淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1106201200095200
中文論文名稱 代言人吸引力、代言人專業度與贊助商形象對口碑效益之影響-以2010台北國際花卉博覽會為例
英文論文名稱 The effects of endorser attractiveness, endorser expertise and sponsor image on customer WOM: A case study of 2010 Taipei International Flora Exposition
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master’s Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 徐瑋鴻
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Hung Hsu
學號 699620109
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-05-21
論文頁數 86頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳水蓮
委員-康信鴻
委員-李培齊
中文關鍵字 代言人吸引力  代言人專業度  贊助商形象  口碑 
英文關鍵字 Endorser attractiveness  Endorser expertise  Sponsor image  WOM 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來,企業為提升媒體的高曝光率,相繼以活動贊助強調企業形象、知名度與消費者的品牌忠誠度。然而,企業所贊助之各項活動,也需吸引大眾的目光與支持,以提升活動能見度與推廣目的。因此,使用活動代言人之風氣,也隨之盛行,以提高消費者的參與意願,使活動宗旨與目的有效推廣。然而,過去有關贊助商與代言人之相關研究文獻,大部份以運動賽事與品牌為研究對象,鮮少與其他大型活動或博覽會作連結研究。因此,本研究欲了解活動贊助商形象、代言人專業度與代言人吸引力對於消費者大眾是否對態度與口碑有顯著影響,並結合時事,與台北國際花卉博覽會作研究連結。綜上所述,本研究為探討贊助商形象、代言人專業度與代言人吸引力是否對顧客信任與配適度之影響,進而影響口碑與態度之間的關聯性研究。
本研究委託市調公司以網路問卷形式進行問卷發放,以曾經入園參觀過台北國際花卉博覽會之遊客為研究對象,回收之有效樣本共計為538份,以AMOS17.0統計軟體進行相關信、效度分析,並以結構方程式進行假設檢定。實證結果如下:一、贊助商形象、代言人吸引力與代言人專業度對顧客信任及配適度皆具有顯著正向影響;二、顧客信任及配適度皆對口碑、態度均具有顯著正向影響;三、態度對口碑具有正向影響;四、贊助商形象、代言人專業度與代言人吸引力可直接與間接影響態度與顧客口碑。最後,本研究綜合研究結果提出管理與理論意涵,並對後續研究者提出建議,提供評估活動贊助與代言效益之企業實務與學術研究者作為未來參考。
英文摘要 The increasing sponsorship and endorser trend in promotion enhances consumer involvement. However, literature exploring the sponsorship and endorsement of tourism events or expositions connected to sports events and product brands is scant. This study therefore tests the influence of sponsor image, endorser attractiveness, and endorser expertise on customer trust and match-up, which in turn affect attitude and Word-of-mouth with an empirical investigation of the Taipei International Flora Exposition.
The subjects in this study are tourists who have visited the exposition. We collected 538 useful data in Taiwan for the final analysis through online surveys, and AMOS17.0 was employed to analyze the research hypothesis using structural equation modeling. The hypotheses are all supported and are as follows. First, sponsor image, endorser attractiveness, and endorser expertise positively affect both customer trust and match-up significantly. Second, both customer trust and match-up positively affect attitude and WOM. Third, attitude is significantly positively related to WOM. Fourth, sponsor image, endorser expertise, and attractiveness directly and indirectly affect attitude and WOM. Finally, this study shows several theoretical and managerial implications as a reference for practice and academics for marketing strategists and academic researchers.
