淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1106200816254400
中文論文名稱 多屬性採購中介協商模式之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of a Multi-attribute Negotiation Model for Mediating Purchasing
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Information Management
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 方姿文
研究生英文姓名 Zi-Wen Fang
學號 695630136
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-05-24
論文頁數 88頁
口試委員 指導教授-徐煥智
共同指導教授-時序時
委員-方鄒昭聰
委員-林至中
委員-廖賀田
中文關鍵字 協商支援系統  協商決策函數  多屬性效用函數  S型價值函數  採購  中介調解 
英文關鍵字 Negotiation support system  Negotiation decision function  Multi-attribute utility function  S-shaped value function  Purchasing  Mediation 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
學科別社會科學資訊科學
中文摘要 本研究應用多屬性決策概念於採購協商工作,並建構一個以網頁為基礎 (web-based) 的協商支援系統(negotiation support system, NSS),且考慮適當的協商者偏好、協商戰略與策略提出一協商流程,流程結束於共識的達成或是協商破裂。此協商支援系統中介於企業之間,例如買方與其供應商,以協助雙方在複雜決策情境下,遂行有效率及有效能之耐久財採購決策。
當買方在使用群體決策支援系統(group decision support system, GDSS)進行供應商遴選後,本中介協商支援系統支援買方與最高排序之賣方間協商的進行。過程中買方與賣方決定他們的偏好,包括關注之屬性、初始提案、權重、不同類型的效用函數 (utility function)或S型價值函數 (value function)。而過程中,雙方透過協商決策函數(negotiation decision function)之建議決定協商策略,以計算提案讓步的幅度並在有限的時間下促使共識達成。若未能達成共識,則買方繼續與第二順位之賣方進行同樣的協商流程,若所有的賣方皆無法與買方達成共識時協商結束。另外,我們首度將S型價值函數納入協商雙方的價值衡量,並運用統計檢定方法,證實價值函數與一般普遍使用的效用函數在成交提案與最佳提案之差距具有顯著差異,且價值函數結果優於效用函數。
英文摘要 The study aims to establish a web-based negotiation support system (NSS) with multiple attributes for mediating purchasing. The preferences of negotiators and the negotiation strategies and tactics are considered so that a well negotiation process is defined from a negotiation being initiated until an agreement being reached or broken down. The NSS can mediate firms, i.e., a buyer and vendors, to make a purchasing decision for durable goods effectively and efficiently.
After a rank of vendors is provided from a group decision support system, the NSS provides a chance of mediation between the buyer and a vendor with the highest rank. Both can determine their preferences, including concerned attributes, weight of attributes, initial offers, and various types of utility functions or S-shaped value functions (in prospect theory) for representing adequate choices. In the process, both will also define their negotiation tactics by negotiation decision function for assigning the range of concessions so that an agreement can be reached with a limited time or offers. Otherwise, the system will continue to mediate the buyer and the vendor with the second highest rank through the same process. The negotiation might be broken down if all vendors' do not match the buyer's concerns. In addition, the preferences are described by the common utility functions and S-shaped value functions in the system. A small number of experiments are conducted through a statistical hypothesis testing, and the latter are shown a better performance.
