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系統識別號 U0002-1106200523503800
中文論文名稱 美國柯林頓政府簽署WTO協定之政策:運用國際建制變遷模式之分析
英文論文名稱 Analysis of Clinton Administration's Policy in Signing the WTO Agreements: Applying the International Regime Change Model
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 李思慧
研究生英文姓名 Szu-Hui Lee
學號 691220015
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-05-27
論文頁數 170頁
口試委員 指導教授-戴萬欽
委員-鄧中堅
委員-林欽明
中文關鍵字 世界貿易組織  烏拉圭回合談判  國際建制 
英文關鍵字 WTO  Uruguay Round Negotiations  international regime 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本論文將從國際建制變遷的角度來探討在建立「世界貿易組織」的新建制時,美國是否居於主導者的地位?「世界貿易組織」的權力行使是否會對美國造成主權的損害?筆者希望能透過文獻資料的整理,從美國的角度去審視「WTO協定」對美國的重要性,及柯林頓政府在簽署該協定前所作的諸多考量。本論文將採用基歐罕和奈依「複合互賴理論」中的「國際建制變遷」(international regime change)三個模式來解釋美國如何透過建立新的國際貿易建制來達成其貿易政策的目標,其包括:國際組織模式(international organization model)、權力結構解釋(overall power structure explanation)及議題結構(issue structure)。筆者希望以國際建制變遷的觀點探討美國柯林頓政府簽署「WTO協定」的決定,以瞭解美國在簽署「WTO協定」前所作的精密考量,及其如何影響國際建制的建立與修正,以符合其國家利益。國際建制是以自利為出發點,故本文將探討美國在經濟霸權衰退下,需要哪些新國際貿易建制來確保其貿易優勢;對於協定內容部分,除了針對GATT和WTO時期的結構、爭端解決機制部分作分析,探討新建制是否能有效解決美國及其它國家的貿易糾紛,增加美國企業的利益。本論文發現美國在建立WTO的各項建制時,曾透過權力來影響建制的制定,將其國內法律的精神注入到WTO的各協定中,使美國法律符合WTO的各項建制,亦使WTO中的各項建制符合美國的利益。
英文摘要 The main purpose of this essay is to analyze the United States’ role in the international regime changing from GATT to WTO. The author wants to analyze Clinton administration’s policy in signing the WTO Agreements, furthermore, find out whether the United States played a leading role in establishing the new regime, and whether the establishment of the WTO would prejudice the sovereignty of the United States. The author applies Keohane and Nye’s “international regime change models” to explain how the United States utilized her power in Uruguay Round Negotiations, and expanded her influence in the establishment and amendment of the new trade regime. International regime is based on self-interest, so the author wants to find out what kind of international trade regime the United States needed to assure her trade superiority in the early 1990’s; and whether the new trade regime can settle the disputes between the United States and her trade counterparts. In the findings, the author concludes that the United States had manipulated her power and influence in Uruguay Round Negotiations in order to make the new regime of WTO conform to the spirit of the United States’ laws, and to make the national interests of the United States maximum.
論文目次 第一章 緒論………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機及目的…………………………1
第二節 文獻回顧與研究理論……………………2
第三節 研究範圍與限制…………………………6
第四節 研究架構…………………………………7

第二章 國際建制變遷理論之要義…………………………10
第一節 國際建制之定義及特性………………10
第二節 國際建制變遷理論之要義……………15
第三節 命題與假設 …………………19

第三章 美國貿易政策之回顧…………………………………21
第一節 史慕特-霍利關稅法案與美國貿易政策21
第二節 互惠貿易協定法案與美國貿易政策……24
第三節 國際貿易組織成立失敗之原因…………28
第四節 GATT爭端解決機制………………………34
第五節 柯林頓政府遊說國會批准「烏拉圭回合協議」 始末39

第四章 運用「國際組織模式」分析美國簽署WTO協定之政 策………48
第一節 WTO規範與美國國內法適用問題…………49
第二節 WTO爭端解決機制與美國利益維護問題…57
第三節 WTO票決制與美國影響力問題……………65
第四節 假設與驗證……………………………… 67

第五章 運用「權力結構解釋」分析美國簽署WTO協定之政策…… …75
第一節 美國軍事權力分析………………………76
第二節 美國經濟權力分析………………………80
第三節 補貼及平衡措施與美國國際競爭力問題87
第四節 案例分析與假設驗證……………………92
第六章 運用「議題結構解釋」分析美國簽署WTO協定之政策………….98
第一節 WTO農業協定談判之背景……………….99
第二節 美國與歐體對農業協定談判立場之分析102
第三節 布萊爾宮協定與美國農業利益問題……106
第四節 案例分析與假設驗證……………………113

