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系統識別號 U0002-1107200511222500
中文論文名稱 無線感測網路中基於點對點傳輸協定之搜尋協定
英文論文名稱 The Peer-to-Peer discovery protocol for wireless sensor networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 賴家偉
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Wei Lai
學號 692390023
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-06-15
論文頁數 56頁
口試委員 指導教授-許獻聰
委員-許獻聰
委員-陳仁暉
委員-李揚漢
委員-徐武孝
中文關鍵字 無線感測網路  點對點傳輸技術  按需式向量路由協定 
英文關鍵字 Wireless Sensor Networks  Peer-to-Peer (P2P)  Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (AODV) 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 目前無線通訊和電子技術的發展,已經有能力做出體積小、低成本、低耗電、可作短距離傳輸的多功能無線感測網路節點,且每個節點皆具有感測、運算和通訊的功能。因此,無線感測網路的應用範圍將非常廣泛,例如:軍事、醫療、防災……等等;而針對不同之用途,僅須更換感測裝置和適度調整通訊模式便可達成目的。在軍事偵測用途方面,其可以快速佈建網路和容錯能力以利軍事監控和目標定位。醫療方面,醫師可以藉特製的無線感測網路節點放在病人的適當位置,以了解病情;其它方面如:對特定區域佈建無線感測網路,以利倉儲盤點、貨物品管、監控災害的防治等等。因此,相信在不久的將來,我們一定可以看到無線感測網路的大量應用。無線感測網路必須要考量的設計重點如:容錯性、可延展性、價格、硬體、拓撲型態、工作環境、省電等等;其有別於傳統無線網路之型態,所以勢必要再加以研究開發出其適合的軟硬體架構、通訊協定、應用程式…等。
一般無線感測網路在感測資料收集之後只是將資料傳回收集點自身並不多做判斷資料的動作,資料匯集中心便是基地台。在分散式自主性無線感測網路中有各種能力與感測性質不一的無線感測網路節點,在無基地台的環境中要取得網路環境資訊以及與其他節點交換訊息難度相對提高。在未明白網路拓撲的情況下使用搜尋方法找到節點的路徑因為實際網路輸入/輸出暫存器的大小等等影響,所以並不一定是最佳路徑,所以我們在搜尋目標時會重新建立一條路徑回去以保障雙向路徑都是最佳路徑,並且讓節點之前以點對點的方式通訊,每個節點都可以扮演基地台的角色,可以避免因為基地台發生錯誤而導致整個網路無法動彈的情況發生。
英文摘要 Recent advances in wireless communications and electronics have enabled the development of low cost, low power, and multifunctional sensor nodes that are small in size and communication untethered in short distances. These tiny sensor nodes, which consist of sensing, data processing, and communicating components, leverage the idea of wireless sensor networks. The sensor networks can be used for various application areas, e.g., health, military, and home. In military, for example, the rapid deployment, self-organization, and fault tolerance characteristics make them a very promising sensing technique for surveillance, reconnaissance, and targeting systems. In health, sensor nodes can also be deployed to monitor patients. Some other commercial applications include managing inventory, monitoring product quality, and monitoring disaster areas. In the future, this wide range of application areas will make wireless sensor networks to be integral parts of our lives. Realization of wireless sensor networks needs to satisfy the constraints introduced by factors such as fault tolerance, scalability, cost, hardware, topology change, environment, and power consumption.
Since above constraints are highly stringent and specific, new wireless ad hocnetworking techniques are required, e.g., the hardware and software architectures, communication protocols, application programs, etc. Our focus is not on the mechanical aspects of mobile sensor nodes – the sensor, power, motor, and wheels, etc. Instead, this integrated project focuses on designing and implementing the ADC/DAC circuit, baseband circuit, communication MAC protocols, routing strategies, embedded system, and so on, that are the core technologies of the wireless sensor network system.
When sensor nodes collect sensing data, they will send data to the sink node and don’t judge the data in Wireless Sensor Networks. All of the sensing data will send to Base Station (BS). It’s difficult to obtain the network information and exchange messages with other nodes in distributed self-origination Wireless Sensor Networks. People often use search or routing protocol to find nodes and paths. When we understand the network topology, the paths may not be the best paths. To solving this problem, the node which is found will rebuild a new path to the original node. After the path set up, the nodes use Peer-to-Peer method to communication. Every node can play the role of BS. It can avoid BS crashing.


論文目次 目錄索引
中文摘要.....................................................................................................I
英文摘要...................................................................................................II
目錄索引..................................................................................................IV
圖目錄.....................................................................................................VII
表目錄......................................................................................................IX



第一章 緒論
1.1 前言..............................................................................................1
1.2 研究動機......................................................................................2
1.3 論文架構......................................................................................2

第二章 無線感測網路介紹
2.1 引言..............................................................................................3
2.2 無線感測器網路架構..................................................................5
2.3 無線感測器網路通訊協定簡介................................................10

第三章 點對點傳輸技術介紹
3.1簡介..............................................................................................16
3.2點對點傳輸技術..........................................................................17
3.2.1點對點傳輸技術的應用....................................................17
3.2.2點對點傳輸技術介紹........................................................18

第四章 無線網路路由技術介紹
4.1前言..............................................................................................27
4.2無線網路路由概敘......................................................................28
4.2.1表格驅動路由協定............................................................29
4.2.2需求式路由協定................................................................30
4.3按需式距離向量路由協定..........................................................31
4.3.1 AODV概要.......................................................................31
4.3.2路由探索............................................................................32
4.3.3路徑維護...........................................................................33
4.3.1.1Hello Message..........................................................34
4.3.3.2路徑錯誤訊息.........................................................34

