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系統識別號 U0002-1102200902022900
中文論文名稱 雜訊環境下強健性語者辨認的新方法
英文論文名稱 Novel Approaches for Robust Speaker Identification under Noisy Environments
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 陳萬城
研究生英文姓名 Wan-Chen Chen
學號 889350061
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2009-01-12
論文頁數 70頁
口試委員 指導教授-謝景棠
委員-蘇木春
委員-邱榮輝
委員-簡福榮
委員-許志旭
中文關鍵字 語者辨認  小波轉換  多層解析  特徵抽取  重要成份分析  高斯混和式模型  多階層向量量化 
英文關鍵字 speaker identification  wavelet transform  multi-resolution  feature extraction  principal component analysis(PCA)  Gaussian mixture model(GMM)  multi-stage vector quantization(MSVQ) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 當訓練環境與應用環境彼此不匹配時,語者辨認系統的辨識效能會嚴重下降。本論文主要針對語者辨認系統在環境不匹配所造成的問題,提出幾個改善強健性的技術。在語音特徵方面,提出一個多頻帶語音特徵抽取技術,利用離散小波轉換技術將語音訊號分解成幾個頻帶,並萃取出分佈於各個頻帶訊號的線性預估倒頻譜係數,最後在求出的語音特徵上作特徵向量正規化處理,以確保在不同的環境下能獲得相似的語音特徵。為有效利用所求出之多頻帶語音特徵,在辨識模型上我們提出幾種改良的方法。首先提出多頻帶特徵結合法與多頻帶機率結合法應用於高斯混和式模型。實驗顯示這兩種方法的辨識效能均優於使用線性預估倒頻譜係數與梅爾刻度倒頻譜係數語音特徵的高斯混和式模型。第二部分提出多頻帶二階向量量化模型。此辨識模型的量化誤差為每一個頻帶的二階向量量化器量化誤差總和。實驗顯示此一方法的辨識效能優於使用線性預估倒頻譜係數與梅爾刻度倒頻譜係數語音特徵的向量量化模型與高斯混和式模型的辨識架構。第三部分提出一改良型的多頻帶向量量化模型。此一辨識架構主要是利用分層處理的概念來消除不同頻帶間語音係數的干擾並以重要成份分析技術來表現各頻帶編碼簿的特性,使得所建構出的編碼簿更能有效描述音素的特性。實驗結果顯示此方法的辨識效能均優於先前所提的辨識模型。
英文摘要 The performance of speaker recognition system is seriously degraded due to mismatched condition between training and testing environments. This dissertation is mainly focused on some particular parts of the robustness issues of a speaker identification system. At first, a multi-band linear predictive cepstral coefficients (MBLPCC) speech feature is presented. Based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) technique, the input speech signal is decomposed into various frequency subbands, and LPCC of the lower frequency subband for each decomposition process are calculated. Furthermore, cepstral domain feature vector normalization is applied to all computed features in order to provide similar parameter statistics in all acoustic environments. By using MBLPCC speech feature as the front-end of the speaker identification, three approaches are proposed to deal with the various robustness problems of a text-independent speaker identification system. Firstly, we use feature recombination and likelihood recombination methods in Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to evaluate the task of text-independent speaker identification. Experimental results show that both proposed methods achieve better performance than GMM using full-band LPCC and mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) in noisy environments. Secondarily, we propose a multi-band two-stage vector quantization (VQ) as the recognition model. Various two-stage VQ classifiers are applied independently to each band, and then the errors of all two-stage VQ classifiers are combined to yield a total error. It is shown that the proposed method is more effective and robust than conventional VQ and GMM models using full-band LPCC and MFCC features. Thirdly, we propose a modified VQ as the identifier. This model uses the multi-layer concept to eliminate interference among multi-band speech features and then uses principal component analysis (PCA) technique to evaluate the codebooks in all bands for capturing a more detailed distribution of individual speaker’s phoneme characteristics. By evaluating the proposed method, we can see that the proposed method gives better performance than other recognition models proposed previously in both clean and noisy environments. Also, a satisfactory performance can be achieved in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments.
論文目次 Contents

Abstract (in Chinese) i
Abstract (in English) ii
Contents iv
List of Figures vii
List of Tables viii


Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Review of Robust Speaker Recognition in Noisy Environment 3
1.3 Summary and Outline of This Dissertation 7
1.3.1 Multi-Band Speech Features Based on Wavelet Transform 8
1.3.2 Multi-Band Recognition Models Using Feature Recombination and Likelihood Recombination for Speaker Identification 8
1.3.3 Robust Speaker Identification System Based on Multi-Band Two-Stage Vector Quantization 9
1.3.4 Robust Speaker Identification System Based on Multi-Layer Eigen-Codebook Vector Quantization 9