第七章 結論………………………………………………………… 118
附錄……………………………………………………………………121
參考書目………………………………………………………………163


參考文獻 壹、中文部分:

一、書籍

小島 明。全球經濟大視野。台北市:日本經濟新聞社,民國八十六年十月。
王緝思。冷戰後美國的全球戰略和世界地位。台北市:生智文化事業有限公司,民國九十年八月。
朱章才譯。經濟全球化。台北市:麥田出版社,民國八十九年三月。
沈鈞傳。國際重要經貿及金融組織。台北:國際關係研究中心。民國七十九年十月。
何思因。美國貿易政策。台北市:時英出版社,民國八十三年。
李國威。國際關係新論。台北:台灣商務。民國七十八年四月。
周添城。全球經貿的分合:區域化對決全球化。台北市:中華徵信,民國八十八年二月。
周宜魁。國際貿易理論與政策。台北:三民。民國八十一年九月。
郭承天。國際建制與國際組織。台北:時英。民國八十五年十月。
裘兆琳。柯林頓總統爭取國會批准「世界貿易組織」之策略分析。台北:中央研究院歐美研究所。民國八十六年六月。
黃宏義譯。全球經濟大戰。台北市:長河出版社,民國七十二年十一月。
張克文。關稅與貿易總協定及其最惠國待遇制度。台北:天肯文化。民國八十二年十月。
蔡宏明等。GATT與WTO的規範。台北:五南書局。民國八十四年六月。
魯樂中譯。自由貿易的迷思。台北:時報文化。民國八十三年五月。
顏慶章。揭開GATT的面紗。台北:時報文化。民國七十八年六月。
經濟部國貿局編。GATT烏拉圭回合談判研討會會議資料。民國七十九年二月。
經濟部國貿局編。第二次GATT烏拉圭回合談判研討會會議資料。民國七十九年十二月。
經濟部國貿局編。第三次GATT烏拉圭回合談判研討會會議資料。民國八十年九月。
經濟部國貿局編。第四次GATT烏拉圭回合談判研討會會議資料。民國八十一年五月。
經濟部國貿局編。第五次GATT烏拉圭回合談判研討會會議資料(上、下冊)。民國八十三年五月。
經濟部國貿局譯。GATT多邊貿易與美國貿易政策。民國七十七年十二月。

二、期刊

杜巧霞,「多邊貿易談判與美國農業政策」,美國月刊,民國八十年十一月
黃耀輝。「美國的政治經濟循環」。美國月刊。民國八十二年四月。
李中興。「美國經濟結構問題與經濟改革方案」。美國月刊。民國八十二年六月。
卜大中。「柯林頓新政與麻省理工學院經濟學派的理論」。美國月刊。民國八十二年八月。
王自揚。「柯林頓政府外貿政策之探討」。美國月刊。民國八十二年十二月。
鄧中堅。「柯林頓總統的國際貿易觀及其政策」。美國月刊。民國八十三年一月。
李文瑞。「美國貿易政策之演進」。美國月刊。民國八十三年二月。
柯玉枝。「從博奕理論看美歐在GATT烏拉圭回合下的農業談判」。問題與研究,民國八十三年七月。
李舟生。「關貿總協農業協議及美國農業政策走向」。美歐月刊。民國八十三年十月。
李舟生,「烏拉圭回合談判下美國與歐市的農業爭議」,美國月刊,第7卷第4期,民國八十一年四月。
陳春山。「國際經貿爭端之解決體制」。問題與研究。民國八十四年八月。
蘇芳誼。「歐盟與美國之農業貿易紛爭」。問題與研究。民國八十七年七月。
林文斌。「國際典則:理論與經驗的對話」。問題與研究。民國九十一年十一、十二月。


貳、英文部分:

一、美國國會聽證會資料:
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Finance.Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations : Hearing Before the Committee on Finance, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress,first session, November 10, 1993.Washington : U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.S. 2467, GATT Implementing Legislation : Hearings before the Committeeon Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, October 4, 5, 13, 14, 17, and
18, and November 14 and 15, 1995.Washington : U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition,and Forestry.The GATT Agreement : Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture,Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, One Hundred Third
Congress, second session, on the Implementation of the Uruguay Round as
it Affects United States Agriculture, April 20, 1994.Washington : U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.