論文目次 Chapter 1 Introduction1
1.1 Overview1
1.2 Research Objectives9
1.3 Research process and Thesis Organization10
Chapter 2 Literature Review12
2.1 Endorser Expertise12
2.2 Endorser Attractiveness14
2.3 Sponsor Image15
2.4 Match-up17
2.5 Trust18
2.6 Attitude20
2.7 Word of Mouth21
2.8 Relationship between Sponsor Image and Match-up23
2.9 Relationship between Sponsor Image and Trust24
2.10 Relationship among Endorser Expertise, Match-up and Trust26
2.11 Relationship among between Endorser Attractiveness, Match-up and Trust27
2.12 Relationship among Match-up, Attitude and WOM29
2.13 Relationship among Trust, Attitude and WOM30
2.14 Relationship between Attitude and WOM31
2.15 Moderating Effect of Endorser Type33
Chapter 3 Research Model and Methodology36
3.1 Research Setting36
3.2 Measurement Development38
3.3 Questionnaire Design39
3.4 Sampling and Data Collection40
3.5 Data Analysis Method41
3.5.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis41
3.5.2 Reliability and Validity Analysis42
Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Results43
4.1 Sampling and Respondent Profile43
4.2 Measurement Model45
4.2.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis45
4.3 Reliability and Validity46
4.3.1 Reliability Analysis46
4.3.2 Convergent Validity49
4.3.3 Discriminant Validity49
4.4 Structural Equation Model Analysis53
4.4.1 Overall Model Validation53
4.4.2 Structural Equation Model Evaluate Hypothesis Test54
4.4.3 The Extent of Endorser Type in Endorser Expertise and Endorser Attractiveness57
4.4.4 The Moderating Role: Endorser Type58
Chapter 5 Conclusions60
5.1 Discussion60
5.2 Theoretical Implication62
5.3 Managerial Implication64
5.4 Research Limitations and Future Research67
Reference69
Appendix84

List of Tables
Table1.1 Total Profits in Tourism2
Table1.2 Profit in Tourism Accounts for GDP3
Table1.3 Profit in Tourism of Asian Accounts for GDP in 2011 3
Table3.1 Sources of the Measure Items39
Table3.2 Questionnaire and Return41
Table4.1 Demographic Variables of the Participants’ Profiles44
Table4.2 Analysis of Measurement Accuracy46
Table4.3 Analysis of Measurement Accuracy Analysis48
Table4.4 Analysis of the Difference of Chi-square, AVE and Squared Correlation50
Table4.5 Analysis of Discriminent Validity52
Table4.6 Analysis of Goodness-of-Fit Measures53
Table4.7 Hypothesis Test Analysis55
Table4.8 Direct, Indirect and Total Effects57
Table4.9 The Comparison of Endorser Type in Endorser Expertise58
Table4.10 The Comparison of Endorser Type in Endorser Attractiveness58
Table4.11 Invariance Tests across Endorser Type59
Table5.1 Analysis of Hypothesis Test61

List of Figures
Figure1.1 Research Process11
Figure3.1 The Research Conceptual Framework36
Figure4.1 Structural Equation Modeling Analysis56
參考文獻 中文文獻
1.2010台北國際花卉博覽會官方網站,(2010)。活動花絮。取自
http://ticket.2010taipeiexpo.tw/
2.2010年上海世博會官方網站,(2010)。入場人數統計。http://big5.expo2010.cn/
3.中華民國交通部觀光局觀光行政資訊系統,(2011)。觀光統計圖表。取自http://admin.taiwan.net.tw/
4.台北市政府觀光傳播局(2010/06/11),臺北市長郝龍斌領軍來港推廣「花樣臺北」展示2010年臺北國際花卉博覽會美麗的力量,觀光發展科新聞稿。取自
http://www.tpedoit.taipei.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=1195532&ctNode=13246&mp=112001
5.行政院全球資訊網(2011/01/07)。100年國家建設計畫。行政院政策與計畫。取自http://www.ey.gov.tw/lp.asp?ctNode=2313&CtUnit=916&BaseDSD=7&mp=1
6.郝雪卿(2011/11/22),台中旅展搶攻年終商機,中央社新聞網。http://www2.cna.com.tw/Views/Page/Search/hyDetailws.aspx?qid=201111220088&q=%e6%97%85%e5%b1%95
7.張嘉芳(2010/3/24),行銷台灣觀光偶像飛輪海赴日韓開記者會,中央廣播電台。
取自http://news.rti.org.tw/index_newsContent.aspx?nid=236808&id=5&id2=1
8.謝明玲、吳挺鋒(2011)。 2011年天下企業公民獎,天下雜誌,478期,2011年08月。取自
http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5021158&idSubChannel=20

英文文獻
1. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3), 411-423.