第五章 無線感測網路中基於點對點傳輸協定之搜尋協定
5.1 前言............................................................................................36
5.2基本假設.......................................................................................36
5.3網路路由協定..............................................................................37
5.4基於點對點傳輸協定之搜尋機制..............................................38
5.4.1搜尋機制概敘....................................................................38
5.4.2網路動作管理機制............................................................42
5.4.3最佳路徑選擇....................................................................47

第六章 模擬環境與結果
6.1模擬環境......................................................................................50
6.2模擬結果.....................................................................................50

第七章 結論與未來方向
7.1結論..............................................................................................53
7.2未來方向......................................................................................53



圖目錄
圖2.1 無基礎架構的無線區域網路…………………………………..3
圖2.2 有基礎架構的無線區域網路………………………..…………4
圖2.3 無線感測網路環境... ………………………..…………………7
圖2.4 感測器的架構... ………………………..………………….……8
圖2.5 無線感測網路通訊協定架構…………..………………………8
圖3.1 Ping/Pong路由………………………...………………………21
圖3.2 Query/QueryHit/Push 路由..…………………………………..21
圖3.3 無中央控制點對點傳輸技術Gnutella模型..…………………21
圖3.4 典型的Freenet詢問次序模型.…………………………….…24
圖5.1 來源節點偵測超過臨界值送出RREQ…………………….…39
圖5.2 發現符合要求的目標節點…………………….………………40
圖5.3 節點收到RREQ後動作流程圖…………….…………………41
圖5.4 目標節點送RREQ建立路徑……………….…………………41
圖5.5 節點狀態圖……………….……………………………………42
圖5.6 路徑建立及資料傳送過程………………………….…………46
圖5.7 新節點欲取得相同感測資訊過程………………….…………47
圖5.8 最佳化演算法流程圖……………………………………………48
圖5.9 網路中已建立好之路徑……………………….………...……49
圖5.10 最佳化匯集後之路徑……………………………………………49
圖6.1 RREQ與RREP封包數量………………………………………51
圖6.2 使用總封包數量…………………………………………………52
圖6.3 建立路徑平均Hop Count………………………..………………52




表目錄
表2.1 目前國外各大知名大學研究所已開始研究的領域和網址......3
表2.2 IEEE 802.15.4的基本規格………..………………………..…12
表3.1 Guntella訊息說明………………..……………………………21
表5.1 RREQ封包格式………………..……………………………...37
表5.1 RREP封包格式………………..……………………………...38
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[2] IEEE 802.11 Working Group, “Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications,” ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.11b, Nov. 2001.

[3] IEEE 802.11 Working Group, “Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications,” ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.11a, Dec. 1999.

[4] The Bluetooth Special Interest Group, “Bluetooth Specification Version 1.1,” http://www.bluetooth.com, Feb. 2001.

[5] HomeRF Working Group , http:// www.homerf.org/meminfo

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[7] Ian F. Akyildiz et al., “A Survey on Sensor Networks,” IEEE Communication Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8 , pp. 102-114, Aug 2002.

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[10] J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz, and K. S. J. Pister, “Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for Smart Dust,” Proc. ACM MobiCom ’99,
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[11] W. R. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H. Balakrishnan, “Adaptive Protocols for Information Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom ’99, Seattle, WA, 1999, pp. 174–85.

[12] W. Su and I. F. Akyildiz, “A Stream Enabled Routing SER) Protocol for Sensor Networks,” to appear, Medhoc-Net 2002, Sardegna, Italy, Sept. 2002.

[13] E. Shih et al., “Physical Layer Driven Protocol and Algorithm Design for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom’01, Rome, Italy, July 2001, pp. 272–86.

[14] W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” IEEE Proc. Hawaii Int’l. Conf. Sys. Sci., Jan. 2000, pp. 1–10.

[15] Bulusu et al., ”Scalable Coordination for Wireless Sensor Networks: Self-Configuring Localization Systems,” ISCTA 2001, Ambleside, U.K., July 2001.

[16] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, “Directed Diffusion: A Scalable and Robust Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom ’00, Boston, MA, 2000, pp. 56–67.

[17] J. M. Rabaey et al., “PicoRadio Supports Ad Hoc Ultra-Low Power Wireless Networking,” IEEE Comp. Mag., 2000, pp. 42–48.

[18] Roy Friedman, “Distributed Systems 236351,” Computer Science Technion, http://webcourse.technion.ac.il/236351/, Winter 2002-2003.

[19] Roy Friedman et al., “Scalable Stability Detection Using Logical Hypercube,” IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, pp. 18-21, Oct. 1999.

[20] Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, ”Draft Standard for Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control Layer (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs),” Draft P802.15.4/D18, Feb. 2003.

[21] Clip2, “The Gnutella Protocol Specification v0.4,” available at

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[24] H. Zhang; A. Goel; R. Govindan; “Incrementally improving lookup latency in distributed hash table systems,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS’03, San Diego, Ca, USA, June 10–14, 2003, pp. 114-125.

[25] S. Ratnasamy; P. Francis; M. Handley; R. Karp; S. Schenker; “A Scalable Content-Addressable Network,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM’01, San Diego, California, USA, August 27-31, 2001, pp. 161-172.

[26] I. Stoica et al., “Chord: a scalable peer-to-peer lookup protocol for internet applications,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol.1, No. 1, February, 2003.

[27] C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, “Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing,” IETF RFC 3561, July 2003.

[28] S.-T. Sheu, H.-C. Yin, Y.-T. Hung and C.-H. Wu, “移動式之智慧型自主性感測器網路”, 海峽兩岸資訊〈信息〉技術研討會, 桃園, Nov. 2003, pp.408-412.
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