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系統識別號 U0002-1009201312314900
中文論文名稱 場地獨立/場地依賴認知風格對台灣大學生在不同字彙學習策略上的成效研究
英文論文名稱 Investigation of Different Vocabulary Learning Strategies for Taiwanese University Students with Field Independent /Field Dependent Cognitive Styles
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 許孝芳
研究生英文姓名 Hsiao-Fang Hsu
學號 893010230
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2013-07-15
論文頁數 205頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳惠美
共同指導教授-沈斯瑩
委員-范瑞玲
委員-陳秀潔
委員-黃月貴
委員-王譪玲
中文關鍵字 單字學習策略  認知學習風格  場地獨立  場地依賴 
英文關鍵字 vocabulary learning strategy  cognitive learning styles  field independent  field dependent 
學科別分類
中文摘要 學習者的認知學習風格扮演了決定學習者有意識或潛意識的學習偏好,而這樣的學習偏好會隨著時間及周圍環境改變.研究也指出英語單字的學習在第二外語學習上是一個重要的因素.因此,本研究基於機械式記憶理論及關鍵字記憶法,選擇複寫學習策略 (Copy Writing)、字卡學習策略 (Word Card Keeping) 及讀出 (Reading Aloud) 的學習策略.並應用在場地獨立 (Field Independent) 及場地依賴 (Field Dependent) 不同認知學習風格的學習者上,目的在提供台灣的大學生基於個人的認知學習風格選擇合適的英語單字學習策略。
為了檢視以上三種字彙學習策略及學習者的學習風格之間的關聯性及效果,本研究使用Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT)當作工具來區分244位非英語主修的大學生的學習風格,並以三分法的方式,將得分16分以上的學生歸為場地獨立 (FI) 學習者,12分以下的學生歸為場地依賴 (FD) 學習者,而介於12至16分者視為無明顯學習風格者。因此,最後僅餘161位具有明顯學習風格的學生資料被用來分析並分為三組,分別是FI個人組、FD個人組及FD與FD合作學習組。
在歷經長達一年的先導實驗及十八週的實驗研究後,本研究指出七個主要的發現: (1) 在三個群組中所有使用字彙學習策略的參與學生皆顯示出對於英語字彙的顯著效果; (2) 對FI風格個人學習者及FD+FD的合作學習者,字卡學習策略及讀出的學習策略遠比複寫學習策略有顯著的效果; (3) 對FD風格學習者而言, 讀出的學習策略比其他二者在英語字彙量的進步上有更顯著的效果; (4) 比較學生在施以單字學習策略前後的學習態度,讀出學習策略使用者具有較正面的態度, 其次為字卡學習策略使用者, 而使用複寫學習策略的學生對於可快速或容易記單字的部份,顯示出負面的態度; (5) 雖然所有的學習者都同意使用單字學習策略做為部份的課堂活動來取代單字小考,然而,只有五分之三的人認為單字學習策略是有效的; (6) 超過二分之一的複寫學習策略及讀出學習策略使用者同意,即使沒有老師的規定,也會持續使用該策略,而卻只有五分之一的字卡策略學習者同意; (7) 從課堂的觀察得知,相較於FI或FD的個人學習,FD與FD合作學習者明顯建立了較好的互動環境但也有過份依賴的情況發生,而使得合作學習者完成課堂任務的速度慢於個人學習者。
這份研究提供老師們在教學上考量不同認知學習風格的學生,提供合適的英語單字學習策略來有效的增進學習者的英語字彙量,並期以增進學生之學習動機,進而發展更積極正面的學習態度。
英文摘要 The cognitive learning styles of learners are an influential factor with respect to a preference for conscious or subconscious learning. In addition, learners’ learning preferences are affected by time and learning environment. Several studies have shown that vocabulary was highlighted as an important element in second language learning. Therefore, the study was designed with respect to the theory of rote memorization and the keyword method to develop three vocabulary-learning strategies (i.e., the Copy Writing Strategy, the Word Card Strategy, and the Reading Aloud Strategy). Additionally, these three learning strategies were chosen and applied to learners with Field Independent (FI) and Field Dependent (FD) cognitive learning styles. Thus, the study attempted to provide Taiwanese university students with appropriate vocabulary learning strategies based on their cognitive learning styles.