2. Aaker, A. D., Kumar, V., & Day, G. S. (1995). Marketing Research , New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.
3. Anderson, E. W. (1998). Customer satisfaction and word of mouth. Journal of service, 48(4), 5-17.
4. Aguirre, R.A., Bosnjak, M., & Sirgy, J. M. (2011). Moderators of the self-congruity effect on consumer decision-making: A meta-analysis, Journal of Business Research, 10(3), 016-031.
5. Alexandris, K., Tsaousi, E., & James, J. (2007). Predicting Sponsorship Outcomes from Attitudinal Constructs: The Case of a Professional Basketball Event. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 16(3), 130-139.
6. Aaker, D. A., & Keller, K. L. (1990). Consumer evaluations of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 27-41.
7. Agrawal, J. & Kamakura, W. A. (1995). The economic worth of celebrity endorsers: an event study analysis. Journal of Marketing, 59(3), 56-62.
8. Amos, C., Holmes, G., & Strutton, D. (2008). Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness: A quantitative synthesis of effect size. International Journal of Advertising, 27(2), 209-234.
9. Baker, M. J., & Churchill, G. A. (1977). The impact of physically attractive
models on advertising evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(4), 538-555.
10. Bucklin, L. P., & Sengupta, S. (1993). Organizing successful co-marketing alliances.
Journal of Marking, 52(2), 32-46.
11. Brown, T. J., Barry, T. E., Dacin, P. A., & Gunst, R. F. (2005). Spreading the word: investigating antecedents of consumer’s positive word-of-mouth intentions and behaviors in a retailing context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(2), 123-138.
12. Barich, H., & Kotler, P. (1991). A framework for marketing image management. Sloan Management Review, 32(2), 94-104.
13. Berger, I. E., Ratchford, B. T., & Haines, G. H. (1994). Subjective product knowledge as a moderator of the relationship between attitudes and purchase intentions for a durable product. Journal of Economic Psychology, 15(2), 301-314.
14. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models. Academic of Marketing Science, 16(11), 76-94.
15. Barich, H., & Kotler, P. (1991). A framework for marketing image management.
Sloan Management Review, 32(2), 94-104.
16. Belanger, F., Hiller, J. S., & Smith, W. J. (2002). Trustworthiness in electronic commerce: the role of privacy, security, and site attributes. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11, 245-270.
17. Brenkert, G. G. (1998). Trust, business and business ethics: an introduction. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(3), 195-203.
18. Benoy, W. J. (1982).The credibility of physically attractive communicators: a review. Journal of Advertising, 11(3), 15-24.
19. Chiu, K. H., & Li, S. I. (2007). The Study of the Spectators at Sport Events to Cognitive Benefits of the Corporate Sponsors: An Example of UBA. National Taiwan College of Physical Education.
20. Charbonneau, J., & Garland, R. (2010). Product effects on endorser image The potential for reverse image transfer. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22(1), 101-110.
21. Cho, Y. N., & Rutherford, B. N. (2011). Customers’ Relationship with the Service Firm and Its Sales Personnel: Does Gender Matter? Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(3), 325-336.
22. Craig, S. C., & McCann, J. M. (1978).Assessing Communication Effects of Energy Conservation. Journal of Consumer Research, 5(2), 82-88.
23. Cornwell, T. B., Weeks, C. S., & Roy, D. P. (2005). Sponsorship-Linked Marketing: Opening the Black Box. Journal of Advertising, 34(2), 23-45.
24. Chen, Y H., & Liao, S. K. (2011). Customer Value as a Moderator of the Relationship between Environmental Experience and Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study of Taipei International Flora Exposition. National Taipei University of Technology.
25. Chen, J. M., Kao, Y. F., & Liu, S. C. (2011). The study of sensory experience and aesthetic experience affect experiential quality and experiential satisfaction - a case study of Taipei international flora exposition. Fu Jen Catholic University.
