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系統識別號 U0002-1107200613302300
中文論文名稱 美國高等教育認可制度之研究-以美國中北部校院協會(NCA)為例
英文論文名稱 A Study on the Accreditation System in American Higher Education-Taking the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools as an example.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 教育政策與領導研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Educational Policy and Leadership
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 曾佩雯
研究生英文姓名 Pei-Wen Tseng
電子信箱 wenno1234@yahoo.com.tw
學號 693120148
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-20
論文頁數 157頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊瑩
委員-楊國賜
委員-侯永琪
中文關鍵字 美國  認可制度  高等教育  評鑑  美國中北部校院協會 
英文關鍵字 United States of America  Accreditation System  Higher Education  Evaluation  North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA) 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學教育學
中文摘要 本研究主要係採用文件分析法探討美國高等教育的認可制度,並以美國中北部校院協會為深入探討分析之案例。主要研究目的包括:
一、瞭解美國高等教育認可制度發展之背景。
二、探討美國高等教育認可制度與許可制度的發展與現況。
三、以美國中北部校院協會為例,剖析美國高等教育認可制度的標準、模式、與程序。
四、針對研究結果提出結論與建言,以供我國教育行政主管部門或學界參考。
本研究之主要研究發現有:
一、美國高等教育認可制度之建構與發展,與其高等教育制度之發展息息相關。
二、美國高等教育認可機構包含區域性、全國性、專門及專業認可機構等三種類型,分別執行機構認可以及專業或學程認可。
三、美國《高等教育法案》促使高等教育認可機構、聯邦政府與州政府共同負起確保美國高等教育品質之責。
四、美國高等教育認可機構需獲有聯邦教育部或高等教育認可審議會的許可,其認可結果始視為有效。
五、美國中北部校院協會為最早發展高等教育認可制度的認可機構,擁有的會員機構數量居六大區域性認可協會之冠。
六、美國中北部校院協會認可制度除了傳統認可方案之外,另建置一套以美國馬康包立治國家品質獎為學習模型的新認可方案,兩套方案並行。
七、美國中北部校院協會在視會員機構為顧客之原則下進行管理經營,為會員機構提供多元資源與服務,以期營造其社群為學習型組織。
根據以上研究發現,本研究之結論可簡扼歸納如下:
一、美國高等教育認可制度原為改善導向的評鑑,於《退伍軍人協助法案》及《高等教育法案》施行後,形成改善導向與績效導向兼具的評鑑。
二、美國高等教育認可制度並非由政府直接辦理,而是由非官方的認可機構負
責,聯邦教育部及高等教育認可審議會透過許可制度監督與管理之。
三、美國高等教育認可制度為自願性質,其因認可結果與政府經費補助與公私立單位資助掛勾,遂漸演變為非全自願性質。
四、美國中北部校院協會擁有自我評鑑與檢討機制,促使其採用之認可制度不斷更新,以因應高等教育制度、社會與經濟等因素的變遷。
英文摘要 This study is mainly, by adopting the method of document analysis, aiming to explore the accreditation system in American higher education, In so doing, the accreditation system of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, one of the eight main regional accreditation organizations in the States, is analyzed as a case for intensive study.
The following are the major findings of this study:
1. The development of the accreditation system in American higher education is closely related to the development of American higher education.
2. There are three types of accreditors in American higher education, each of them has been playing different roles and has established its own accreditation system.
3. Both of the federal government and the State authority have, by laws, had their own responsibility for assuring the quality of higher education, respectively.
4. The accreditors of higher education in the States should be recognized by USED or CHEA, otherwise, the judgment of the accreditors would be regarded as invalid.
5. The North Central Association of Colleges and Schools is the first one which is with the development of higher education accreditation system and the most membership among six regional accreditors.
6. The North Central Association of Colleges and Schools has developed two kinds of accreditation programs. One is traditional program and the other is based on the model of Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. Both are open for the membership.
7. The North Central Association of Colleges and Schools regards its membership as
customer and provides various resources and service to the membership. It would
like to construct the community as a learning organization.
According to the above findings, major conclusions are drawn and suggestions are proposed in the final chapter.
論文目次 第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景 ………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究動機、目的與問題 ………………………………… 2
第三節 研究方法、步驟與架構 ………………………………… 5
第四節 名詞釋義、研究範圍與研究限制 ……………………… 8
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 認可制度相關概念 ………………………………………11
第二節 高等教育評鑑理論與模式 ………………………………25
第三節 主要國家高等教育評鑑機制 ……………………………30
第三章 美國高等教育認可制度之緣起、沿革與發展
第一節 美國高等教育制度之緣起、沿革與發展 ………………45
第二節 美國高等教育認可制度之緣起、沿革與發展 …………50
第三節 美國高等教育認可制度之整體現況 ……………………60
第四節 美國高等教育之許可制度 ………………………………67
第四章 美國中北部校院協會高等教育認可制度
第一節 美國中北部校院協會之緣起與發展 ……………………75
第二節 美國中北部校院協會認可準則 …………………………89
第三節 高等學習委員會之資源、服務、聯繫與收費 …………97
第五章 美國中北部校院協會認可方案之分析
第一節 評鑑與提昇品質方案 …………………………………103
第二節 學術品質改善方案 ……………………………………114
第三節 評鑑與提昇品質方案及學術品質改善方案之比較分析 …125
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 研究發現與結論 ………………………………………129
第二節 建議 ……………………………………………………133
參考文獻 …………………………………………………………136

