||This thesis uses Budai region under Japanese rule as the research region to observe the relationship between industrial development of “agriculture and fisheries and salt” and the regions. Budai-sho and Dongshi-sho are both seaside villages in Dongshi-kun. Thus, it is more similar to Budai-sho in terms of geography and environment; thus this thesis also uses Dongshi-sho for comparison and reference. Budai’s “Wang Port” was an important place for fisheries and salt in under rule by the Dutch and Cheng Chenggong. After the middle of Qianlong’s reign in the Qing Dynasty, development of the Budai region had become more mature. At the start of Japanese rule, the Budai administrative regions followed that of the Qing, under the jurisdiction of “Dachiutian West Fort, Longjiaotan Fort, Baishugongtan Fort.” In Taisho 9 (1920), the Governor-General’s Office in Taiwan implemented “administrative division modification,” and Budai was placed under Tainan-shu, Dongshi-kun, Budai-sho, largely similar to the current administrative region as the current Budai Village.
Under Japanese rule, agricultural development in the Budai region can generally be divided into three periods: 1.Shulin Toupo era: Shulin Toupo was the same as in the Qing, with an irrigation area of approximately the thirteen villages near Shulintou, approximately in today’s Shulin Township and Kueishe Township to the east side of Budai Village near the center of the Jianan Plains.
2. Public irrigation canal era: In Meiji 36 (1903), Chuang Cho-wen headed the application to the government for repairs and participation in the public irrigation canals association. In Taisho 10 (1921), the Shulin Toujun was complete, becoming the only original irrigation canal in Dongshi-kun. In order to achieve goals such as increase the area for cultivating sugarcane and increasing production value, Yanshui Port Sugar Company devoted itself to land improvement and cultivation, and built the railroad from Budai Harbor to Hsin-ying, and from Hsin-ying to Shulintou, and in Taisho 13 (1924) Hsinshujun was complete. Due to the gradual completion of irrigation facilities, Budai-sho became the administrative unit within Dongshi-kun with the closest ratio of wet paddy to dry farmland, and it is also the area with best irrigation in Dongshi-kun. In Showa 2 (1927) Penglai rice was grown for the first time, and became the most significant cultivation area in Dongshi-kun. Additionally, Dongshi-kun was also the most significant cultivation area for Tsailai rice and glutinous rice. Dongshi Village has rivers and waterways such as Puzih Stream and Beigang Stream, but because of the lack of irrigation facilities, its dry farmlands far exceeded its wet paddies; thus its agriculture primarily consisted of sugarcane, yams, and dry farmland rice.
3. Jianan Canal era: The Jianan Canel was completed in Showa 5 (1930), Shulin Toujun was incorporated into Jianan Canal administration. Since the irrigation scope of Jianan Canal penetrated the other administrative areas of Dongshi-kun, Dongshi-sho’s wet paddy areas began to increase, the area for growing wet paddy rice such as Penglai rice gradually exceeded that of Budai-sho, but it still had more dry farmland than wet paddy. After completion of the Jianan Canal, Budai-sho maintained its ratio of wet paddy to dry farmland and agricultural production value. In Showa 8 (1933) the Budai region began building a dam due to Bachang River flooding, and in the same year the area of wet paddy exceeded that of dry farmland in Budai-sho; Budai-sho wet paddy ratio and agricultural production value also slowly increased. During this period, Dongshi-sho performed better than Budai-sho in terms of agricultural growth and increase of production value; irrigation facilities took away the leadership position of Budai-sho agriculture.
Shulintou’s Chuang family owned the Shulin Toupo in the Qing Dynasty. Over a few generations, it gradually became an opinion leader in the area. Since it participated in quelling local rebellions, and it had people in two consecutive generations with the martial Juren title, their “peasant” status was transformed into the “gentry status,” but their family gradually declined due to management problems. Under Japanese rule, the Chuang family was still a local opinion leader due to irrigation, and played the role of communicating with the government. Chief of the Budai-sho was Tsai Nai-cheng who lived on the coast, but after Taisho 13 (1924) and the completion of Shulin Toujun and Hsinshujun in Budai region, Shulintou’s Chuang Kuan became chief, and his family gradually evolved from mere local leaders to participating in Dongshi-kun agricultural organizations and Jianan Canal organization’s evaluator, and finally enlarged to participation in affairs of Dongshi-kun and Tainan-shu.