二、書籍
Baldwin, Robert, Measuring Non-Tariff Trade Policy, NY: National Bureau of Economic Policy, 1989
──────, Non- Tariff Distortions of International Trade, Washington DC Brookings Institution, 1970
Brown, Chris, Understanding International Relation, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001
Camps,Miriam and Catherine Gwin, Collective Management: The Reform of Global Economy Organization, New York: McGraw- Hill, 1981
Cohen, Stephen D., Fundamentals of US Foreign Trade Policy, CO: Westview Press,2002.
Congressional Quarterly, “GATT Enacted in Lame-Duck Session,” 1994 Congressional Quarterly Almanac, Washington DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995, P128
Crawford, Robert M.A., Regime Theory in the Post-Cold War World, VT: Dartmouth, 1996
Das, Dilip, Global Trading System at the Crossroad, NY: Routledge, 2001
Deslter, I. M., American Trade Politics, NY: Institute for International Economic, 1995.
Eckes, Alfred, U.S Trade Policy-History, Theory and WTO, NY:M.E.Sharpe 1999
Eichengreen, Barry, The Political Economy of the Smoot- Hawley Tariff, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1986
──────,Three Perspectives on the Bretton Woods System, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research,1992
Ford, Jane, A Social Theory of the WTO: Trading Culture, New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2003
Gardner, Brain, European Agriculture: Policies, Production and Trade, NY: Routledge,1997
Headlee, Sue, The Year Inside the Beltway: Making Economic Policy in Washington, CT: Praeger Publishers,2002
Hocking, Brian and Steven McGuire, Trade Politics: International, Domestic, and Regional Perspectives, N.Y.: Routledge, 1999
Irwin, Douglas, The Smoot-Hawley Tariff:A Quantitative Assessment, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996
──────, From Smooth-Hawley to Reciprocal Trade Agreements: Changing the Course of the US Trade Policy in the 1930s,NY: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1997
Jackson, John, The World Trade System, Cambridge:MA: MIT Press, 1989
Johnson, Chalmers, The Sorrow of Empire: Militarism, Secure and the End of the Republic, NY: Metropolitan Books, 2004
Gilpin, Robert, The Political Economy of International Relations, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987
Keohane, Robert O., After Hegemony, NJ: Princeton University Press,1984
──────, Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World, NY: Routledge,2002
──────and Joseph Nye, Power and Interdependence, NY: Longman, 2001
Kindleberger, Charles, The World in Depression, 1929-1933, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973
Krasner, Stephan, International Regime,N.Y.: Cornell University Press,1983.
Krueger, Anne, The WTO as an International Organization, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998
Lamont, Douglas, Winning Worldwide: Strategies for Dominating Global Markets, Chicago: Irwin Professional Pub., 1991
Lovett, William, U.S. Trade Policy-History, Theory and WTO, Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharp, 1999
Madeley, John, Hungry for Trade, NY: Zed Books, 2001
Morgethau, Hans J., Politics among Nations: the Struggle for Power and Peace, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1960
Nye, Joseph S, The Paradox of American Power: Why the World’s Only Superpower can’t Go it Alone? , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002
Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich, The GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement System,London: Kluwer Law International ,1997
Pastor, Robert, Congress and the politics of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy 1929-1976, CA: University of California Press, 1980
Rittberger, Volker, Regime Theory and International Relations, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993
Ross, John, Linking Europe, CT: Praeger Publisher, 1998
Taylor, A.J., The Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848-1918, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1954.
Thurow, Lester, Head to Head-The Coming Economic Battle among Japan, Europe and America, NY: William Morrow, 1992
Tyson, Laura D’Andrea, Who’s Bashing Whom? - Trade Conflict in High-Technology
Industries, Washington DC: Institute for International Economics, 1992
Watson, Peter, Completing the World Trading System, Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1999
Whalley, John, The Trading System after the Uruguay Round, Washington DC :
Institution for International Economics, 1996
Whiteman, Marina, New World, New Rules: The Changing Role of the American
Corporation, Harvard Business School Press, 1999
Young, Oran R., International Cooperation: Building Regimes for Natural Resources
and the Environment, Cornell University Press, 1989
Zeckhauser, Richard J.and Ralph L. Keeney and James K. Sebenius, Wise Chioces: Decisions, Games, and Negotiations, Boston: Harvard Business School Press,1996, P.360