26. Debevec, K. & Kernan, J. (1984). More Evidence on the Effects of a
Presenter's Physical Attractiveness: Some Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Consequences. Thomas C. Kinnear, Provo, Utah: Association for Consumer Research.
27. D’Astous, A., & Bitz, P. (1995). Consumer evaluations of sponsorship programmers. European Journal of Marketing, 29(3), 6-22.
28. Dutton , J., Dukerich , J., & Harquail , C. V. ( 1994 ). Organizational images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly , 39(2) , 239-263.
29. Erdogan, B. Z., Baker, M. J., & Tagg, S. (2001). Selecting celebrity endorsers: the practitioner’s perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 41(3), 39-49.
30. Erdogan, B. Z. (1999). Celebrity endorsement: A literature review. Journal of Marketing Management, 15(1), 291-314.
31. Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcort Brace College Publishers.
32. Ekinci, Y., Dawes, P. L., & Graham, R. M. (2008). An extended model of the antecedents and consequences of consumer satisfaction for hospitality services. European Journal of Marketing, 42 (1/2), 35-68.
33. Eisend, M., & Langner, T. (2010). Immediate and delayed advertising effects of celebrity endorsers attractiveness and expertise. International Journal of Advertising, 29(4), 527-546.
34. Fornell, C. L., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
35. Fuehrera, E. C. & Ashkanasyb, N. M. (2001). Communicating trustworthiness and building trust in inter organizational virtual organizations. Journal of Management, 27, 235-254.
36. Friedman, H. H. & Friedman, L. (1979). Endorser effectiveness by product type.Journal of Advertising Research, 19, 63-71.
37. Garbarino, E., & Johnson, M. S. (1999). The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. Journal of Marketing, 63(2), 70-87.
38. Geissler, G. L. & Edison, S. W. (2005). Market Mavens Attitudes Towards General Technology: Implications for Marketing Communications," Journal of Marketing Communications, 11(2), 73-94.
39. Gwinner, K., & Swanson, S. (2003). A model of fan identification:
Antecedents and sponsorship outcomes. Journal of Services Marketing,
17(3), 275-294.
40. Gwinner, K. (1997). A Model of Image Creation and Image Transfer in Event Sponsorship. International Marketing Review, 14(3), 145-158.
41. Giffin, K. (1967). The contribution of studies of source credibility to a theory of interpersonal trust in the communication process. Psychological Bulletin, 68(2), 104 -119.
42. Ganesan, S. (1994). Determinants of long-term orientation in buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 58(2), 1-19.
43. Hightower, R., & Brady, M. K. (2002). Investigating the role of the physical environment in hedonic service consumption: an exploratory study of sporting events. Journal of Business Research, 55(9), 697-707.
44. Harvery, B., Gray, S., & Despain, G. (2006). Measuring the effectiveness of true sponsorship. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(4), 398-409.
45. Harrison, L. J. (2001). The Measurement of Word-of-Mouth Communication and an Investigation of Service Quality and Customer Commitment as Potential Antecedents. Journal of Service Research, 40(1), 60–75.
46. Hernandez, J. M. C., & Mazzon, J. A. (2007). Adoption of Internet Banking: Proposition and Implementation of an Integrated Methodology Approach. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 25(2), 72-88.
47. Hair, J. F. Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
48. Hosmer, L. T. (1995). Trust: The connection link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Academy of Management Review, 20(2), 379-403.
49. Huang,Y. P., & Zhu, F. G.(2011). An Experiential Marketing Study of Taipei Flora EXPO—The Xinseng Park’s Example. National Cheng Kung University.
50. Ilicic, J., & Webster, C. M. (2011). Effects of multiple endorsements and consumer-celebrity attachment on attitude and purchase intention. Australasian Marketing Journal, 19(4), 230-237.
51. June, C., & Robin, A. (2005). Enhancing or disrupting guilt: the role of ad credibility and perceived manipulative intent. Journal of Business Research, 58(3), 361-368.
