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系統識別號 U0002-1107200514393400
中文論文名稱 分析和研製以Linux作業系統為基礎之IEEE 802.16 WiMAX系統架構和軟體模擬實體層
英文論文名稱 Analysis and Implementation of IEEE 802.16 WiMAX System Architecture on Linux Operating System and Software Physical Layer
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 黃啟豪
研究生英文姓名 Chi-Hao Huang
學號 692390015
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-06-15
論文頁數 81頁
口試委員 指導教授-許獻聰
委員-徐武孝
委員-許獻聰
委員-陳仁輝
委員-李揚漢
中文關鍵字 IEEE 802.16  WiMAX  無線網路  Linux 
英文關鍵字 IEEE 802.16 WiMAX  Linux Operating System  Linux Device Driver 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 在行動電信業者投注鉅資以建置第三代(3G)行動通訊網路之際,電腦工業卻推出了另一種無線寬頻之技術:「WiMax」(Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)技術,別稱IEEE 802.16 通訊技術。這是一種強大的無線通訊技術以提供使用者能快速且自由的進行無線資料通訊服務,而此技術亦可望成為未來家庭寬頻上網的「最後一哩」(Last Mile)之解決方案。以替代數位用戶迴路(DSL)技術的802.16a 為例,其理論傳輸距離約為50 公里且傳輸速率約為75Mbps;而針對行動裝置的802.16e 為例,其理論傳輸距離約在2-5 公里且傳輸速率約為15Mbps。由於無線網路的基礎建設架設成本比有線為低,故WiMAX 可被視為DSL 及纜線等有線寬頻的便宜替代方案。另一方面,雖然3G 行動通訊網路的資料傳輸速率比目前的行動電話網路為快,但卻比WiMax 網路慢了30 倍且其無線電的涵蓋面積亦比WiMax 小約10倍。因此,建置WiMax 網路業者所需之基地台數目亦比較少,而且在WiMax技術中部分頻帶還可以免費使用。
目前全球67 家WiMAX 論壇之會員公司都正以WiMax 的名稱在推動這項標準。半導體巨人英特爾公司正大力支持,而芬蘭行動電話及網路供應商諾基亞公司(Nokia)也支持這種技術標準。英特爾開始把WiMax 技術納入英特爾的晶片平台中,並預計在今年下半年開始推出WiMax 晶片。MIC 分析師預估,至2008 年將有25%的筆記型電腦內建這種無線網路技術。而Nemcek 相信,在三、四年之內消費者即可享受WiMax 所帶來之便利,到2007年或2008 年,WiMax 市場可望起飛。
本論文「分析和研製以Linux 作業系統為基礎之IEEE 802.16 WiMAX系統架構」為實現WiMax 無線寬頻網路在Linux 上所進行之分析與研製。系統分析方面,先針對802.16 系列之協定規格作了初步的研讀,然後去規劃符合Linux 作業系統的系統架構。系統研製方面,先利用PC 進行系統架構之開發,之後以利WiMAX 在Linux 作業系統上驅動程式的撰寫。此系統規劃也會一併考慮更有效率之方式進行程式移植與開發之工作。此外在Linux 上開發的媒體存取控制通訊協定,並無法拿到真正的實體層實際去做。所以提出使用以乙太網路為實體層在x86 電腦上面做測試。但是因為乙太網路不能真正的模擬出無線網路實體層之特性,所以在此提出研製SoftPHY 作為模擬出無線網路實體層之特性。
英文摘要 During the system providers of mobile communication investing much money to deploy 3G mobile communication networks, computer industry proposes another wireless communication technology: WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) technique, which is also called as IEEE 802.16 communication technology. It is a strong wireless communication technology to provide users being able to quickly and arbitrarily use wireless data communication services, and this technique also has the potential to be a last mile solution of broadband home network connecting to Internet in future. In the example of 802.16a using instead of DSL technique, the theoretical value of transmission range is about 50km and the transmission rate can be up to 75Mbps. In the example of 802.16e using for mobile equipments, the theoretical value of transmission range is about 2-5km and the transmission rate can be up to 15Mbps. Owing to the cost of wireless network infrastructure is lower than that of wire network infrastructure, WiMAX can be regarded as a cheap substitutive scheme of DSL and other broadband wire networks. On the other hand, although the data transmission rate of 3G mobile communication network is faster than the currently mobile telecom network, it is still slower 30 times than that of WiMAX network, and its radio range is also smaller 10 times than that of WiMAX. Therefore, the required number of base station of WiMAX network is fewer than that of 3G mobile communication network, moreover, some parts of frequency bands defined in WiMAX are license-exempt.