論文目次 目錄:
第1 章緒論 ...................................... 1
1.1 研究動機 .................................... 1
1.2 研究目的 .................................... 2
1.3 研究成果 .................................... 4
第2章 文獻探討 .................................. 6
2.1 供應商評選 .................................. 6
2.2 協商涵義 .................................... 8
2.3 協商分類 .................................... 9
2.4 協商支援系統 ................................ 10
2.5 分析層級程序法 .............................. 12
2.6 多屬性效用函數 .............................. 14
2.7 展望理論 .................................... 15
2.8 協商戰略與策略 .............................. 18
2.9 協商決策函數 ................................ 21
第3章 協商模式 .................................. 22
3.1 協商流程 .................................... 22
3.2 效用函數 .................................... 27
3.3 價值函數 .................................... 31
3.4 最佳提案值建議 .............................. 34
3.5 協商策略建議 ................................ 35
3.6 協商次數之估計 .............................. 38
第4章 系統發展 .................................. 42
4.1 系統架構 .................................... 42
4.2 系統功能說明 ................................ 44
第5章 效用函數與價值函數之比較 .................. 50
5.1 實驗目的 .................................... 50
5.2 實驗方式 .................................... 50
5.3 實驗結果 .................................... 52
第6章 結論與未來研究 ............................ 57
6.1 結論 ........................................ 57
6.2 未來研究 .................................... 58
參考文獻 ........................................ 59
附錄一 效用函數 ................................. 64
附錄二 價值函數 ................................. 66
附錄三 效用函數求參數(Newton-Raphson method ).. 67
附錄四 實驗資料 ................................. 74
附錄五 綜合實驗資料 ............................. 87

表目錄:
表2.1 供應商評選方法分類 ....................... 7
表2.2 依人數之協商分類 ......................... 9
表2.3 依目標之協商分類 ......................... 10
表3.1 效用函數 .................... 29
表3.2 價值函數 .................. 32
表3.3 協商決策函數結果 ..................... 38
表3.4 賣方時間相依Boulware之指數型戰略提案表 .... 39
表3.5 賣方行為相依隨機絕對回應型戰略提案表 ...... 40
表3.6 買方讓步策略提案表 ..................... 40
表3.7 協商戰略表 ........................ 41
表5.1 價值函數結果 ........................ 55
表5.2 效用函數結果 ..................... 56

圖目錄:
圖2.1 協商支援系統的分類 .................... 11
圖2.2 價值函數 .............................. 16
圖3.1 協商流程圖上半部 ...................... 23
圖3.2 協商流程圖下半部 ...................... 24
圖4.1 系統架構圖 ............................ 42
圖4.2 權重設定頁面 .......................... 45
圖4.3 價值函數設定頁面 ...................... 46
圖4.4 效用函數設定頁面....................... 47
圖4.5 協商策略設定頁面 ...................... 48
圖4.6 協商提案頁面 .......................... 49
參考文獻 [1] 王敏銓(2003),以網路服務為基礎之分散式自動協商系統架構,碩士論文,資訊管理學系,台灣大學,台北。
[2] 汪明生、朱斌妤(1999),衝突管理,五南,台北。
[3] 林國元(2005),解決方案偏好順序問題的群體協商系統,碩士論文,資訊管理學系,靜宜大學,台中。
[4] 洪瑞文(2002),以代理程式協商建構動態供應鏈網路之研究,碩士論文,資訊管理學系,朝陽科技大學,台中。
[5] 陳星琳(2004),主動式協同商務與協商架構 - 以採購協商為例,碩士論文,資訊管理學系,朝陽科技大學,台中。
[6] 陳俊衡(2007),自動化協商策略效能之研究,碩士論文,資訊管理學系,淡江大學,台北。
[7] 張榮興(2002),Visual Basic數值解析與工程應用,全威,台北。
[8] 梁高榮、林金慧(2006),決策過程的分析與應用,機電與工業管理文彙,91-103。
[9] 詹惠媛(2003),以代理人為基礎的電子市場平等協商機制,碩士論文,資訊工程學系,淡江大學,台北。
[10] 劉玉珍、洪茂蔚、戴維芯(2004),從展望理論看選舉決策,貨幣觀測與信用評等月刊。
[11] 謝明瑞 (2006),展望理論之探討,國政研究報告,April 11,1-22。
[12] Barbuceanu, M., Lo, W. (2000), A multi-attribute utility theoretic negotiation architecture for electronic commerce, Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Autonomous agents, Spain, 239-246.
[13] Baucells, M., Heukamp, F.Z. (2004), Reevaluation of the results of Levy and Levy (2002a), Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 94(1), 15-21.
[14] Bellucci, E., Zeleznilow, J. (1999), AI Techniques For Modelling Legal Negotiation, 7th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, 108-116.
[15] Bolstorff, P., Rosenbaum, R. (2003), Supply Chain Excellence, American Management Association, New York.
[16] Chavez, A., Maes, P. (1996), Kasbah: An Agent Marketplace for Buying and Selling Goods,” Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Practical Application of Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Technology, (PAAM'96). London, UK.
[17] De Boer, L., Labro, E. and Morlacchi, P. (2001), A review of methods supporting supplier selection, European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 7, 75–89.
