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系統識別號 U0002-1007200817234100
中文論文名稱 基於人類視覺系統之H.264視訊展頻浮水印系統
英文論文名稱 A spread spectrum watermarking scheme of H.264 video based on human visual system
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 張美雀
研究生英文姓名 Mei-Chueh Chang
學號 794190032
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-18
論文頁數 73頁
口試委員 指導教授-顏淑惠
委員-林慧珍
委員-許秋婷
中文關鍵字 視訊浮水印  展頻  人類視覺感官系統  H.264 
英文關鍵字 video watermarking  spread spectrum  human visual system (HVS)  H.264 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 有鑑於數位科技的進步與多媒體產品的普遍,為了達到智慧財產權保護的目的,本論文提出一個展頻且配合人類視覺感官系統的視訊浮水印技術以兼顧浮水印的強健度與透明性。我們設計一個浮水印嵌入遮罩M,結合Watson’s 人類視覺系統,將浮水印嵌入於I-frame 4x4 DCT的AC係數。同時,我們也提出一個機制以抵擋畫面刪除、調換、複製等可能攻擊。
英文摘要 As an effective method for copyright protection and content integrity verification of intellectual property, digital watermarking has become a very active area in the field of multimedia security. We propose a watermarking scheme of H.264 based on Watson’s human visual system. A 4x4 DCT mask combining Watson’s human visual system on DCT will be designed. Using the mask, a spread spectrum watermarking scheme is given to embed the watermark on AC coefficients of 4x4 DCT blocks. And it provides a way to classify 4x4 DCT blocks into edge, textured, or smooth-blocks, and it also is a reference for watermark embedding strength. We also propose a method to resist the frame dropping, reversing, duplicating attacks.
論文目次 目 錄
第一章 、緒論..........................................................................................1
第1.1 節、 研究背景與目的..............................................................................1
第1.2 節、 視訊浮水印技術相關知識..............................................................2
第1.3 節、 共謀攻擊..........................................................................................5
第1.4 節、 論文架構..........................................................................................8
第二章 、相關研究..................................................................................9
第2.1 節、 H.264 視訊浮水印技術相關研究...................................................9
第2.2 節、 H.264 視訊壓縮標準簡介[20~23].................................................13
第2.3 節、 人類視覺感官系統........................................................................19
第2.4 節、 區塊分類........................................................................................22
第三章 、研究方法................................................................................26
第3.1 節、 展頻浮水印....................................................................................27
第3.2 節、 嵌入浮水印....................................................................................29
第3.3 節、 萃取浮水印....................................................................................30
第四章 、實驗結果與討論....................................................................32
第4.1 節、 區塊分類遮罩的適用性測試........................................................32
第4.2 節、 壓縮測試........................................................................................34
第4.3 節、 共謀攻擊測試................................................................................42
第4.4 節、 畫面位置異動攻擊測試................................................................46
第五章 、結論與未來研究方向............................................................53
參考文獻...................................................................................................54
附錄—英文論文......................................................................................56
圖 目 錄
圖2-1. H.264/AVC 的編碼結構圖..........................................................14
圖2-2. 4x4 亮度預測區塊相對位置及其預測之8 個方向...................16
圖2-3. 4x4 亮度預測模式......................................................................16
圖2-4. 16x16 預測...................................................................................17
圖2-5. 8x8 區塊的遮罩圖......................................................................22
圖2-6. 8x8 區塊分類Pseudo Code.........................................................23
圖2-7. 4x4 區塊的遮罩圖......................................................................24
圖2-8. 4x4 區塊分類Pseudo Code.........................................................24
圖3-1. 浮水印嵌入方法.........................................................................26
圖3-2. 浮水印萃取方法.........................................................................26
圖4-1. 區塊分類結果.............................................................................33
圖4-2. 浮水印嵌入前後的畫面.............................................................36
圖4-3. 嵌入後之PSNR 變化.................................................................36
圖4-4. 未嵌入浮水印之萃取結果.........................................................37
圖4-5. (a)嵌入浮水印(w=1)後未經壓縮之萃取結果...........................37
圖4-5. (b) 嵌入浮水印(w=-1)後未經壓縮之萃取結果........................38
圖4-6. 壓縮前後(不同QP)及嵌入前後的比較....................................39
圖4-7. QP=40 壓縮後的畫面..................................................................39
圖4-8. (a)壓縮後(QP=28)之浮水印萃取結果.......................................40
圖4-8. (b)壓縮後(QP=28)之浮水印萃取結果.......................................40
圖4-8. (c)壓縮後(QP=40)之浮水印萃取結果.......................................41
圖4-8. (d)壓縮後(QP=40)之浮水印萃取結果.......................................41
圖4-9. TFA 攻擊之浮水印萃取結果.....................................................44
圖4-10. WER 攻擊之浮水印萃取結果.................................................45
圖4-11. DC 修改示意圖..........................................................................48
圖4-12 編碼區塊(C)及其相鄰的區塊....................................................49
圖4-13.(a) Akiyo 偵測率(未攻擊前)......................................................50
圖4-13.(b) Mobile 偵測率(未攻擊前)....................................................51
圖4-14.(a) Akiyo 偵測率(attack:QP28+deleted+swapped+duplicated).51
圖4-14.(b) Mobile 偵測率(attack:QP28+deleted+swapped+duplicated)
...................................................................................................................52
表 目 錄
表2-1. MPEG-4 及H.264 發展歷史[21]................................................14
表2-2. 量化參數及量化步階表.............................................................18
表2-3. Y quantization matrix ...................................................................19
表2-4. The 8x8 DCT Frequency Sensitivity Table ..................................20
表3-1. ⊗ 運算表.....................................................................................28
表4-1. TFA 攻擊結果..............................................................................43
表4-2. WER 攻擊結果............................................................................45
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