三、期刊
Bureau of Economic Analysis, US Department of Commerce, Survey of Current Business, Feb. 1997, p.25.
Charnovitz, Steven, “Rethinking WTO Trade Sanction”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol.95, Issue 4, Oct., 2001, p.792.
Christopher, Warren, “NAFTA: A Bridge to a Better Future for the United States and the Hemisphere”, U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Sep. 13, 1993
Cloud, David.“ Members Question Fast Track”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Feb. 2,1991, Vol.49, p.291.
─────.“ Committee Asks if Mexico Pact will Ship Industry South”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Feb. 9,1991, Vol.49, p.302.
─────” Congress Wary of Bush Plan to Open Doors to Mexico”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Feb.23, 1991, Vol.49, p.451-p.454.
─────.“ Lopsided Vote Seen Signaling Win for Bush on Fast Trade”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, May.18, 1991, Vol.49, p.1257
─────.“ Hill Gives Bush Green Light to Negotiate Trade Pacts”, Congressional
Quarterly Weekly Report, May.25, 1991, Vol.49, p.1358
─────.” Warning Bells on NAFTA Sound for Clinton”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Nov.28, 1992, Vol.50, p.3710
─────.“ Questions for the President”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report,
Sep. 26,1992, Vol.50, p.2893-p.2894
─────.” Kantor Now Faces Tough Job of Shaping New Agenda”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Jan. 23, 1993, Vol.51, p.172-p.173
─────.” Tougher Safeguards Pushed for NAFTA Accord”, Congressional
Quarterly Weekly Report, Mar.20, 1993, Vol.51, p.661
─────.” President Looks to Fast track to Spur Stalled GATT Talks”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Apr.17, 1993, p.952
─────. “Extension of Fast-Track Rules Seen Prodding GATT Talks”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, May.1, 1993, Vol.51, p.1076
─────. “Finding Money for GATT”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report,
Jan.29, 1994, Vol.52, p.160
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, “Trade: Talk of Regional Blocs in International system”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Jan. 19,1991,Vol.49, p.154
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, “Questions for the President”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Sep.26,1992, Vol. 50, p.2894.
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, “Bush Asks to Stay on Fast Track”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Mar.2,1991, Vol.49, p.531
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, “On the Fast Track”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Mar. 16, 1991, Vol.49, p.661
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, “Section Notes: Gephardt Lists His Conditions”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Mar. 30,1991, Vol.49, p.789
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report,“ House Votes: H Res 101 & H Res 146. Fast Track Resolutions”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, May.25, 1991, Vol.49, p.1408
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report ,“House Votes: HR 1876. GATT Fast-Track Extension/Passage”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Jun. 26, 1993, Vol.51, p.1678
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, “Section Notes: Fast-Track Extension Clears Congress”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Jul.3, 1993, Vol.51, p.1722
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, “Issue: Fast Track”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Aug.10, 1991, Vol.49, p.2225
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report,”House Panel OKs Fast Track Rules”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Jun.12, 1993, Vol.51, p.1467.
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, “In Mock Markup, Trade Panel Shows Support for GATT”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Jul.2, 1994, Vol.52, p.1774
Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report,”Clinton Moves to Reinstate Super 301 Trade Law”, Congressional Quaterly Weekly Report, Mar.5, 1994, p.534
Cranford, John. “House Signals Concerns on Free-Trade Pact”, Congressional
Quarterly Weekly Report, Aug.8, 1992, Vol.50, p.2334-p.2335
Gardner, Booth, “US Committed to Equal Benefit for All Asia Trade Partners”, American Institute in Taiwan Backgrounder Series, Jun. 16, 1994
Kaplan, Dave and Juliana Gruenwald,” Longtime Second Party Scores a Long ist of GOP First”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Nov.11, 1994, Vol.52, p.3232
Richardson, David.” The Political Economy of Strategic Trade Policy”, International
Organization, 44, 1, Winter,1990
Sek Lenore, “Fast Track Authority for Trade Agreements-Background and Developments in the 107th Congress”, CRS Issue Brief for Congress, 2001,5,14
Stegemann, Klaus.” Policy Rivalry among Industrial States: What can We Learn from
Models of Strategic Trade Policy?”, International Organization ,43,1,Winter,1989
Taylor, Andrea.” Fast-Track Rules get House OK”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly
Report, Jun.26, 1993, Vol.51, p.1638
The Economist, “Ameriaca’s World”, The Economist, Oct. 23, 1999, p.15
The Economist, ”Semiconductor Trade: Son of Deal”, The Economist, Jun. 8, 1991, p.68.
Van Bael,“The GATT Dispute Settlement Procedure”, Journal of World Trade, Vol. 22, No.4, 1988, p.68-p.69