表 次
表2-1 內部評鑑與外部評鑑之比較 ························································· 29
表2-2 歐洲各類高等教育評鑑機構數 ····················································· 32
表2-3 歐洲各國高等教育品質保證與認可機構及機制 ························· 34
表3-1 美國區域認可協會成立年代 ························································· 53
表3-2 美國區域性認可協會及其涵蓋州與地區······································· 62
表3-3 美國區域性認可協會下設主掌高等教育認可事務之單位··········· 63
表3-4 美國全國性認可機構 ····································································· 65
表3-5 獲聯邦教育部及CHEA許可之機構數量······································· 72
表3-6 獲聯邦教育部或CHEA許可之機構數量······································· 73
表4-1 NCA重要發展事記表 ···································································· 79
表4-2 NCA會員機構數量及其認可之現況·············································· 80
表4-3 NCA會員機構參與認可方案之現況·············································· 81
表4-4 1992年至1999年,以及2000年至今的宗旨與策略之比較 ······· 84
表4-5 1994年~2004年認可準則之彙整 ················································· 92
表4-6 2005年至今認可準則之彙整 ························································ 94
表4-7 兩階段認可準則之對照表 ····························································· 95
表4-8 兩階段內涵相符之參照效標 ························································· 96
表4-9 會員機構年度費用計算表 ····························································· 100
表4-10 2006年-2007年HLC實地訪視費用表············································ 101
表4-11 學術品質改善方案費用一覽表 ····················································· 101
表5-1 PEAQ認可方案實地訪視前之時間表 ·········································· 111
表5-2 PEAQ認可方案實地訪視與訪視後之時間表 ······························ 112
表5-3 PEAQ認可方案檢視專門小組審查時間表 ·································· 113
表5-4 PEAQ認可方案審查委員會審查時間表 ······································ 113
表5-5 AQIP認可方案準則以及檢視之重點與項目 ································ 123
表5-6 AQIP認可準則問題群組 ······························································· 125
表5-7 PEAQ與AQIP準則之對應····························································· 127
表5-8 PEAQ認可方案與AQIP認可方案之比較表 ································· 128

圖 次
圖1-1 研究架構圖 ····················································································· 7
圖2-1 評價與認可的差異 ········································································· 13
圖2-2 審核與評價的差異 ········································································· 13
圖2-3 認可、審核與評價運用之涵蓋 ······················································· 14
圖2-4 大學自我管制之評鑑模式 ····························································· 21
圖2-5 自我評鑑過程之詳細步驟流程圖··················································· 23
圖2-6 評鑑的目的與實施方式之關係 ···················································· 28
圖3-1 品質保證的責任三方 ····································································· 59
圖3-2 美國區域性協會認可機構數量及獲認可機構之學生註冊人數 64
圖3-3 美國全國性協會認可機構數量及獲認可機構之學生註冊人數 66
圖4-1 美國中北部校院協會組織圖 ························································· 85
圖4-2 高等學習委員會組織圖 ································································· 87
圖5-1 評鑑與提昇品質方案(PEAQ)實施及審查程序 ······················ 110
圖5-2 學術品質改善方案(AQIP)實施程序 ········································· 120
圖5-3 AQIP準則在過程導向的相互關係 ················································ 121

附 錄 次
附錄一 美國認可機構及其獲許可之狀況 ················································· 144
附錄二 NCA 1994年~2004年認可準則······················································ 148
附錄三 NCA 2005年至今認可準則····························································· 151
附錄四 相關重要名詞中英文對照表··························································· 157
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