Present there are 67 member companies of WiMAX Forum in the world using the name of WiMAX to push the standard. The semiconductor giant-Intel corp. fully supports the technique, and the mobile phone and network provider-Nokia
corp. also supports this technique standard. Intel corp. begins to include WiMAX technique in its chip platform, and plans to sell the WiMAX chip in the next half year. The analysts of MIC predict that there will be 25% notebooks installed this sort of wireless technique till 2008. Nemcek believes that consumers will get the convenience brought from WiMAX in 3 or 4 years, and the market of WiMAX will grow in 2007 or 2008.
In this thesis” Analysis and Implementation of IEEE 802.16 WiMAX System Software Architecture on Linux Operating System” is to analyze and implement WiMAX wireless system on Linux operating system. For system analyzing, study the standard speciation of IEEE 802.16 series at first, then start to design software architecture for Linux system. For system implementation, use standard PC for software implementation, and then for others to follow the system architecture to implement Linux Device Driver for WiMAX. The system architecture will also consider the efficiency of porting and development of the embedded system. Also implement Software Emulate Physical Layer to verity the Linux Device Driver for
WiMAX.
論文目次 目錄索引
中文摘要................................................ I
英文摘要................................................II
目錄索引................................................IV
圖表目錄................................................VI
第一章 緒論.............................................1
1.1 前言..............................................1
1.2 研究動機..........................................6
1.3 論文架構..........................................6
第二章 IEEE802.16 無線網路簡介..........................7
2.1 引言..............................................7
2.2 WiMAX 系統架構....................................10
第三章 Linux 作業系統簡介................................27
3.1 Linux 系統架構....................................27
3.2 Linux 網路驅動程式................................30
第四章 WiMax Linux 系統之規劃...........................42
4.1 實體層驅動程式...................................42
4.2 媒體存取控制驅動程式.............................45
第五章 SoftPHY 模組之設計...............................65
5.1 前言.............................................65
5.2 方法.............................................68
5.3 實作與結果.......................................75
第六章 結論與未來方向...................................77
6.1 結論.............................................77
6.2 未來方向.........................................77
參考資料................................................79
圖目錄
圖1.1、全球無線網路的發展規格................................2
圖1.2、IEEE 802.16 標準所推出的解決方案將符合各式各樣的寬頻接取需求
.........................................................2
圖1.3、IEEE 802.16 設計架構...................................4
圖1.4、IEEE 802.16 連結IEEE 802.11 無線區域網路與商業熱點的解決方案
.........................................................5
圖1.5、IEEE 802.16 標準與建置技術的演進.........................5
圖2.1、IEEE 802.16 媒體存取控制層之主要層級細分方式..............13
圖2.2、以下載方向為例之連線代碼 (CID) 搜尋對應示意圖.............16
圖2.3、連線過程之服務種類範圍.................................16
圖2.4、資料檔頭壓縮之步驟..................................17
圖2.5、用戶端連線初始化之步驟流程............................19
圖2.6、用戶端向DHCP 伺服器索取IP 之步驟.......................20
圖2.7、用戶端連線初始化之步驟.................................23
圖2.8、用戶端向時間伺服器校準時間之步驟........................23
圖2.9、一般資料檔頭與頻寬請求檔頭之格式........................26
圖3.1、Linux 架構圖..........................................27
圖3.2、Linux 系統圖..........................................31
圖3.3、Linux 軟體架構.........................................31
圖3.4、驅動程式架構..........................................33
圖4.1、WiMAX Linux 驅動程式架構、系統架構和標準之架構的關係......41
圖4.2、資料處理流程..........................................45
圖4.3、媒體存取控制層分割區塊.................................46
圖4.4、WiMax 在Linux 上的模組架構.............................47
圖4.5、集中式機制...........................................49
圖4.6、用戶端 (SS) 的驅動程式區塊 (灰點部分) ....................50
圖4.7、用戶端(SS) Air Management 運作流程圖.......................50
圖4.8、用戶端(SS) 資料初始與環境設定........................... 51
圖4.9、初始化流程...........................................52
圖4.10、用戶端 SS Air Management 接收PDU 處理流程................54
圖4.11、SS 用戶端傳送程序.....................................55
圖4.12、用戶端的Linux 驅動程式架構.............................57
圖4.13、基地台 (BS) 的驅動程式區塊 (灰點部分) ...................58