52. Johar, G. V., & Pham, M. T. (1999). Relatedness, Prominence and Constructive Sponsor Identification. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(3), 299-312.
53. Jun S. Y., Cha T., & Aggarwal, P. (2011). How Much Better? The Effect of Tensile Information on Word-of-Mouth Effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(3), 263–276.
54. Jahangir, N. & Begum, N, (2007). Effect of Perceived Usefulness, Ease of Use, Security and Privacy on Customer Attitude and Adaptation in the Context of E-Banking. Journal of Management Research, 7(3), 147-157.
55. Kennedy, S. H. (1977). Nurturing corporate image. European Journal of Marketing, 11 (3), 120-164.
56. Keller, K. L. (2000). Building and managing corporate brand equity. New York, N. Y: Oxford University Press.
57. Kahle, L. R., & Homer, P. M. (1985). Physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser: a social adaptation perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 11(1), 954-961.
58. Kamins, M. (1990). An Investigation into the Match-Up Hypothesis in Celebrity Advertising: When Beauty May Only be Skin-Deep. Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 4-13.
59. Koernig, S. K., & Page, A. L. (2002). What If Your Dentist Looked Like Tom Cruise? Applying the Match-Up Hypothesis to a Service Encounter. Psychology & Marketing, 19(1), 91-110.
60. Kingie M., Wong, K. S., & Tong, C. (2011). How Guanxi Influences Word of Mouth Intentions. International Journal of Business and Management.6(7),3-14.
61. Kim, Y. K., and Smith, A. K. (2007). Providing a critical service today for tomorrow's consumers: A relational model of customer evaluations and responses in the child care industry. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14(3), 232-245.
62. Kamins, M. A., Brand, M. J., Hoeke, S. A., & Moe, J. C. (1990). Two-sided versus one-sided celebrity endorsements: the impact on advertising effectiveness and credibility. Journal of Advertising, 18(2), 4-10.
63. Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2006). Marketing Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
64. Kasper, E. C., & Ashkanasyb, N. M. (2001). Communicating trustworthiness and building trust in inter organizational virtual organizations. Journal of Management, 27(3), 235–254.
65. Keller, K. L. (2001). Mastering the Marketing Communications Mix: Micro and Macro Perspectives on Integrated Marketing Communication Programs, Journal of Marketing Management, 17(7), 819-847.
66. Kwun J. W. (2011). Effects of campus foodservice attributes on perceived value, satisfaction, and consumer attitude: A gender-difference approach. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), 252-261.
67. Lafferty, B. A. (2007). The relevance of fit in a cause–brand alliance when consumers evaluate corporate credibility. Journal of Business Research, 60(5), 447-453
68. Limon, Y., Kahle, L. R., & Orth, U. R. (2008). Package Design as a Communications Vehicle in Cross-Cultural Values Shopping. Journal of International Marketing, 17 (1), 30-57.
69. Lee, H.S., & Cho, C. H. (2009). The matching effect to brand and sporting event personality: Sponsorship implications. Journal of Sport Management, 23(1), 41-64.
70. Lafferty, B. A., Goldsmith, R. E., & Newell, S. J. (2002). The dual credibility model: the influence of corporate and endorser credibility on attitudes and purchase intentions. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 10(3), 1-12.
71. Lord, K.R., & Putrevu, S. (2009). Informational and transformational responses to celebrity endorsements. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 31(1), 1-13.
72. Lin, C. C & Pin, L. Y. (2010). The Impacts of Endorsers Expertise and Product Consistency and Country of Origin on Product Attitude and Purchase Intention. Feng Chia University.
73. McGuire, W. J. (1985). Attitudes and Attitude Change. Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, NY: Random House.
74. Motion, J., Leitch, S. & Brodie, R. J. (2003). Equity in corporate co-branding. European Journal of Marketing,37(7/8), 80-94.
75. Moorman, C., Deshpande, R., & Zaltman, G. (1993). Factors Affecting Trust in Market Research Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 57, 81-101.
