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系統識別號 U0002-1007201213461900
中文論文名稱 雷根政府瓦解蘇聯之戰略
英文論文名稱 The strategies of Reagan Administration on the Fall of the Soviet Union
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 張惟涵
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Han Chang
學號 699250071
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-06-14
論文頁數 82頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃介正
委員-李本京
委員-李明
中文關鍵字 美國外交政策  雷根  蘇聯瓦解 
英文關鍵字 The Reagan Administration  Strategies toward the Soviet Union  the fall of the Soviet Union 
學科別分類
中文摘要 蘇聯瓦解瓦解後的二十年來,學術界對於蘇聯瓦解的研究從未停止,其中說法紛紜,而美國究竟在多大程度上促使蘇聯的瓦解,各界雷根政府瓦解蘇聯的貢獻還存有爭議,本文著重在分析雷根總統兩任任期之間,對蘇聯之外交政策以及美蘇關係的轉折。

雷根政府在1983年提出「戰略防禦計畫」,由於當時美蘇聯兩國在核戰的共識為「相互保證毀滅」,而雷根總統提出「戰略防禦計畫」目的為飛彈防禦政策,並投入龐大經費於此,然而蘇聯軍事技術尚未達到「戰略防禦計畫」之水準,因此,在經濟壓力之下,蘇聯決定與美國政府在軍備裁減方面談判,目的在於以雷根政府取消「戰略防禦計畫」,不過雷根堅持「戰略防禦計畫」非談判籌碼,然而,蘇聯首先讓步,決定與美國簽署《中程核武條約》。

本文以雷根政府簽署的國家安全指令(NSDD)以及其他戰略對抗蘇聯,包括雷根主義、軍備競賽、政治圍堵、經濟制裁以及對蘇聯人民思想的同化,使原本已疲弱不堪的蘇聯經濟,又受到嚴重打擊,因此,戈巴契夫提出「新思維」改革,不過已積重難返。本論文主旨在於雷根政府如何加速蘇聯的解體,雷根政府在以非武力的「整體戰略」對抗蘇聯,也由此可知,戰爭不一定發生在戰場,美國對蘇聯的和平演變也是蘇聯加速瓦解的原因之一。
英文摘要 The question addressed by this paper is how Reagan’s policy significantly led the fall of the Soviet Union. Some believe that little connection between the fall of the Soviet Union and the role of Reagan’s foreign policy. This thesis applies the historical approach to analyze the Reagan’s strategies through the documents, relevant personal biography and the government publications. The strategies of the Reagan Administration included containment, economic pressure and the “Strategic Defense Initiative.” By the long terms arm races, Reagan Administration has expedited the Soviet Union’s fall.

This thesis concludes the strategies of Reagan Administration contributed to the fall the Soviet Union. The strategies didn’t initiate the Soviet crisis but successfully worsen and exacerbate it. By targeting the Soviet weakness into its strategic advantage also damaged the Communist, which ends the Cold War and credit to the Reagan Administration.
論文目次 第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景……………….…………………..………….………1
第二節 研究動機與目的………....………………..…….….………2
第三節 文獻回顧…………………………………………...….………5
第三節 研究途徑、方法與限制………………………....………13

第二章 雷根的政治信仰主張
第一節 新保守主義與雷根………………………...………………17
第二節 雷根主義-主張擴充軍備………….……………...……21
第三節 蘇聯的態度………………………………..…………………33
第四節 小結…………………………………………...………..………34

第三章 雷根政府對蘇聯之戰略
第一節 軍事戰略決策…………………….………………………..35
第二節 外交圍堵………………………….……..……...…..…..…..42
第三節 經濟制裁…..….………..…..……...…..……………………45
第四節 小結……………………..……….………..….……...……….50


第四章 雷根政府戰略對蘇聯之影響
第一節 雷根政府對蘇聯之戰略效果…………..………………53
第二節 雷根與戈巴契夫談判過程………………...……………56
第三節 蘇聯解體………………………………..…..……....….……62
第四節 小結…………………………………..…..…………………...67