In order to evaluate the correlation and effects of three mentioned vocabulary learning strategies and learner’ learning styles, this study first used the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) as a measurement to determine 244 non-English major university freshmen’s learning tendencies. It was decided to treat the scores as a trichotomy, with the GEFT scores of 16 or more being classified as learners with a FI tendency and those with scores of 12 or under being classified as having a FD tendency. In the end, a total of 161 freshmen with distinct GEFT learning style tendencies were chosen to be involved in the study and grouped as FI, FD individuals, or FD+FD cooperative learning.
After one-year-long pilot study as well as a period of formal study lasting eighteen weeks, this study produced seven main findings. (1) For all the participants of the three groups, any of the three strategies displayed positively significant effects on their vocabulary performance, though the Copy Writing Strategy demonstrates the smallest effect. (2) For FI cognitive style individual learners and FD+FD cooperative group learners, the Word Card Keeping and Reading Aloud vocabulary strategies displayed more effective learning results than the Copy Writing strategy. (3) For FD cognitive style learners, the Reading Aloud Vocabulary Strategy presented the largest improvement on vocabulary size in comparison with the other two strategies. (4) After receiving the vocabulary learning strategies, the Reading Aloud Strategy learners showed the most positive change in learning attitude, followed by the Word Card Keeping Strategy learners. However, the Copy Writing Strategy learners disagreed more with the statement that they were able to remember English quickly or easily, which resulted in a negative learning attitude overall. (5) All participants in the three groups agreed to involve vocabulary learning strategies as a class activity to replace vocabulary quizzes, with only approximately three-fourths of them agreed with the efficiency of the vocabulary learning strategies. (6) More than half of the copy writing and reading-aloud learners agreed to persistently use the learning strategy they received without requiring regulations from the teacher, whereas only approximately one-fifth of the word card learners agreed. (7) From the classroom observations, it was obvious that the cooperative learning learners created a more interactive learning atmosphere than individuals did, but too much dependence occurs sometimes, which causes cooperative learning learners to complete the class tasks slower than the individual learners did.
Based on learners’ cognitive styles, it is expected that these findings could provide researchers with a new consideration when applying appropriate English vocabulary learning strategies for students to employ, as well as facilitate learners’ vocabulary growth, increase their learning motivation, and develop more positive learning attitudes toward English vocabulary learning.
論文目次 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
CONTENTS v
LIST of TABLES viii
LIST of FIGURES x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 6
1.3 Statement of the Research Purpose 12
1.4 Research Questions 13
1.5 Significance of the Study 14
1.6 Definition of Key Terms 15
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 19
2.1 Rote Memorization and Keyword Method in L2 Vocabulary Learning 19
2.2 Concept of Learning Style 24
2.2.1 Cultural Perspective 24
2.2.2 Learning Style in Language Learning 26
2.2.3 The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) 30
2.3 Vocabulary Instruction 33
2.4 Vocabulary Learning Strategy 35
2.4.1 The Copy Writing Strategy 37
2.4.2 The Word Card Keeping Strategy 41
2.4.3 The Reading Aloud Strategy 45
2.5 Cooperative Learning (CL) 48
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 52
3.1 The Theoretical Framework 52
3.2 Research Design 54
3.3 Two Pilot Studies 55
3.3.1 Pilot Study One 56
3.3.1.1 The Participants 56
3.3.1.2 The Procedure 57
3.3.1.3 Data Collection and Data Analysis 58
3.3.2 Pilot Study Two 62
3.3.2.1 The Participants 63
3.3.2.2 The Procedure 63
3.3.2.3 Data Collection and Data Analysis 65
