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系統識別號 U0002-1010200617402900
中文論文名稱 高濁度水庫原水中粒狀物質分離能力之探討
英文論文名稱 The Investigation on the Ability of Particle Removal from High-turbidity Reservoir Water
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 宋朝正
研究生英文姓名 Chau-Cheng Song
學號 692331332
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-26
論文頁數 124頁
口試委員 指導教授-李柏青
共同指導教授-高思懷
委員-李柏青
委員-高思懷
委員-曾迪華
中文關鍵字 電聚  電化學  電能  高濁度  粒狀物  混凝  水處理 
英文關鍵字 electro-aggregation process  electrochemistry  high turbidity  particle removal  coagulation 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 台灣地區每逢稍大雨勢,水庫原水中含有大量的泥沙等粒狀物質,使得水庫原水濁度飆高,而影響自來水之原水取得,以致無法供水之窘境。
有鑑於此,本研究主要即探討高濁度水庫原水中,粒狀物質之分離能力,研究傳統淨水處理模式,與尚未被運用於處理淨水的電聚法,於遭遇到高濁度原水時,處理效能及水中粒狀物質之分離能力,以提供將來應用之基礎研究。
經實驗結果證實,高濁度原水中含有相當細小的粒狀物質,其粒徑D(50)為6.5 μm。以傳統的化學混凝分離高濁度原水(500、1,500、3,000 NTU)中粒狀物質,在pH值為7時加藥量為:50、100、150 mg/l,濁度值可處理達3、3.5、3.2 NTU。以電聚法使用鋁為電極,分離高濁度原水中粒狀物質有良好的成效;操作條件為水力停留時間128 sec,電壓150~200V,電流0.4~2.2A,可將高濁度原水(500、1,500、3,000 NTU)處理達3.8、3.8、4.0 NTU;實驗結果並發現,電聚法可以減少高濁度原水中電導度達30 %以上。故可判斷電聚法適合用於處理高濁度原水;然因電聚法尚未被運用於處理高濁度水,技術較不純熟,實有進行模場實驗之必要。另由電聚法與化學混凝處理時間比較,發現兩者之水力停留時間相差15倍以上(128 sec及33 min),故電聚法具有處理時間短及用地面積小之優勢,以處理高濁度原水。
關鍵詞:電聚、電化學、電能、高濁度、粒狀物、混凝、水處理
英文摘要 Removal of turbidity from raw water is critical to the water treatment plant because of large amount of particles suspended in the water especially after heavy rain showers. It is difficult to remove micrometer sized particles (eg. D(50) = 6.5 μm) due to longer retention is needed for settlement. Our task is to investigate the ability of particle removal from high turbidity reservoir water, and the conventional settlement process, coagulation and electro-aggregation processes were also compared.
The results of the experiments reveal that high turbidity raw water samples (500, 1500, 3000 NTU) can be treated by coagulation at pH 7 at the PAC dosage of 50, 100, 150 mg/l, respectively, and the results come out the treated water of 3, 3.5, 3.2 NTU. The particle removal ability by electro-aggregation process, using aluminum plate as electrodes are significant. The turbidities of water samples (500, 1500, 3000 NTU) decreased to 3.8, 3.8, 4.0 NTU, respectively, under the conditions as followed: 128 second hydraulic retention time; 150~200 V voltage; and 0.4~2.2A electric current. The conductivity of the raw water dropped down at least 30% during electro-aggregation process. The pilot study should be performed in the near future before full scale of application due to insufficient information is available. The time it took for the conventional coagulation is fifteen times longer than that of electro-aggregation. Comparing these two processes, the electro-aggregation may benefit from its smaller size and fast treatment in treating high turbidity reservoir water.
