淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1107200608510200
中文論文名稱 萊絲莉.瑪門.席爾柯《儀式》中的末世預言與拯救:美國原住民的智慧
英文論文名稱 Apocalypse and Salvation in Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony:the Wisdom of Native Americans
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 楊琇羽
研究生英文姓名 Hsiu-Yu, Yang
學號 692010076
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2005-06-22
論文頁數 109頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃逸民
委員-楊銘塗
委員-海柏
中文關鍵字 美國原住民  啓示預言  生態危機  環境種族歧視  在地性  傳統保存  互惠性  說書  口述傳統  拯救 
英文關鍵字 Native Americans  the Laguna Pueblo  apocalypticism  environmental crisis  environmental racism  locality  tradition maintenance  altruistic reciprocity  storytelling  oral narrative  salvation 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本論文是一趟從危機預示到拯救的旅程,旅程的一開始是以傳統基督教及席爾柯小說《儀式》中Laguna Pueblo民族的世界觀做對照,從而尋找該民族口述傳統故事裏極具啓示性的見解。首章,從創世紀,蜂鳥與蠅,及破壞者的故事當中,來搜尋發生在這個弱勢族群上的危機為何。在此章,巫師競賽的想像情境中全面毀滅的預言在主角Tayo看到鈾礦場時得到實踐,此內心的衝擊帶領Tayo與充滿智慧的口述傳統緊密結合。而Tayo的這項發現反映了他的民族正遭遇什麼樣的挑戰:資本主義社會及西方價值的入侵、生態毀滅、還是有更深沈的問題?

第二章我帶入Appadurai的『在地性』理論,來強調傳統文化的維持端賴三個重要的元素:在地主體、在地儀式、及社羣地。從這個觀點來看,我發展出以下對維繫少數民族在地性之理論:即同一社區中擁有共同信念的族人能有著緊密聯繫。將此理論帶入末章對Pueblo信仰的探討,吾人發現該族的傳統價值——互惠性及責任二者為我人類及弱勢族群之拯救之道。

第三章討論到小說中的魔性力量,吾人認為此具毀滅性的力量不僅存在於白人中,亦存在於Pueblo族人自身身上。在此章首,吾人點出美國政府善於操弄政治語彙以合理化其對弱勢族群及其它地區的人民不公義之做為,而此不公義的行徑早自數百年前歐裔美人所組成的聯邦政府對美國原住民居住區域的剝削巧取就已存在,如今美政府延續相似的態度來主導國際關係,進而引發其他政體及民族對其不滿及後續的報復、衝突、以及殺戮。此外,人性的自負亦為加速全面性毀滅的因子,如同Laguna Pueblo口述故事裏巫師競賽的情境;然而此駭人之想像已漸漸被實現,那人類該如何從全面性毀滅獲得拯救?