3.4 The Summary of the Pilot Studies 70
3.5 The Formal Study 71
3.6 Instruments 72
3.6.1 The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) 72
3.6.2 Pretest and Posttest of Vocabulary Level Test (VLT) 75
3.6.3 Pretest of Learning Strategy Questionnaires (PQSREVL) 76
3.6.4 Posttest of Learning Strategy Questionnaires (PQSREVLS) 77
3.7 Participants 81
3.8 Material 84
3.9 Scoring 85
3.9.1 The GEFT 85
3.9.2 The VLT 86
3.9.3 PQSREVL and PQSREVLS 87
3.10 Research Procedure 88
3.11 Summary 95
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 97
4.1 Vocabulary Level Test 97
4.2 Questionnaires 107
4.3 Classroom Observations 115
4.4 After-class Interviews 117
4.5 Summary of the Research Findings 119
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 123
5.1 Research Question 1 123
5.2 Research Question 2 127
5.3 Research Question 3 130
5.4 Research Question 4 133
5.4.1 Questionnaire Section I 134
5.4.2 Questionnaire Section II 135
5.4.3 Questionnaire Section III 141
5.4.4 Questionnaire Section IV 145
5.5 Summary 149
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION 151
6.1 The Summary of this Study 151
6.2 Pedagogical Implications 154
6.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Study 158
6.4 Concluding Remarks 161
REFERENCES 163
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
CONTENTS v
LIST of TABLES viii
LIST of FIGURES x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 6
1.3 Statement of the Research Purpose 12
1.4 Research Questions 13
1.5 Significance of the Study 14
1.6 Definition of Key Terms 15
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 19
2.1 Rote Memorization and Keyword Method in L2 Vocabulary Learning 19
2.2 Concept of Learning Style 24
2.2.1 Cultural Perspective 24
2.2.2 Learning Style in Language Learning 26
2.2.3 The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) 30
2.3 Vocabulary Instruction 33
2.4 Vocabulary Learning Strategy 35
2.4.1 The Copy Writing Strategy 37
2.4.2 The Word Card Keeping Strategy 41
2.4.3 The Reading Aloud Strategy 45
2.5 Cooperative Learning (CL) 48
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 52
3.1 The Theoretical Framework 52
3.2 Research Design 54
3.3 Two Pilot Studies 55
3.3.1 Pilot Study One 56
3.3.1.1 The Participants 56
3.3.1.2 The Procedure 57
3.3.1.3 Data Collection and Data Analysis 58
3.3.2 Pilot Study Two 62
3.3.2.1 The Participants 63
3.3.2.2 The Procedure 63
3.3.2.3 Data Collection and Data Analysis 65
3.4 The Summary of the Pilot Studies 70
3.5 The Formal Study 71
3.6 Instruments 72
3.6.1 The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) 72
3.6.2 Pretest and Posttest of Vocabulary Level Test (VLT) 74
3.6.3 Pretest of Learning Strategy Questionnaires (PQSREVL) 76
3.6.4 Posttest of Learning Strategy Questionnaires (PQSREVLS) 77
3.7 Participants 81
3.8 Material 84
3.9 Scoring 85
3.9.1 The GEFT 85
3.9.2 The VLT 86
3.9.3 PQSREVL and PQSREVLS 87
3.10 Research Procedure 88
3.11 Summary 95
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 97
4.1 Vocabulary Level Test 97
4.2 Questionnaires 107
4.3 Classroom Observations 115
4.4 After-class Interviews 117
4.5 Summary of the Research Findings 119
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 123
5.1 Research Question 1 123
5.2 Research Question 2 127
5.3 Research Question 3 130
5.4 Research Question 4 133
5.4.1 Questionnaire Section I 134
5.4.2 Questionnaire Section II 135
5.4.3 Questionnaire Section III 141
5.4.4 Questionnaire Section IV 145
5.5 Summary 149
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION 151
6.1 The Summary of this Study 151
6.2 Pedagogical Implications 154
6.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Study 158
6.4 Concluding Remarks 161
REFERENCES 163
APPENDICES 180
Appendix A Sample of Vocabulary Level Test (VLT) 180
Appendix B The Pretest Questionnaire on the Student Responses to English Vocabulary Learning (PQSREVL)-Chinese Version 186
Appendix C The Pretest Questionnaire on the Student Responses to English Vocabulary Learning (PQSREVL)-English Version 187
Appendix D The Posttest Questionnaire on the Student Responses to English Vocabulary Learning Strategy (PQSREVLS)-copy writing (Chinese Version) 188
