo, A., Blas, J.,
Fernández, P. (2008). Dynamic Estimation of Optimum Path Loss
Model in a RSS Positioning System. Proceedings of 2008 IEEE/ION
Position, Location and Navigation Symposium, 679 – 684.
doi:10.1109/PLANS.2008.4569988
[Noh 2008] Noh, A. S. I., Lee, W. J., Ye, J.Y. (2008). Comparison of the
mechanisms of the Zigbee’s indoor localization algorithm.
Proceedings of 2008. SNPD '08. Ninth ACIS International Conference
on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and
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[Qaraqe 2010] Qaraqe, K. A., Hussain, S. I., Celebi, H., Abdallah, M., Alouini, M.
(2010). An RSS based location estimation technique for cognitive
relay networks. Proceedings of 2010 3rd International Symposium on
Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies
(ISABEL), 1 – 5. doi:10.1109/ISABEL.2010.5702852
[Reichenbach
2006]
Reichenbach, F., Timmermann, D. (2006). Indoor Localization with
Low Complexity in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of 2006
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 1018 – 1023.
doi:10.1109/INDIN.2006.275737
[Srirangarajan
2008]
Srirangarajan, S., Tewfik, A., & Luo, Z. Q. (2008). Distributed sensor
network localization using SOCP relaxation. IEEE Transactions on
Wireless Communications, 7(12), 4886 – 4895.
doi:10.1109/T-WC.2008.070241
[Smith 2009] Smith, S. F., & Moore, J. A. (2009). A Precision, Low-Cost
GPS-Based Transmitter Synchronization Scheme for Improved AM
Reception. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 55(1), 71 – 78.
doi:10.1109/TBC.2008.2012026
46
[Soloviev
2011]
Soloviev, A., & Dickman, J. (2011). Extending GPS carrier phase
availability indoors with a deeply integrated receiver architecture.
IEEE Wireless Communications, 18(2), 36 – 44.
doi:10.1109/MWC.2011.5751294
[Xu 2008] Xu, L., Deng, Z., Ren, W., Wang, H. (2008). A Location Algorithm
Integrating GPS and WSN in Pervasive Computing. 2008. ICPCA
2008. Third International Conference on Pervasive Computing and
Applications, 1, 461 – 466. doi:10.1109/ICPCA.2008.4783632
[Xu 2009] Xu, H. (2009). Antenna Polarization as Complementarities on RSSI
Based Location Identification. Proceedings of 2009. ISWPC 2009. 4th
International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing, 1 – 5.
doi:10.1109/ISWPC.2009.4800570
[Yedavalli
2008]
Yedavalli, K., & Krishnamachari, B. (2008). Sequence-Based
Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Transactions on
Mobile Computing, PP(99), 81 – 94. doi:10.1109/TMC.2007.1076
[Yang 2009] Yang, J., Chen, Y. (2009). Indoor Localization Using Improved
RSS-Based Lateration Methods. Proceedings of 2009. GLOBECOM
2009. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 1 – 6.
doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2009.5425237
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