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系統識別號 U0002-1101200615590600
中文論文名稱 巴西經濟政策與貧窮問題 (1990-2002)
英文論文名稱 Economic Strategies and Poverty in Brazil (1990-2002)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies
學年度 94
學期 1
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 劉詩馨
研究生英文姓名 Shih-Hsin, Liu
學號 690020119
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-01-03
論文頁數 113頁
口試委員 指導教授-白方濟
委員-鄧中堅
委員-韋淑珊
中文關鍵字 巴西  貧窮  經濟政策  新自由主義 
英文關鍵字 Brazil  Poverty  Economic strategies  Neo-liberalism 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 自80年代以來,由於貧困及社會不公而引起的社會矛盾,社會動盪已經成為國際社會的焦點。 一些國際組織與國家也將目光著重於如何消弭貧窮,以期達到社會公義 在整個拉丁美洲國家中,巴西是各國中利益分配最不公正、貧富差距最大的國家。 由於國家在整個經濟發展過程中,在不同階段中扮演著不同的角色,而政策的形成過程中總是受限於國內政策主要制定者的意志與政治體制,在全球化時代下更是受國際社會體系制約。 因此當我們探討巴西貧窮問題時,我們必須追溯其歷史的根源與脈絡,才能清楚地了解到巴西是如何受制於政治經濟政策而形成其社會結構以及此結構又是如何回頭影響、牽制著巴西的發展。
巴西在16-19世紀的殖民統治時期,已產生極複雜的種族及階級差異的社會問題。 傳統上,巴西社會關係一直是以菁英主義與威權主義為主導,政黨及利益團體都是執政黨為了保護其領導地位之政治目的而形成的附屬組織。 (一) 從早期殖民時期確立了巴西利益分配格局的雛型,之後的民粹政權,經過1968-1974年的”經濟奇蹟 ”和現今新自由主義的改革,巴西社會的不公平及收入分配不均的問題,不但沒有隨經濟發展和社會的現代化得到相對的改善,而有愈演愈烈之勢。
本論文即是以歷史-結構作為主軸,希望能從巴西歷史發展的軌跡來了解巴西的社會問題的核心,因為任何的歷史事件決不是突然間發生或單獨存在,後來發生的事件總是對之前的歷史作出回應,而當下的內外環境的影響與制約也深深地牽制一個國家的發展。
英文摘要 Brazil is the largest country in Latin America and it’s the ninth largest economy in the world. Despite its vast natural resources and economic wealth, Brazil has an extremely high percentage of people living below the poverty line, even in comparison to other Latin American countries. Brazil also stands out for its sharp regional and social disparities.
This poverty and inequality have their roots in the country's past but their more immediate causes can be found in the process of development based on the replacement of imports carried out by the State between the 1940s and the 1970s; in the crisis of that development pattern; in the failed attempts at economic adjustment; and in the consequences - still incipient - of the economic restructuring process imposed by globalization.
The recent phase of globalization which occurred in the early 1990s has drawn increasing attention to the puzzling developments. This decade represented a turning-point in the country’s economic history, for the previous four decades a closed economy with strong presence of the State interventionism as an economic development strategy. Trade liberalization affects economic growth and trade through their mutually contradictory effects on investment and exchange rate. This made the economy extremely vulnerable to fluctuations in capital flows, and has significant effects on manufacturing employment and wages. It has had, and will continue to have a profound effect on certain divisions within the workforce and certain social groups. The resulting social problem will also have negative impacts on the development and stability of Brazil.
Brazil still has a long way to go in reversing the widening socioeconomic inequities between rich and poor. Poverty is recognized as a complex social and economic phenomenon, the dimensions and determinants of which are various. The reduction in poverty requires some combination of economic growth and reduction in inequality and none of them can be dispensed. Income inequality in Brazil still remains high by international standards and is rooted in structural causes, such as inequality in educational attainment and land ownership. To achieve substantial improvements, Brazil must address these root causes of income inequality.
論文目次 Economic Strategies and Poverty in Brazil
(1990-2002)

Table of Contents

1.Introduction…………………………………………………1-8

2. Poverty in Brazil……………………………………………9
2.1 General causes of poverty………………………………9
2.1.1 Definition of poverty ………………………………9-12
2.1.2 Causes of poverty ……………………………………13-17
2.2 Causes of poverty in Brazil……………………………18
2.2.1 Infrastructural factors -Social and economic
infrastructures in colonial period and imperial
period………………………………………………………18-22
2.2.2 Macroeconomics of populism - The cyclical working
of the state………………………………………………23-29
2.2.3 Macroeconomic factors -High inflation and
instability (Lost decade in the 1980s)……………30-35
2.2.4 Educational factors -Inequitable distribution of
education…………………………………………………36-40

3. Globalization trend and Neo-Liberalism Policy in
Brazil(1990s)…………………………………………………41
3.1 Historicalbackground……………………………………41-43
3.2 Neo-liberalism and structural adjustment policies…44
3.2.1 Trade opening and privatization…………………45-49
3.2.2 Stabilization-Structural adjustment
policies……………………………………………………50-54
3.3 Impact of globalization and trade liberalization……55
3.3.1 Impact on labor market………………………………56-57
3.3.2 Impact on Brazil’s macro-economy………………58-62
3.4 The financial crisis in 1999……………………………63
3.4.1 Unique causes of the crisis………………………63-66
3.4.2 Aftermath of financial crisis……………………67-70

4. Responding to poverty-Anti-Poverty Policy of Cardoso's
government………………………………………………………71
4.1 Reforms of Cardoso’s government……………………71-72
4.1.1 Social Security Reform………………………………73-77
4.1.2 Tax Reform………………………………………………78-82
4.1.3 Education Reform………………………………………83-87
4.2 Impact of reforms on the poor…………………………88-89
4.3 Cardoso’s challenge-the political obstacles……90-92

5. Conclusion……………………………………………………93-103

Bibliography……………………………………………………104-113

Tables:
1. Distribution of GDP and Labor Force Among Sectors, 1950-
1990…………………………………………………………………33
2. Major Macroeconomic Indicators: actual values (1994-
2001) and Predictions (2003)…………………………………54
3. Major Social Indicators (1991-2002)……………………86-87
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Amann, Edmund and Werner Baer, Anchors Away: the Cost and Benefits of Brazil's Devaluation, the University of Illinois at Urbana, 2002, www.business.uiuc.edu/Working_Papers/papers/02−0122.pdf

Amann, Edmund and Werner Baer, Anchors Away: the Cost and Benefits of Brazil's Devaluation, the University of Illinois at Urbana, 2002, www.business.uiuc.edu/Working_Papers/papers/02−0122.pdf

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Barros de Castro, Antonio, Brazil's second catch-up: characteristics and constraints, CEPAL Review No. 80, August 2003

Carneiro, Francisco Galrão and Jorge Saba Arbache, the Impacts of Trade on the Brazilian Labor Market: a CGE Model Approach, www.sbe.org.br/ebe24/013.pdf

Denes, Christian Andrew, Bolsa Escola: Redefining Poverty and Development in Brazil, International Education Journal Vol. 4, No 2, 2003, ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/iej/iej.htm

Dos Santos, Narcisa Maria Gonçalves and Elton Fernandes, Reform of Brazilian Social Security in a comparative Perspective: The Search for an Appropriate Model, The year 2000 International Research Conference on Social Security, 25-27 September 2000, www.issa.int/pdf/helsinki2000/topic1/2goncalves.pdf

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Internet Resources:

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