第五章 研究發現與結論
第一節 研究發現……………………….…………………………….71
第二節 結論………………..…………………………..….…………..73
表次
表2-1
蘇聯共產在全球的勢力範圍…………………...……….……..……..….26
表2-2
雷根任內蘇聯增加平反國際叛亂之開銷…………...….…...…………..27
表2-3
雷根政府提供尼加拉瓜反抗軍援助款項一覽表…………..……….….29
表2-4
1980 年美蘇兩國武力比較…………………………..………….……….31
表2-5
雷根任內蘇聯每年增加的國防預算………….………………..…….….32
表3-1
波蘭1980-1989 年GDP 成長率…….…………..….....…………….…….45
表3-2
1986 年國際原油價格……..…..…...….….…..…….…..…….…..………..50
表4-1
蘇聯預算以外的增加成本與赤字..…….….…....….….……..…….……..55
表4-2
雷根任內與戈巴契夫召開四次高峰會情況…………..………………....56
表4-3
國際廣播電台1974-1989 年度報告表…….….…....…………….….……67
參考文獻 中文部分

一、書籍
江流(1994),《蘇聯演變的歷史思考》。北京:中國社會科學出版社, 頁332。

吳乃華等譯(1996),小杰克•馬特洛克 ,《蘇聯解體親歷記》。世界知識出版社。

李本京(1987) ,《國際關係與現勢》。國立空中大學出版 ,頁144。

徐昌翰等譯(2008),尼古拉.伊萬諾維奇.雷日科夫,《大國悲劇 : 蘇聯解體的前因後果》。北京市:新華出版社。

許新、陳聯壁 潘德禮與姜毅等著(1999)。《超級大國的崩潰-蘇聯解體原因探析》。北京市:社會科學文獻出版社。

郭生玉(1981),《質化研究方法論》。台北:師大書苑。

陸樓編著(1985),《戈爾巴喬夫:蘇聯解體之謎 》。正言出版社 。頁110-116。

黃長風(1990),〈 軍備與美蘇關係-雷根政府的蘇聯政策 七十九年度研究報告〉。 外交部。

翟國瑾譯(1982),伊凡斯(Evans, Rowland)、諾瓦克(Novak, Robert)同撰 ,《雷根革命》。台北:正中書局。


二、期刊論文

王正己(譯)1988,〈1980年代美國軍事建制之成長與變遷〉,《美國月刊》,第三卷第六期,頁76-84。

布朗(Archie Brown)(2010),<共產主義的興衰>,《國際關係學報》,第30期。

李本京(1986),〈限武談判與星戰計劃:雷根政府對蘇政策之評析〉,《東方雜誌》 20:6,頁55。

曾鏡濤(2006),〈石油危機與蘇聯解體之關係〉,《二十一世紀》雙月刊2006年8月號。

劉淑春(2007) ,〈 十五年後看蘇聯解體-從俄羅斯學者的反思和民意調查中得出的幾點看法〉,《高校理論戰線》 第4期。


三、學位論文
林昌緯(2008),《 新保守主義與美國外交政策》。 國立政治大學外交研究所碩士論文 。

李連江(1994),《新保守主義》。台北:揚智出版社,頁82,轉截自林昌緯(2008) 。《新保守主義與美國外交政策》 國立政治大學外交研究所。

鄧榮進 (1990),《 雷根時代美國參議院政黨政治對外交政策的影響 》。淡江大學美國研究所。

方緒雄(2011),《雷根政府戰略防禦計畫與美蘇關係》,台北:淡江大學美洲研究所碩士論文,頁7。


英文部分

一、官方報告
Board for International Broadcasting,1978, 51; 1979, 55; 1980, 51; 1981, 51; 1983, 39; 1984, 39; 1985, 38; 1986, 42; 1987, 2, 52; 1990, 85.

Executive Office of the President 17 January 1983, 2.
Memorandum of Conversation, Sunday, October 12 1986, 10:00am-1:35pm, p. 3.

Reagan, "Address to the 42nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly," September 21, 1987, PP , 1062.

Ronald Reagan.1984. Statement on the Observance of National Peace Through Strength.

U.S. Energy Information Administration.