Keyword: electro-aggregation process, electrochemistry, high turbidity, particle removal, coagulation
論文目次 目 錄
目錄··················································································································I
表目錄···········································································································IV
圖目錄···········································································································VI
第一章 前言
1-1 研究緣起·················································································· 1
1-2 研究目的·················································································· 2
第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 高濁度原水的成因與影響······················································ 3
2-2 高濁度原水目前的因應對策·················································· 6
2-3 高濁度原水中粒狀物質之分離方法······································ 9
2-3-1 重力沉降········································································ 9
2-3-2 化學混凝法·································································· 14
2-3-3 電化學方法處理·························································· 16
2-4 電聚法之原理································································23
第三章 研究方法與實驗設計
3-1 研究方法················································································ 34
II
3-2 實驗設計················································································ 35
3-2-1 重力沉降實驗······························································ 36
3-2-2 化學混凝實驗····························································· 37
3-2-3 電聚法實驗································································· 38
3-3 分析項目及實驗設備···························································· 39
3-3-1 分析項目及方法························································· 39
3-3-2 實驗儀器設備····························································· 40
3-3-3 實驗藥品····································································· 44
第四章 結果與討論
4-1 水樣之基本特性···································································· 46
4-1-1 水樣中粒狀物質之主要元素成分······························ 46
4-1-2 水樣中粒狀物質之粒徑範圍······································ 48
4-1-3 水樣之基本性質·························································· 50
4-2 高濁度原水之基本沉降特性················································ 51
4-3 化學混凝之分析探討···························································· 55
4-3-1 化學混凝分離粒狀物質之成效探討·························· 56
4-3-2 化學混凝與粒徑變化之探討······································ 61
4-4 電聚法之分析探討································································ 64
4-4-1 電聚法極板選擇之探討·············································· 65
III
4-4-2 電聚法電導度變化之探討·········································· 69
4-4-3 電聚法分離粒狀物質之成效探討······························ 72
4-4-4 電聚法空白實驗結果分析探討·································· 75
4-5 重力沉降、化學混凝及電聚法之分析比較························ 89
4-5-1 高濁度水樣及空白電聚法實驗之分析比較·············· 90
4-5-2 重力沉降、化學混凝及電聚法粒徑變化之分析比
較················································································· 95
4-5-3 化學混凝耗鋁量及電聚法空白實驗釋鋁量之分析
比較············································································· 97
4-5-4 化學混凝及電聚法上澄液電導度變化之分析比較·· 99
4-5-5 粒狀物質分離能力及最佳條件之分析比較············ 100
第五章 結論與建議
5-1 結論····················································································· 104
5-2 建議······················································································ 106
參考文獻···································································································· 107
附錄············································································································· 111
IV
表目錄
表2-1、2004 年中央氣象局發佈颱風警報一覽表······································· 4
表2-2、「飲用水水質標準」中出水濁度限值表········································· 6
表2-3、電聚法、電解膠凝法與電解氧化法之比較表······························· 21
表3-1、實驗水樣來源表··············································································· 33
表4-1、原水污泥與水庫底泥之主要元素成分表······································· 46
表4-2、水庫原水及水庫底泥配製水粒徑分析比較表······························· 48
表4-3、自來水的基本水質表······································································· 50
表4-4、各種濁度水樣的基本水質表··························································· 50
表4-5、濁度50,000 NTU 水樣之24 小時的沉降粒徑分析表··················· 52
表4-6、以Stokes 式計算之高濁度原水單顆粒沉降速度表······················· 52
表4-7、各種濁度水樣沉降實驗污泥分界高度表······································· 54
表4-8、濁度500 NTU 水樣加PAC 混凝後混合液中粒狀物質粒徑
變化表····························································································· 62
