||An Analysis of the Dynamics of Green Hotel in Taiwan
||Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
theory of planed behavior
Important-performance analysis (IPA)
||The tourism industry has long been regarded as an important non-chimney industry. In any case of the travel itinerary which is longer than one day, lodging arrangement will be needed. Although travelers can bring some business opportunities for the tourism industry, the hotels where they stay may also have some negative impacts on the natural environment.
With the rising consumers’ awareness on environment protection, more and more corporations have begun to pay more attention to environmental protection of their marketing activities. The increased environmental awareness is poised to have a significant influence on green hotels. However, few researchers have focused on hotel customers’ decision-making processes when selecting a green hotel. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation is to test the applicability of our modified TPB model (integrated altruism and past behavior) in explaining hotel customers’ intention formation to stay at a green hotel. The findings show that original TPB variables, altruism, and past behavior all positively affect customer intention to stay at a green hotel. Our modified TPB model was also deemed a good fit model in the research.
In this study, we also applied the importance-performance analysis (IPA) of the green hotel certification’s indicators from the hoteliers. We identified improvement opportunities so as to guide strategic planning efforts for the hotel industry. The results and findings of this dissertation showed the attributes of hotel green management, energy and water conservation, and disposable product and waste reduction are located at the highly important and where the hoteliers self-reported actual perform relatively well. The results of IPA of the green hotel seal checklist criterions indicate the hotel industry should not only focus the sustainable activities aimed at economic profit and sustain operations that regulated by the law but also the sustain activities that promote the development of the sustainability.
As the results, it will help the hoteliers understand the travelers’ cognition and lodging behavior on green hotels, which will assist to develop effective green marketing strategies and promote sustainable tourism industry.
TABLE CONTENTS I
LIST FIGURES III
LIST OF TABLES IV
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Research Questions and Objectives Of The Study 7
1.3 Significance of the Study 9
1.4 Organization of the Study 11
1.5 Definition of Terms 11
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 13
2.1 Green Hotel 13
2.2 TRA and TPB 14
2.3 Altruism 18
2.4 Past Behavior 19
2.5 Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) 20
2.6 Conceptual Framework of the Study 21
2.6.1 Effects of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on behavioral intention 21
2.6.2 Relationship between altruism and behavioral intention 22
2.6.3 Relationship between altruism and attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control 23
2.6.4 Relationship between past behavior and behavioral intention 24
2.6.6 Mediating effect of the TPB variables on past behavior and behavioral intention 25
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 27
3.1 Research Design 27
3.2 Data Analysis Method 30
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND FINDINGS 34
4.1 Results and Findings of Consumers’ Perspective 34
4.2 Results of Exploratory Factor Analysis 35
4.3 Results of Model I (the hypothesized integrated altruism and TPB model) 38
4.4 Results of Model II (the hypothesized integrated past behavior and TPB model) 42
4.5 Results of the Integrated Framework for Predicting the Intention of Patronage the Green Hotel 49
4.6 Results of the IPA Analysis of Hoteliers toward Green Hotel Seal Checklist Criterions 53
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION 62
5.1 Discussion of Finding 62
5.2 Management Implication 66
5.3 Limitation of the Study and Possible Direction for Future Research 68
Appendix A: Questionnaire of Behavior Intention to Green Hotel of Consumers 81
Appendix B: Hoteliers Survey toward Green Hotel 85
Figure 1.1 Statistics of Foreign Visitor to Taiwan (2003-2012, blue line) Tourism Bureau, Republic of China (2013). Retrieved February 8, 2013, from http://admin.taiwan.net.tw/public/public.aspx?no=315. 3
Figure 2.1 Schematic presentation of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985). 15
Figure 2.2 Schwartz’s model of altruistic behavior (Hopper & Nielsen). 19
Figure 2.3 The integrated framework for predicting the intention of patronage of the green hotel 21
Figure 2.4 The Hypothesized Integrated Altruism and TPB Model (Model I). 26
Figure 2.5 The Hypothesis Integrated Past Behavior and TPB Model (Model II). 26
Figure 3.1 Importance-performance matrix (Martilla & James, 1977). 33
Figure 4.1 The hypothesized integrated altruism and TPB model (Model I). 41
Figure 4.2 The hypothesized integrated past behavior and TPB model (Model II). 46
Figure 4.3 Mediating effect of Model II. 48
Figure 4.3 The hypothesized of integrated framework for predicting the intention of patronage the green hotel. 52
Figure 4.3 Items of importance-performance analysis grid. 59
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 Average daily expenditures per visitor in 2011. 2
Table 3.1 SEM recommend index &value. 32
Table 4.1 Frequency and percentage of the demographic. 34
Table 4.2 Factor analysis of attitude. 35
Table 4.3 Factor of subjective norms. 36
Table 4.4 Factor of perceived behavior control. 36
Table 4.5 Factor of behavior intention. 37
Table 4.6 Factor of past behavior. 37
Table 4.8 Reliability and validity of each variable of Model I. 39
Table 4.9 Discriminate validity of measurement of Model I. 40
Table 4.10 Recommended and actual values of fit indices of Model I. 40
Table 4.11 Results from the hypothesis testing of Model I. 41
Table 4.12 Correlation among demographics, past behavior, and TPB variables. 43
Table 4.13 Reliability and validity of each variable of Model I. 44
Table 4.14 Discriminate validity of measurement of Model II. 45
Table 4.15 Recommended and actual values of fit indices of Model II. 45
Table 4.16 Results from the hypothesis testing of Model II. 46
Table 4.17 Reliability and validity of each variable of the integrated framework for predicting the intention of patronage the green hotel. 50
Table 4.18 Discriminate validity of measurement of the integrated framework for predicting the intention of patronage the green hotel. 51
Table 4.19 Recommended and actual values of model the fit indices of the integrated framework for predicting the intention of patronage the green hotel. 51
Table 4.20 Results from the hypothesis testing of integrated framework for predicting the intention of patronage the green hotel. 52
Table 4.21 Frequency and percentage of the hotels’ background. 54
Table 4.22 Construct reliability toward the green hotel checklist criterion to hoteliers. 55
Table 4.23 Importance and performance ratings of green seal checklist criterion to hoteliers. 55
Table 4.24 Results of Paired t-tests. 61
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