United States Central Intelligence Agency.1987. “Soviets SDI Response Options: The Resource Dilemma,” A research paper.

World Military Expenditure and Arms Transfers (WMEAT) 1990,81.

二、書籍
Blair, Bruce G.1985.Strategic Command And Control: Redefining The Nuclear Threat.Brookings Institution Press.

Brown,Archie , .2004. Gorbachev and the End of the Cold War,” in Ending the Cold War: Interpretations, Causation, and the Study of International Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Boldin ,Valery.1994. Ten Years that Shook the World , NY: Basic Books.

Bowker, Mike.1997. Russian Foreign Policy and the End of Cold War, USA Darmouth Pub. Cop.

Brzezinski , Zbigniew. 1990. Grand Failure: The Birth and Death of Communism in the Twentieth Century, Collier Books.

Charles , Busha, and Harter , Stephen P,1980. Research Methods in Librarianship: techniques and Interpretations. Academic Press: New York, NY, Company, Inc.

Cox ,Michael.1990. Beyond the Cold War: Superpowers at the Crossroads. New York: University Press of America.

Danks , Catherine.2002. Russian Politics And Society, Longman; 1 edition.

Dobrynin, Anatoly.1995. In Confidence: Moscow’s ambassador to America’s six Cold War presidents, 1962-1986. New York: Times Books.

Duric ,Mira.2003. The Strategic Defence Initiative. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate.
Ehrman, John.1995. The Rise of Neoconservatism: Intellectuals and Foreign Affairs 1935-1994. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Gates Robert M. 1997. From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War, Simon & Schuster, p.228.

Goldman, Stuart D. 1991. US-Soviet Relationship, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress p.13.

Gorbachev, Mikhail.1996. Momoirs, New York: Doubleday.
Gustafson ,Thane.1989. Crisis amid Plenty: The Politics of Soviet Energy under Brezhnev and Gorbachev. Princeton University Press.

Hahn , Gordon M .2002. Russia’s revolution from above: reform, transition, and revolution in the fall of the Soviet communist regime. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Haig, Alexander .1984. Caveat: Realism, Reagan and Foreign Policy , New York: Scribner, p.229.

Hobsbawm ,Eric. 1990. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality, Cambridge University Press.

Holemes, Leslie.1997. Post-Communism:An Instruction. Cambridge UK. Polity Press.
Hunter, David W. 1991. Western Trade Pressure on the Soviet Union. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

James M. Scott.1996. Deciding to Intervene: The Reagan Doctrine and American Foreign Policy. Duke University Press Books.

Judy ,Shelton.1989. The Coming Soviet Crash. New York: The Free Press A Division of Macmillan Inc.

Keohane , Robert O. and Nye , Joseph S. 2001. Power and Interdependence. London:Pearson Education.

Kirkpatrick , Jeane.1985. The Reagan Doctrine and US Foreign Policy. Washington D.C.: The Heritage Foundation.

Kotkin ,Stephen.2001. Armageddon Averted :The Soviet Collapse,1970-2000.Oxford University Press, USA.

Leonard ,William.2010.Closing the Gap
-The Euromissiles and President Carter’s Nuclear Weapons Strategy for Western Europe (1977-1979). Columbia University.

Lipset Seymour Martin.1997. American Exceptionalism. W. W. Norton and
Mann, James.2009. The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: A History of the End of the Cold War. Viking Adult Press.

Matlock , Jack .2004. Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended. New York: Random House.

Neuendorf, Kimberly A.2002. The Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Nixon , Richard.1994. Beyond Peace, Random House.

Odom ,William E. 2000. Collapse of the Soviet Military, Yale University Press.

Pienkos ,Donald E. 1991. For Your Feedom through Ours : Polish-American Efforts on Polands Behalf, 1963-1991, New York: Columbia University Press. pp 374-376.

Reagan ,Ronald.1999.An American Life, Gallery Books.

Rode , Reinbard and Jacobsen , Hanns D, eds .1985. Economic Warfare or Détente: an Assessment of East-West Relations in the 1980’s , Boulder: Westview Press.