Appendix E The Posttest Questionnaire on the Student Responses to English Vocabulary Learning Strategy (PQSREVLS)-copy writing (English Version) 190
Appendix F The Posttest Questionnaire on the Student Responses to English Vocabulary Learning Strategy (PQSREVLS)-word card keeping (Chinese Version) 192
Appendix G The Posttest Questionnaire on the Student Responses to English Vocabulary Learning Strategy (PQSREVLS)-word card keeping (English Version) 194
Appendix H The Posttest Questionnaire on the Student Responses to English Vocabulary Learning Strategy (PQSREVLS)-reading aloud (Chinese Version) 196
Appendix I The Posttest Questionnaire on the Student Responses to English Vocabulary Learning Strategy (PQSREVLS)-reading aloud (English Version) 198
Appendix J Sample of GEPT 200
Appendix K Sample of Reading Article 205
Table 3.1 The Distribution of the Participants in Pilot Study One (N=100) 56
Table 3.2 Number of Students Who Reached Each Level in the Pre-VLT of Pilot Study One 58
Table 3.3 Number of Students Who Reached Each Level in the Post-VLT of Pilot Study One 59
Table 3.4 Paired t-test of Pre-questionnaire and Post-questionnaire Section I in Pilot Study One 60
Table 3.5 The Distribution of the Students in Pilot Study Two (N=69) 64
Table 3.6 Number of FI/FD Style Learners Who Reached Each Level in the Pre-VLT of Pilot Study Two 66
Table 3.7 Number of FI/FD Style Learners Who Reached Each Level in the Post-VLT of Pilot Study Two 66
Table 3.8 Paired t-test of 1000 and 2000-Word Levels in Pre-VLT and Post-VLT for FI and FD Learners in Pilot Study Two (N=69) 67
Table 3.9 Paired t-test of Vocabulary Level Test in Pretest and Posttest of all Participants in Pilot Study Two (N=93) 68
Table 3.10 The Paired t-test of PQSREVL and PQSEVLS Section I of Pilot Study Two 69
Table 3.11 The Percentage of the PQSREVLS Section II and III in Pilot Study Two 70
Table 3.12 The Results of Factor Analysis of PQSREVLS- the Copy Writing Strategy 79
Table 3.13 The Results of Factor Analysis of PQSREVLS-the Word Card Keeping Strategy 80
Table 3.14 The Results of Factor Analysis of PQSREVLS- the Reading Aloud Strategy 81
Table 3.15 Relative Standing Level of English on the College/University Entrance Examination in Taiwan in 2010 83
Table 3.16 The Distribution of the all Students in the Formal Study (N=244) 89
Table 3.17 The Ordinary Distribution of FI, FD and FD+FD Participants within the Groups of the Three Vocabulary Learning Strategies (N=170) 89
Table 4.1 The Distribution of the Valid Data (N=161) 98
Table 4.2 The Pretest VLT of Group A, B, and C 99
Table 4.3 The Posttest VLT of Group A, B, and C 99
Table 4.4 Paired t-test of Vocabulary Level Test in Group A (Copy Writing) 100
Table 4.5 Paired t-test of Vocabulary Level Test in Group B (Word Card Keeping) 101
Table 4.6 Paired t-test of Vocabulary Level Test in Group C (Reading Aloud) 102
Table 4.7 The Main Effect of the Vocabulary Strategy and the Cognitive Style Group via Two-Way Independent ANOVA 103
Table 4.8 The Simple Effect of the Vocabulary Strategy and the Cognitive Style Group via Two-Way Independent ANOVA 104
Table 4.9 The Simple Effect Post Hoc of the Learning Strategies to FI Cognitive Style Group via Scheffe Method 105
Table 4.10 The Simple Effect Post Hoc of the Learning Strategies to FD Cognitive Style Group via Scheffe Method 105
Table 4.11 The Simple Effect Post Hoc of the Learning Strategies to FD+FD Cognitive Style Group via Scheffe Method 106
Table 4.12 The Simple Effect Post Hoc of the Cognitive Style to the Word Card Keeping Vocabulary Strategy via Scheffe Method 107
Table 4.13 The Paired t-test of Questionnaire PQSREVL and PQSREVLS Section I 107
Table 4.14 The Paired t-test of Single Item Analysis of PQSREVL and PQSREVLS Section I of Copy Writing Vocabulary Strategy (Group A) (n=47) 108
Table 4.15 The Percentages for the items in Section II of PQSREVLS 110
Table 4.16 The Percentages for the items in Section III of PQSREVLS 113
Figure 3.1 The flow chart of the first pilot study procedure (Sep. 2009 ~ Jan. 2010) 57
Figure 3.2 The flow chart of the second pilot study procedure (Feb. 2010 ~ June 2010) 65
Figure 3.3 The flow chart of the research procedure (Sep. 2010~ Jan. 2011) 91
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