四、報紙
Bollage, Burton,“80 Nations Clear Way to Resume Trade Talks”, New York Times, Apr.9, 1989, Sec.1, Part 1, P.10, Column 1.
Bradsher, Keith “U.S. Sees Months of Talks Needed for World Trade Pact”, New York Times, Jan.10, 1992, Sec. D, P.1,Column 1.
────,” Trade Proposal Draws a Lukewarm Response”, New York Times, Jan.13, 1992,Sec.D, P.2,Column 4.
────, “Clinton Wants Fast Track Rule Extented”, New York Times, Feb.12, 1993,Sec.D,P.2,Column 2.
────, “For Clinton, Managed Trade is Emerging as Policy Option”, New York Times, Mar.30, 1993, Sec A, P.1, Column 1.
Cohen, Roger, “New Hope is Seen for Trade Pact”, New York Times, Apr.2, 1992, Sec D, P.1, Column 6.
────, “World Trade Pact Now seen at Least Several Months off”, New York Times, Jan. 30, 1993, Sec 1, P.42, Column 5.
────,“France Says a Trade Pact is not Likely”, New York Times, Jun.30, 1993, Sec D, P.2, Column 1.
Farnsworth, Clyde, “Talks Put on Hold by GATT”, New York Times, Dec.10, 1988, Sec 1, P.35, Column 6.
────,“Talks on Trade Enter Final Bargaining Stage”, New York Times, Apr.10, 1989, Sec D, P.9, Column 4.
Greenhouse, Steven, “GATT Chief Sees Breaks in Farm Trade Impasse”, New York Times, Jan.16, 1991, Sec D, P.2, Column 5.
────,“ A Move to Break World Trade Deadlock”, New York Times, Dec.21, 1991, Sec 1, P.33, Column 3.
────,“ A Big Gamble by GATT’s Director”, New York Times, Dec.23, 1991, Sec D, P.2, Column 4.
Lighthizer, Robert, “Why Hurry the Trade Talks?” New York Times, Dec.16, 1992, Sec A, P.31, Column 1.
New York Times, “Pacts Seen at GATT Talks”, New York Times, Nov.11, 1988, Sec D, P.15, Column 1.
────, “Trade Talk Move Today”, New York Times, Jan.15, 1991, Sec D, P.18, Column 6.
────,“U.S. Weighs Bigger Cut in Farm Trade Barriers”, New York Times, Feb.26, 1992, Sec D, P.4, Column 5.
────,“European Official will Meet with Baker on Trade Talks”, New York Times, May.26, 1992, Sec D, P.2, Column 5.
────,“A Hopeful Outlook on GATT”, New York Times , Nov.12, 1992, Sec D, P.1, Column 6.
Riding, Alan, “ Top Official at GATT Faces a Round in Crisis”, New York Times, Dec.3, 1990, Sec D, P.10, Column 1.
────,“Farm Trade Talks are Set to Resume”, New York Times, Feb.21, 1991, Sec D, P.1, Column 6.
────,“GATT Pact is Sought by Year-End”, New York Times, Nov. 27, 1992, Sec D , P.9, Column 6.
────,“A Goal of Dec.15 is Set for Real Trade Progress”, New York Times, Sep.1, 1993, Sec D, P.2, Column 5.
Nasar, Sylvia, “The Transaction; An Unorthodox Choice for Economic Adviser”, New York Times, Dec.12, 1992, Sec 1, P.10, Column 5.
Nash, Nathaniel, “Gently Presiding over the GATT’s Final Round”, New York Times, Feb.7, 1993, Sec 3, P.11, Column 5.
────, “GATT Chief Says U.S. Delays Pact”, New York Times, Apr.5, 1993, Sec D, P.1, Column 6.

五、網路資源:
「GATT之沿革與WTO之成立」WWW Internet Page at URL: (http://cwto.trade.gov.tw/webPage.asp?CuItem=11543)
經濟部國貿易局。「烏拉圭回合談判」, World Wide Web at URL:《http://www.moeaboft.gov.tw/global_org/wto/wto_index.htm》

六、相關網址:
Http://www.wto.org(世界貿易組織官方網站)
Http://www.usda.gov(美國農業部官方網站)
Http://www.census.gov(美國普查局官方網站)
Http://www.ustr.gov(美國貿易總署官方網站)
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