76. Meyerson, D., Weick, K. E., & Kramer, R. M. (1996). Swift trust and temporary groups. Trust in organizations: frontiers of theory and research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
77. Magnini, V. P., Honeycutt, E. D., & Cross, A. M. (2008). Understanding the use of celebrity endorsers for hospitality firms. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 14(1), 57-69.
78. McCracken, G. (1989). Who is the celebrity endorser? Cultural foundations of the endorsement process. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 310 – 321.
79. Murray, K. B. (1991). A Test of Services Marketing Theory: Consumer Information Acquisition Activities. Journal of Marketing, 55 (1), 10-25.
80. Molinari, L.K., Abratt, R., & Dion, P. (2008). Satisfaction, Quality and Value and Effects on Repurchase and Positive Word-of-Mouth Behavioral Intentions in a B2B Services Context. Journal of Services Marketing, 22 (5), 363-373.
81. Madrigal, R. (2001). Social identity effects in a belief-attitude-intentions hierarchy: Implications for corporate sponsorship. Psychology and Marketing, 18(2), 145-165.
82. Maxham, J. G., & Netemeyer, R. G. (2003). Firms reap what they sow: The effects of shared values and perceived organizational justice on customers’ evaluations of complaint handling. Journal of Marketing, 1(1), 46-62.
82. Mullen, M. R. (1995). Diagnosing measurement equivalence in cross-national research. Journal of International Business Studies, 26(3), 573-596.
83. Miciak, A., & Shanklin, W. (1994). Choosing celebrity endorsers. Marketing Management, 3(3), 50-59.
84. Misra, S., & Beatty, S. (1990). Celebrity spokesperson and brand congruence: An assessment of recall and affect. Journal of Business Research, 21(2), 159-173.
85. Meenaghan, T. (2001). Sponsorship Legitimizing the medium. European Journal of Marketing, 25(11), 5-10.
86. Mak, K., Wong, K. S., & Tong, C. (2011). How Guanxi Influences Word of Mouth Intentions. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(7), 3-14.
87. Magnini,V. P., Garcia, C., & Honeycutt, E. D. (2010). Identifying the Attributes of an Effective Restaurant Chain Endorser. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(2), 238-250.
88. Miciak, A., & Shanklin, W. (1994). Choosing celebrity endorsers. Marketing Management, 3(3), 50-59.
89. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York, N. Y: McGraw-hill.
90. Nadim J., & Noorjahan, B. (2007). Effect of Perceived Usefulness, Ease of Use, Security and Privacy on Customer Attitude and Adaptation in the Context of E-Banking. Journal of Management Research, 7(3), 147-157.
91. Olson, E. L., & Thjømøe, H. M. (2011). Explaining and Articulating the Fit Construct in Sponsorship. Journal of Advertising, 40(1), 57-70.
92. Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the customer. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
93. Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers’ perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39-52.
94. Ortinau, J., Bush, R., & Hair, J. (2005). Marketing Research: Within a Changing Information Environment. New York, NY: McGraw-Hall Companies Inc.
95. Ohanian, R. (1991). The Impact of Celebrity Spokespersons' Perceived Image on Consumers' Intention to Purchase. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(1), 46-52.
96. Polatoglu, V. N., & Ekin, S. (2001). An Empirical Investigation of the Turkish Consumers. Acceptance of Internet Banking Services. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 19(4),156-165.
97. Peter, P. J., & Olson, J. C. (1987). Consumer Behavior: Marketing Strategy Perspectives. Irwin, Homewood, IL.
98. Priester, J. R., & Petty, R. E. (2003). The Influence of Spokesperson Trustworthiness on Message Elaboration, Attitude Strength, and Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(4), 408-421.E544/5255
99. Pornpitakpan, C. (2003). Validation of the Celebrity Endorsers’ Credibility Scale: Evidence From Asians.Journal of Marketing Management,19(17), 179-195.
100. Richins, M. L. (1983). Negative Word-of-Mouth by Dissatisfied Consumers: A Pilot Study. Journal of Marketing, 47(1), 68-78.
101. Ramaswani, S. N., Srinivasan, S. S., & Gorton, S. A. (1997). Information Asymmetry between Salesperson and Supervisor: Postulates from Agency and Social Exchange Theory. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 17(3), 29-50.