Schweizer , Peter.1996.Victory: The Reagan Administration's Secret Strategy that Hastened the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Atlantic Monthly Press.

Schweizer , Peter.2002. Reagan's War: The Epic Story of his Forty Year Struggle and Final Triumph Over Communism. Doubleday Press .
Shultz , George P. 1993. Turmoil and Triumph, My Years As Secretary of State.

Simpson Christoper .1995. Security Directives of the Reagan and Bush Administrations: The Declassified History of U.S. Political and Military Policy, 1981-1991, Boulder Westview Press, 1995, p.p252-263.

Ticktin , Hillel.1992. Origins of the Crisisn in the USSR: Essays on the Political Economy of a Disintegrating System. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc.

Weber ,Robert Philip .1990.Basic Content Analysis. 2nd ed., Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Weinberger , Caspar.1990. Fighting for Peace: Seven Critical Years in the Pentagon, Grand Central Publishing.

Whelan, Joseph G.1990. The Moscow Summit,1988 Reagan and Gorbachev in Negotiation. Westview Press Inc. p.5.

White, F.Clifton, Gill, William J.1981. Why Reagan Won? The Conservative Movement 1964-1981. Regnery Gateway.

Yakovlev, Alexander N. 1993. The Fate of Marxism in Russia. Yale University.

三、期刊論文
Allison ,Graham T. Jr.1988.“Testing Gorbachev.” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 1.

Caldwell , Lawrence T. and Legvold , Robert.1983." Reagan Through Soviet Eyes." Foreign Policy, No. 52 (Autumn).

Caldwell ,Dan.1985. “U.S.-Soviet Political Relations: A Regional Assessment,” AEI Foreign Policy and Defense Review, Vol.5, No.2, p.7.

Dagget S .1988. “Assessing Soviet Strategic Defense.” Foreign Policy, Spring 1988.
Fitzgerald ,Mary C. 1987.” The Soviet Military On SDI, Center For Naval Analyses.” Professional Paper.

Gingrich ,Newt .2008."The Evil Empire.".American Heritage. Spring/Summer. Volume 58, Issue 4.

Huntington, Samuel P. 1987.“Patterns of Intervention: America & Soviets in the Third World,” The National Interest, No. 7, Spring.

Karp ,Craig M.1986. “The War in Afghanistan.” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 64(Summer 1986).

Kass , Ilana and Burger ,Ethan .1985.“ Soviet Response to the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative: The ABM Gambit Revisited? “ Air University Review, March-April 1985.

Kunz , Diane B..2000. “Way Out There in the Blue” American Prospect, Vol.11, Iss.12.

Layne ,Christopher.1985. “ The Real Conservative Agenda,” Foreign Policy, No.61, Winter 1985-86.

Reagan , Ronald.1985.”The Next Four Year” Washington, D.C. Congressional Quarterly Inc.
Wander , Philip.1984. "The Rhetoric of American Foreign Policy," Quarterly Journal of Speech ,Volume 70, Issue 4.

四、報紙媒體
Krauthammer ,Charles.1985. “Essay: Reagan Doctrine.”. Time Magazine. Available at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964873,00.html

Podhoretz Nrman.1982. “The Neoconserbalive.4ngtash Reagan’s Foreign Policy” New York Times Magazine.

Schemann , Serge.1983. “Soviet Sees a Treaty Violation in Arms Proposal by Reagan.” New York Times.

The Washington Post, June 1st 1988. P. A30.

Walter ,Friedenberg.1990. “Shevardnadze Warns of Explosion.” Washington Times, May 7, 1990, p. A1.

五、學位論文
Mccallister ,Gerald .2006. Ronald Reagan’s Influence On The Fall Of The Soviet Union, Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The University Of Texas At Arlington.

五、相關網站
Jacob Chic Hecht, “Quiet Diplomacy” with Soviet Union, Available at http://www.chabad.org/therebbe/article_cdo/aid/523711/jewish/Quiet-Diplomacy-with-Soviet-Union.htm.
http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-032.htm
http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-54.pdf
http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-75.pdf
http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-066.html
http://www.wtrg.com/prices.htm
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