表4-9、不銹鋼極板之電聚實驗結果表······················································· 67
表4-10、鐵極板之電聚實驗結果表····························································· 67
表4-11、鋁極板之電聚實驗結果表(1) ······················································67
表4-12、鋁極板之電聚實驗結果表(2) ······················································68
表4-13、濁度1,500 NTU 水樣在不同電壓、停留時間之上澄液電
V
導度變化趨勢表·············································································· 70
表4-14、濁度3,000 NTU 水樣在不同電壓、停留時間上澄液電導
度變化趨勢····················································································· 70
表4-15、濁度500、1,500、3,000 NTU 電聚法之最佳條件······················ 72
表4-16、電聚法空白實驗結果表································································· 78
表4-17、電聚法釋鋁量之比較表································································· 80
表4-18、電導度與電阻變化關係表····························································· 82
表4-19、0.003M-NaCl 水樣電聚實驗出流水溫度變化表·························· 84
表4-20、實際與理論釋鋁量之濃度值比較表············································· 86
表4-21、濁度500 NTU 之高嶺土水樣經電聚法實驗後混合液中粒
狀物質粒徑變化表·········································································· 88
表4-22、濁度500 NTU 水樣與空白電聚實驗之電流值表························ 91
表4-23、以Stokes 式計算之各種粒徑單顆粒沉降速度表························· 96
表4-24、濁度500、1,500、3,000 NTU 沉殿30 min 後上澄液之去
除率結果表··················································································· 101
表4-25、濁度500、1,500、3,000 NTU 以化學混凝之最佳處理結果
表··································································································· 102
表4-26、濁度500、1,500、3,000 NTU 電聚法之最佳處理結果表········ 103
VI
圖目錄
圖2-1、2004.09.05~2004.10.12 石門大圳取水口原水濁度變化圖·······················5
圖2-2、新竹第一淨水場實場加藥量與原水濁度關係圖········································7
圖2-3、新竹第一淨水場瓶杯試驗加藥量與原水濁度關係圖·······························8
圖2-4、牽引係數和雷諾數之關係圖·······································································12
圖2-5、豐原給水廠原水濁度與最佳PAC 加藥量曲線圖····································15
圖2-6、膠羽碰撞成長圖·····························································································25
圖2-7、電聚法影響因素圖························································································27
圖3-1、高濁度水庫原水與水庫底泥之取樣位置示意圖······································33
圖3-2、實驗設計及其方法步驟圖············································································35
圖3-3、沉降筒示意圖·································································································41
圖3-4、電聚設備示意圖·····························································································42
圖3-5、電聚法實驗電場模式示意圖···································································43
圖3-6、電聚法之等效電阻圖·················································································43
圖4-1、原水污泥與水庫底泥基本成分比較圖······················································47
圖4-2、水庫原水(A)及水庫底泥配製水(B)粒徑分佈圖·······································49
圖4-3、經24 小時的沉降H1、H2、H3、H4 粒徑分佈圖··································53
圖4-4、濁度500 NTU 水樣加PAC 混凝後上澄液濁度與污泥量變化趨
勢圖··················································································································57
圖4-5、濁度1,500 NTU 水樣加PAC 混凝後上澄液濁度與污泥量變化趨
勢圖··················································································································58
圖4-6、濁度3,000 NTU 水樣加PAC 混凝後上澄液濁度與污泥量變化趨
勢圖··················································································································58
圖4-7、濁度500 NTU 水樣加PAC 混凝後pH 值及電導度的變化圖··············59
圖4-8、濁度1,500 NTU 水樣加PAC 混凝後pH 值及電導度的變化圖···········60
圖4-9、濁度3,000 NTU 水樣加PAC 混凝後pH 值及電導度的變化圖···········60
圖4-10、濁度500 NTU 水樣加PAC 混凝後上澄液濁度與混合液粒徑變
化趨勢圖·······································································································63
圖4-11、濁度500 NTU 水樣以電聚法處理電壓150V 之上澄液電導度變
化趨勢圖·······································································································71
圖4-12、電聚法釋鋁量之趨勢圖··············································································80
圖4-13、水中電阻與電聚系統中電阻關係圖····················································83
圖4-14、出流水水溫與能量關係圖······································································84
圖4-15、高嶺土之粒徑分佈圖···············································································88
圖4-16、濁度500 NTU 水樣與空白電聚實驗之△ORP(mV)圖··················94
圖4-17、重力沉降顆粒粒徑、化學混凝膠羽與電聚法膠羽粒徑分佈圖··········96
圖4-18、化學混凝耗鋁量及電聚法空白實驗釋鋁量比較圖·························98
參考文獻 參考文獻
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