[18] Faratin, P., Sierra, C. and Jennings, N. R. (1998), Negotiation Decision Functions for Autonomous Agents, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 24(3-4), 159-182.
[19] Guttman, R., Maes, P. (1998), Agent-mediated Integrative Negotiation for Retail Electronic Commerce, Lecture Notes In Computer Science, 1571, Springer-Verlag London, UK, 70-90.
[20] Holsapple, C.W., Luo,W. (1995), Dependent variables for organizational computing research: an empirical study, Journal of Organizational Computing, 5(1), 31-51.
[21] Holsapple, C.W., Whinston, A.B. (1996), Decision Support Systems: A Knowledge-based Approach, West Pub., St. Paul, MN.
[22] Ito, T., Salleh, M.R. (2000), A Blackboard-Based Negotiation for Collaborative Supply Chain System, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 107, 398-403.
[23] Kahneman, D., Tversky, A. (1979), Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk, Econometrica, 47(2), 263-291.
[24] Keeney, R.L., Raiffa, H. (1993), Decisions with Multiple Objectives:preferences and value tradeoffs, Cambridge University Press.
[25] Lai, H. (1989), A Theoretical Basis for Negotiation Support Systems, Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
[26] Leenders, M.R., Fearon, H.E., Flynn, A.E., and Johnson, P.F. (2002), Purchasing and Supply Management, 12th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
[27] Morge, M., Beaune, P. (2004), A negotiation support system based on a multi-agent system specificity and preference relations on arguments, Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 474-478, Nicosia, Cyprus, March, 14-17.
[28] Mumpower, J.L. (1991), The Judgment Policies of Negotiators and the Structure of Negotiation Problems, Management Science, 37(10), 1304-1324.
[29] Oliver, J.R. (1997), A Machine-Learning Approach to Automated Negotiation and Prospects for Electronic Commerce,” Journal of Management Information System, 13(3), 12-40.
[30] Petroni, A., Braglia, M. (2000), Vendor selection using principal component analysis, Journal of Supply Chain Management, 36(2), 63–69.
[31] Raiffa, H. (1982), The Art and Science of Negotiation, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
[32] Robbins S.P. (2001), Organizational Behavior, 9th ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
[33] Robinson, W.N., Volkov, V. (1998), Supporting the negotiation life cycle, Communications of the ACM, 41(5), 95-102.
[34] Sandholm, T., Zhou, Y. (2000), Surplus equivalence of levelled commitment contracts, MultiAgent Systems. Proceedings. Fourth International Conference, 247-254.
[35] Satty, T.L. (1980), The Analytic Hierarchy Process, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[36] Shaikh, S., Mehandjiev, N. (2004), Multi-Attribute Negotiation in E-Business Process Composition, Proceedings of WETICE 2004, International Workshop on Distributed and Mobile Collaboration, 141-146.
[37] Shih, H.S., Wang, C.H. and Lee, E.S.(2004), A multiattribute GDSS for aiding problem-solving, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 39(11–12), 1397–1412.
[38] Shyur, H.J., Shih, H.S. (2006), A hybrid MCDM model for strategic vendor selection, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 44, 749-761.
[39] Swift, C.O. (1995), Preferences for single sourcing and supplier selection criteria, Journal of Business Research, 32, 105-111.
[40] Tullous, R., Utecht, R.L. (1994), A decision support system for integration of vendor selection task, Journal of Applied Business Research, 10(1), 132-143.
[41] Tversky, A., Kahneman, D. (1992), Advances in prospect theory: Cumulative representation of uncertainty, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 5(4), 297-323.
[42] Wang K.-J., Chou, C.H. (2003), Evaluating NDF-based negotiation mechanism within an agent-based environment, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 43, 1-27.
[43] Weber, C.A., Current, J.R. and Benton, W.C. (1991), Vendor selection criteria and methods, European Journal of Operational Research, 50(1), 2–18.
[44] Wurman, P.R., Wellman, M. P. and Walsh, W. E. (1998), The Michigan Internet AuctionBot: A Configurable Auction Server for Human and Software Agents, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Autonomous Agents, 301-308.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2010-06-20公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2010-06-20起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信