In terms of fisheries and salt, the Budai region was important since the Dutch and Cheng times. There were records of cultivation fisheries along the coastal areas of Budai as early as in the middle of Kangxi years, and by the middle of Qianlong’s rule, there were many records of salt fields and fisheries. Budaizui Area’s Tsai Naicheng led the fishing industry in applying to the Governor-General Office of Taiwan for “using the ocean as fish ponds” in Budaizui Port and Hsintsoutsai, which primarily raised “milkfish and oysters” as the administrative unit with the highest area for saltwater fisheries in Dongshi-kun. In Taisho 7 (1928), the “Budai Tsuifu Trust Association” was established, which was primarily comprised of the coastal fishing industry and the Tsai family, and this was the only trust association in Budai region under Japanese rule. In Showa 5, with completion of the Jianan Canal and in Showa 9 (1934) with completion of the Bachang River dam, in the same year the area for wet paddies exceeded that of dry farmland. Along with the replacement of dry farmland with wet paddies, the surface of the fish ponds also greatly decreased in the same year, as the land was improved and such ponds were turned into wet or dry farmland. Budai region freshwater fish cultivation was generally located in ponds at the ends of irrigation or water disposal or in nearby ponds. These ponds not only bred freshwater fish but also were used for civilian and agricultural water, so they were very big. The cultivation fishing industry had a long yield period but it was easily affected by the natural environment. Whenever there were incentives for land use, the ponds were turned into land for agriculture. During Japanese rule, the area for the fishing industry became smaller due to appearance of the Jianan Canal; this the major feature of the Budai region economy.
In terms of the salt industry, during the Qing Dynasty, Budai region had salt fields such as “Datienchang” and “Chounanchang,” which were developed by the government. In the initial stages of Japanese rule, the Governor-General Office of Taiwan allowed the private salt industry to develop freely in order to pacify the people and to facilitate management. Although Budai was damaged in the course of Japanese attacks, purchasing contracts show that production in the salt industry was quickly resumed. In Meiji 32 (1900), in consideration of finances, the Governor-General Office of Taiwan announced that salt would be sold in a government monopoly, and in next year it promulgated “rules for salt monopoly in Taiwan,” encouraging Japanese and Taiwanese capital to engage in salt production. In Meiji 39 (1906), the second stage of the salt fields project was promulgated, so that the Budai salt fields extended to Jangtan-cho in the north, to coastal areas of Hsin-au and Huweiliao near Bachang River. After completion of the Jianan Canal, the area and land use of salt fields was not affected. After completion of the Bachang River dam, the area of salt fields peaked. After the Pacific War began, the Governor-General Office of Taiwan gradually consolidated Budai region salt fields, and established the Taiwan Manufacturing and Research Company and South Japan Salt Company in Showa 16 (1941). The next year, Chungyuantsaoda Company established a salt by-product bromine factory in Budai region, and salt became needed by the military. Due to salt shipment, Budai Harbor became the only port that could accommodate steamboats along the coast of Chiayi, and Hsin-au Port became the new port to appear in this period. Since the state had a salt monopoly, salt production only yielded limited income, and since it was impossible to change land usage like in the fishing industry, development of the salt industry areas was slower.
Observation of the above agricultural, fishery, and salt industries shows that during the period of Japanese rule Budai region development was based on agriculture, such agricultural development was related to the completion of Shulin Toujun, Hsinshujun, and Jianan Canal, and further changed the original ways of utilizing land. This became a unique trait of Budai region industry under Japanese rule, and this differs from the current stereotypes of Budai Village as the “home of fisheries and salt.”