救贖之道,在於社群共同努力實踐傳統精神價值——互惠及和諧——才得以為永續生存找到出路。除此之外,面對新的時代及新的挑戰,弱勢族群及人類亦需發展出新的技術及思考來為文化及環境的延續創造更多機會,如同Pueblo的治療師Betonie為因應社會型態的改變,而對其治療族人的方式做更貼近現實的修正。末章,吾人從Betonie的行為、與Tayo的對話、及其思維中研析發展出拯救之道,即全體人類需認知到文化及環境的維繫端賴責任的共同承擔;不忽視及逃避資本主義及全球化的現實,永遠於面對挑戰之餘不忘遵循傳統精神價值。
英文摘要 This thesis is a sort of journey from apocalyptic vision of crisis to salvation. At the outset of the journey is the introduction of the juxtaposition of the concept of salvation, or the worldview, between traditional Christianity and Laguna Pueblo’s oral narratives in the context of Lelie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony. Then I start to search for the apocalyptic vision of the crisis revealed by the Pueblo’s story-poems in this novel. In Chapter One, imaginary scenario of total destruction in witchery contest culminates in Tayo’s discovery of uranium mining in Laguna land, a “monstrous design” of death and destruction, which firmly connects him to this imagination and proves the vision inside their story. What does this discovery reflect their challenge: the coming of a capitalistic society, Western values, ecocide, or something larger?
Chapter Two presents Appadurai’s theory of locality whose maintenance depends greatly on three critical elements: local subjects, rituals, and neighborhood. From this context, I have the following interpretation: a strong social bond among the tribespeople sharing with the same beliefs in the same community. Bringing the concepts from Chapter Four, I suggest that Pueblo’s belief is based on Thought Woman’s admonition, in which the concept of reciprocity and responsibility is pervasive in Betonie’s narrative.
Chapter Three discusses the witchery power, which resides not only in the whites but also in the Pueblos themselves. In this chapter, we see how the U.S. government manipulates the rhetoric in an attempt to convince peoples of their values, and these errors are still prevailing among today’s human and international relations. Increasing disillusionment out of distrust, and injustice could trigger more conflicts and hostility, bringing more turmoil and killings to human race. Besides, fallacy of human pride or egoism would accelerate the process of total destruction, to ecology as well as to all species. This imaginary scenario has been presented to readers in a fearful realization that these witchery powers are affecting this real world already. Apocalyptic vision is proved. So what is our redemption?
Salvation requires communal efforts to practice Thought Woman’s teaching of reciprocity and harmony. In addition to the ethical correction as a solution for our survival, we also need to develop the new approaches to meet the new challenges in this modern age. Throughout the whole novel, Betonie is not only Tayo’s mentor but also the messenger as Hummingbird to show a way of our salvation, and, survival. The medicine he gives to us is—taking responsibility, in the efforts of cultural preservation and reproduction, seeing the global reality but remembering out identity, and renewing the traditional methods but still keeping that traditional spirit.
論文目次 Table of Contents:
Introduction: Our “bible” 1
Chapter I: Apocalyptic Vision of the Future 14
Chapter II: Environmental Crisis to Environmental Racism 42
Chapter III: Gambler’s Tricks 62
Chapter IV: Salvation 85
Conclusion 101
Works Cited 106
參考文獻 Works Cited:
Adamson, Joni. American Indian Literature, Environmental Justice, and Ecocriticism: the Modern Place. Tuscon: Arizona UP, 2001.
Allen, Paula Gunn. The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the Feminine in American Indian Traditions. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.
Appadurai, Arjun. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, 1996.
Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2002.
Beider, Peter G. “Animals and Theme in Ceremony”, in Allan Chavkin ed., Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony: A CaseBook (New York, 2002), p.17-22.
Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Braunthal, Alfred. Salvation and the Perfect Society: The Eternal Quest. Amherst: Massachusetts UP, 1979
Bruchac, Joseph. Roots of Survival: Native American Storytelling and the Sacred. Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 1996.
Buell, Frederick. From Apocalypse to Way of life: Environmental Crisis in the American Century. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Buell, Lawrence. Environmental Imagination: Thoreau, Nature Writing and the Formation of American Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1995.
Calloway, Colin G., ed. The World Turned Upside Down. Boston: Bedford Books, 1994.
Chavkin, Allan, ed. Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony: A CaseBook. New York: Oxford UP, 2002.
the Economist.2005. “Water, bird and man.” The Economist 377.8447 (Oct. 8th-14th): 29-32.
Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne Ehrlich. One with Nineveh. New York: Island Press, 2004.
Garrard, Gred. Ecocriticism. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Hinnebusch, Paul, O.P. Salvation History and the Religious Life. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1966
Hofrichter, Richard, ed. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1993.
LaDuke, Winona. “A Society Based on Conquest Cannot Be Sustained,” in Richard Hofrichter, ed., Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice. (Philadelphia, 1993), p.98-106.
Lefever, Ernest W., ed. The Apocalyptic premise: nuclear arms debated : thirty-one essays by statesmen, scholars, religious leaders, and journalists. Washington: Ethics and Public Policy Center,1982.
Owens, Louis. “The Very Essence of Our Lives,” in Allan Chavkin ed., Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony: A CaseBook (New York, 2002), p.91-116.
Nabokov, Peter, ed. Native American Testimony: Chronicle Indian White Relations from Prophecy Present 1942 2000 (rev Edition). New York: Penguin, 1992.
Nye, Joseph. “Propaganda Isn't the Way: Soft Power.” 2003. [http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/news/opeds/2003/nye_soft_power_iht_011003.htm] April 23, 2005
Ortiz, Simon J., ed. Speaking for the Generations. Tucson: Arizona UP, 1998.
Prestowitz, Clyde. Rogue Nation: American Unilateralism and the Failure of Good Intentions. New York: Basic Books, 2003.
Ramirez, Susan Berry Brill. Contemporary American Indian Literatures and the Oral Tradition. Tuscon: Arizona UP, 1999.
Rosendale, Steven, ed. The Greening of Literary Scholarship. Iowa: Iowa UP, 2002.
Salyer, Gregory. Leslie Marmon Silko. New York: Twayne Punlishers, 1997.
Schorcht, Blanca. Storied Voices in Native American Texts. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Seager, Joni. “Creating a Culture of Destruction,” in Richard Hofrichter ed., Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice (Philadelphia, 1993), p.58-66.
Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Viking Press, 1977.
——. “Landscape, History, and the Pueblo Imagination.” in Karen Knowles ed., Celebrating the Land: Women’s Nature Writings, 1850-1991 (Cadillac, 1992).
Smith, Sherry L. Reimagining Indians/Native Americans through Anglo eyes, 1880-1940. New York: Oxford, 2000.
Stein, Rachel. Shifting the Ground: American Women Writers’ Revisions of Nature, Gender, and Race. Virginia: Virginia UP, 1997.
Tinker, George E. “An American Indian Theological Response to Ecojustice” in Jace Weaver ed., Defending Mother Earth (New York, 1996), p.153-177.
Walker, Cheryl. Indian Nation. Chapel Hall: Duke UP, 1997.
Weaver, Jace. Defending Mother Earth: Native American Perspectives on Environmental Justice. New York: Orbis Books, 1996.
Wenz, Peter S. “Just Garbage,” in Laura Westra and Bill E. Lawson ed., Faces of Environmental Racism: Confronting Issues of Global Justice (Boston: 2001), p.57-71.
Westra, Laura, and Bill E. Lawson, ed. Faces of Environmental Racism: Confronting Issues of Global Justice. Boston: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2001.
Wolfley, Jeanette. “Ecological Risk Assessment and Management,” in Duane Champagne ed., Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues (Walnut Creek, 1999), p. 293-306.
Wu, Angela Yen-tzu. 2002. “A Collective History within a Single Story: A Mythological Reading of Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony” MA Thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Yang, Kevin. 2005. “Storytellers and the Native American Community in Leslie Marmon Silko’s Almanac of the Dead” MA Thesis, Providence University.


論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2006-07-13公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2006-07-13起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信