圖4.14、基地台(BS) Air Management 運作流程圖.....................59
圖4.15、基地台(BS) 資料初始與環境設定..........................59
圖4.16、基地台 BS Air Management 接收PDU 處理流程...............61
圖4.17、動態服務流程概括圖....................................63
圖4.18、用戶端的Linux 驅動程式架構.............................64
圖5.1、TDD 模式下的DL-MAP 以及UL-MAP 影響時間點為下次訊框之示意圖
.........................................................65
圖5.2、FDD 模式下的DL-MAP 以及UL-MAP 影響時間點為下次訊框之示意圖
.........................................................66
圖5.3、TDD 模式下的DL-MAP 以及UL-MAP 影響時間點為此次訊框之示意圖
.........................................................67
圖5.4、FDD 模式下的DL-MAP 以及UL-MAP 影響時間點為此次訊框之示意圖
.........................................................67
圖5.5、由競爭週期與免競爭週期所組成之上傳週期...................68
圖5.6、OFDM 對應到SoftPHY 和SoftPHY Header....................69
圖5.7、用戶端上傳資料到基地台時發生的碰撞情況...................70
圖5.8、基地台接收Symbol 流程和架構圖...........................72
圖5.9、基地台傳送Symbol 流程和架構圖...........................74
圖5.10、基地台傳送Symbol 流程和架構圖..........................75
圖5.11、SoftPHY Contention Period Size 和Collision Rate.................76
表目錄
表1.1、IEEE 802.16 的相關標準..................................5
表2.1、IEEE 802.16 及其延伸規格之實體層特性整理表................13
參考文獻 [1] William A. Arbaugh, “ Wired on Wireless,” IEEE Security and Privacy Magazine, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 26—27, May-June 2004.
[2] Intel, “The Wireless City,” Intel White Paper, December, 2003. available at www.intel.com/business/bss/industry/government/wireless_city.pdf>
[3] Carl Eklund et al.,” IEEE Standard 802.16: A Technical Overview of the WirelessMAN. Air Interface for Broadband Wireless Access,”IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 98-107, June
2002.
[4] Intel, “IEEE 802.16 and WiMAX,” Intel White Paper, July 1, 2003. available at www.intel.com/business/bss/infrastructure/wireless/80216_wimax.pdf>
[5] Lonnie McAlister, “發揮WiMAX 的極致效能,” 通訊雜誌, pp.24-32, November 2004.
[6] Lonnie McAlister, “全球互通的寬頻無線網路,” 通訊雜誌, pp.32-36, January 2005.
[7] IEEE, “IEEE Std. 802.16-2001: IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks — Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems,” IEEE Std 802.16, April 8, 2002.
[8] IEEE, “IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems,”IEEE Std 802.16, October 1, 2004.
[9] IEEE, “IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks ---Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems---Amendment 2: Medium Access Control Modifications and Additional Physical Layer Specifications for 2-11 GHz,” IEEE Std 802.16, April
1, 2003.
[10] Bernard Fong et al.,” On the Scalability of Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Network Deployment,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol.42, no. 9, pp. S12-S18, September 2004.
[11] Ed Agis et al., “Global, Interoperable Broadband Wireless Networks: Extending WiMAX Technology to Mobility ,” Intel Technology Journal, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 173-188, August 20, 2004.
[12] Intel, “Understanding Wi-Fi and WiMAX as Metro-Access
Solutions,” Intel White Paper, October 2004. available at www.intel.com/netcomms/technologies/wimax/304471.pdf>
[13] Govindan Nair et al., “IEEE 802.16 Medium Access Control and Service Provisioning,” vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 213-228, August 20, 2004.
[14] Hassan Yaghoobi, “Scalable OFDMA Physical Layer in IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN,” vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 201-212, August 20, 2004.
[15] IEEE P802.16a/D3-2001: “Draft Amendment to IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks — Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Wireless Access Systems — Medium Access Control Modifications and Additional Physical Layers Specifications for 2–11GHz,” Mar. 25, 2002.
[16] IETF RFC 2459, “Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and CRL Profile,” R. Housley, W. Ford, W. Polk, D. Solo, January 1999.
[17] IETF RFC 2131, “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol,” R. Droms, March 1997.
[18] IETF RFC 868, “Time Protocol,” J. Postel, K. Harrenstien, May 1983.
[19] IETF RFC 2349, “TFTP Timeout Interval and Transfer Size Options,” G. Malkin and A. Harkin, May 1998.
[20] Robert Love, Linux Kernel Development, Sams Publishing 2004
[21] Klaus Wehrle,Frank Pählke,Hartmut Ritter, Daniel Müller, Marc
Bechler, The Linux Networking Architecture, Prentice Hall
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