102. Rogers, E. (2004). Diffusion of innovation. New York, NY: The Free Press.
103. Rifon, N.J., Choi, S. M., Trimble, C. S., & Li, H. (2004). Congruence Effects in Sponsorship: The Mediating Role of Sponsor Credibility and Consumer Attributions of Sponsor Motive. Journal of Advertising, 33(1), 29-42.
104. Raven, B. H., Schwarzwald, J. & Koslowsky, M.(1998). Conceptualizing and measuring a power/interaction model of interpersonal influence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 307-332.
105. Rossiter, J. R. & Percy, L. (1998). Advertising Communications and Promotion Management. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
106. Rossiter, J. R., & Smidts, A. (2005). The ‘hook’ theory of presenter characteristics explains persuasion and dissuasion of celebrity presenters. Working paper, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University.
107. Simonin B. L., & Ruth J. A.(1998). Is a company known by the company it keeps? Assessing the spillover effects of brand alliances on consumer brand
attitudes. Journal of Marketing Research, 35(1), 30-42.
108. Salomon, M. R. (2002). Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
109. Silvera , D . H ., & Austad, B. (2004). Factors predicting the
effectiveness of celebrity endorsement advertisements. European
Journal of Marketing, 38(11/12), 1509-1526.
110. Shimp, T. (2000). Advertising Promotion: Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications, 5th edn. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
111. Solomon, M. R., Ashmore, R. D., & Longo, L. C. (1992). The beauty match-up hypothesis: congruence between types of beauty and product images in advertising. Journal of Advertising, 21(4), 23-35.
112. Seno, D., & Lukas, B. A. (2007). The equity effect of product endorsement by celebrities A conceptual framework from a co-branding perspective European Journal of Marketing, 41(1/2), 121-134.
113. Sanchez, M. J. (2009). The Moderating Effects of Involvement on the Relationships Between Satisfaction, Trust and Commitment in e-Banking. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(3), 247-258.
114. Singh, J., & Sirdeshmukh, D. (2000). Agency and Trust Mechanisms in Consumer Satisfaction and Loyalty Judgments. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 150–167.
115. Sundaram, D. S., Mitra, K., & Webster, C. (1998). Word-of-Mouth Communications: A Motivational Analysis. Advances in Consumer Research, 25, 527-531.
116. Speed, R., & Thomson, P. (2000). Determinants of sport sponsorship effects. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 226-238.
117. Turco, D. M. (1995). The Influence of Sponsorship on product Recall and Image Among Sports Spectators. World Marketing Congress Proceedings, 7(3), 6-10.
118. Till B. D., & Busler, M. (1998). Matching products with endorsers: attractiveness versus expertise. Journal of consumer marketing, 15(6), 576-586.
119. Till, B. D., & Busler, M. (2000). The match-up hypothesis: physical attractiveness,
expertise, and the role of fit on brand attitude, purchase intentions, and brand beliefs. Journal of Advertising, 29(3), 1-13.
120. Tsai, S. & Luarn, B. (2002). A Study on Impact of Sports Brand Spokespersons' Source Credibility on Consumer's Intention to Purchase. National Taiwan University of Science and Technology.
121. Walker, M., & Heere, B. (2011). Consumer Attitudes toward Responsible Entities in Sport (CARES): Scale development and model testing. Sport Management Review, 14(2), 141-166.
122. Wharton, J. T. (2006). Verde Group-Baker Retail Initiative at Retail Customer Dissatisfaction Study. Wharton: University of Pennsylvania.
123. Williams, M., & Buttle, F. (2011). The eight pillars of WOM management: Lessons from a multiple case study. Australasian Marketing journal, (19)2, 85-92.
124. Wang, K. C., Hsiehb, A. T., Chenc, W. Y. (2002). Is the tour leader an effective endorser for group package tour brochures? Tourism Management, 23(5), 489-498.
125. Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 60(4), 31-46.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2017-06-26公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-06-26起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信