Chapter 2 Multi-Band Speech Features Based on Wavelet Transform 10
2.1 Review of Wavelet Transform 10
2.2 Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC) 14
2.3 Multi-Band Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (MBLPCC) 17


Chapter 3 Multi-Band Recognition Models Using Feature Recombination and Likelihood Recombination for Speaker Identification 20
3.1 Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) 20
3.2 Multi-Band Speaker Recognition Models 24
3.3 Experimental Results 27
3.3.1 Database Description and Parameter Setting 27
3.3.2 Effect of Decomposition Level 28
3.3.3 Comparison with Conventional GMM Models 30
3.4 Concluding Remarks of This Chapter 31

Chapter 4 Robust Speaker Identification System Based on Multi-Band Two-Stage Vector Quantization 32
4.1 Two-Stage Vector Quantization 32
4.2 Multi-Band Two-Stage VQ Recognition Model 34
4.3 Experimental Results 36
4.3.1 Database Description and Parameters Setting 36
4.3.2 Contribution of Multi-Band 37
4.3.3 Effect of Number of Code Vectors in First and Second Stage Codebooks 38
4.3.4 Comparison with Other Existing Models 39
4.4 Concluding Remarks of This Chapter 41

Chapter 5 Robust Speaker Identification System Based on Multi-Layer Eigen-Codebook Vector Quantization 43
5.1 Vector Quantization 43
5.2 Principal Component Analysis 45
5.3 Multi-Layer Eigen-Codebook Vector Quantization (MLECVQ) 46
5.4 Experimental Results 49
5.4.1 Database Description and Parameters Setting 50
5.4.2 Contribution of Multi-Band 51
5.4.3 Comparison of the Performance between Eigen-Codebook VQ and Conventional VQ 52
5.4.4 Comparison with Other Existing Models 54
5.5 Concluding Remarks of This Chapter 57

Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work 59


References 61
Publications 70

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Structure of speaker recognition system. 5
Figure 2.1 (a) Standard time domain basis. 11
Figure 2.1 (b) Standard frequency domain basis. 11
Figure 2.2 Three-scale of wavelet basis. 12
Figure 2.3 Filter-bank structure of discrete wavelet transform. 14
Figure 2.4 Two-band analysis tree for discrete wavelet transform. 19
Figure 2.5 Feature extraction algorithm of MBLPCC. 19
Figure 3.1 Depiction of an M-component Gaussian mixture density. 21
Figure 3.2 Structure of FCGMM. 25
Figure 3.3 Structure of LCGMM 26
Figure 4.1 Structure of two-stage VQ. 34
Figure 4.2 Structure of multi-band two-stage VQ model. 35
Figure 4.3 Effect of number of bands on identification performance of the multi-band two-stage VQ model with 64 code vectors in first stage and 32 code vectors in second stage in clean environment. 38
Figure 4.4 Effect of number of bands on identification performances of MBVQ with 96 code vectors and the multi-band two-stage VQ model with 64 code vectors in first stage and 32 code vectors in second stage in clean environment. 40
Figure 5.1 Structure of MLECVQ. 47
Figure 5.2 Effect of number of bands on identification performance of MLECVQ model with 96 code words and three projection basis vectors in clean environment. 52
Figure 5.3 Effect of number of projection basis vectors on identification performance of MLECVQ model with 96 code words and features of three bands in clean environment. 53
Figure 5.4. Performances of MBVQ and MLECVQ model with 96 code words and three projection basis vectors in clean environment. 54

List of Tables

Table 3.1 Effect of number of bands on identification rates for FCGMM and LCGMM models in clean and noisy environments. 29
Table 3.2 Identification rates for GMM+LPCC, GMM+MFCC, FCGMM and LCGMM models under white noise corruption. 31
Table 4.1 Effect of number of code vectors in first and second stage codebooks on identification rates for 3-band two-stage VQ in clean and noisy environments. 39
Table 4.2 Identification rates for VQ+LPCC, VQ+MFCC, GMM+LPCC, GMM+MFCC and 3-band two-stage VQ under white noise corruption. 41
Table 5.1 Identification rates, the recognition time per testing utterance and the numbers of floating point numbers of parameters of VQ+MFCC, GMM+MFCC, 3-band FCGMM, 4-band LCGMM, 3-band two-stage VQ and 3-band MLECVQ under white noise corruption. 56
Table 5.2 Identification rates of auditory model [82], 3-band FCGMM, 4-band LCGMM, 3-band two-stage VQ and 3-band MLECVQ under white noise corruption using 90 seconds training utterances and testing segments 6 seconds in length of 49 speakers of KING speech database. For auditory model [82], the length of testing segments is 6.4 seconds. 58

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