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系統識別號 U0002-1006201812033600
中文論文名稱 傳統課程與大規模開放式和小規模封閉式線上課程之學生學習行為分析
英文論文名稱 Analysis of students' learning behaviors in the MOOC, SPOC, and traditional courses.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 教育領導與科技管理博士班
系所名稱(英) Doctoral Program of Educational Leadership and Technology Management, College of Education
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 黃郁蘭
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Lan Huang
學號 804760113
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-06-01
論文頁數 133頁
口試委員 指導教授-張鈿富
委員-黃儒傑
委員-陳瑞貴
委員-吳柏林
委員-張奕華
中文關鍵字 建構學習理論  大規模線上課程  小規模封閉線上課程  學習行為 
英文關鍵字 Constructivist Learning Theory  Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)  Small Private Online Courses (SPOCs)  learning behaviors 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來,「大規模開放式線上課程」(MOOCs)是全球高等教育的熱門議題。世界各地,無不積極建構磨課師平台、推動磨課師課程。但磨課師也引起許多討論,最常見的完課率偏低問題,以及如醫學、藝術、實驗等需要實際操作的技術性教育,磨課師似乎無法滿足各種教學場域的本質。因此,隨之衍生出「小規模限制型線上課程」(SPOCs),將修習同一門課的在校學生透過線上學習的方式上課,相當於利用磨課師進行翻轉課程的概念。

本論文採實驗性研究,將一學期所開設之「網路學英文」課程,分為三班。分別為:對外開放的MOOC、對校內開放的SPOC、及原有的傳統課程,並進行學習行為與教學成效分析。學期結束後分析學生的學習行為、學習成績、對課程和老師的滿意度、以及科技輔助教學等面向進行比較分析。除收集量化數據外,也收集學生回饋意見,同時透過相關分析,比較學習行為。

本研究最終希望能夠運用實驗中質與量的分析,加上本研究者在學校服務多年的教學經驗,將研究成果貢獻給課程設計者、學習者、授課者、學校、和研究人員,分享具體且有價值的建議,精進MOOCs或SPOCs的數位機會,提升教學效率。
英文摘要 Many educators believe that the best way for students to learn is by having them construct knowledge instead of constructing it for them. This core concept is explained by the Constructivist Learning Theory, which states that knowledge construction is facilitated by interactive instruction, since the students have to take the initiative to learn and to interact with others. In addition, the learning agenda is controlled by the students. The learning procedure of Constructivist Theory can appropriately illustrate online learning behaviors.

Online learning has become a popular trend in the educational field in the last decades; it includes e-learning, mobile-learning, flipped classroom, blended learning, ubiquitous learning, etc., in almost all levels of education. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) became the global sensation in higher education in 2012, marked as the year of MOOCs. They contribute numerous opportunities for both formal and informal learning without geographical limitations, and at lower cost or even free of charge. However, some arguments have been brought up about MOOCs so that Small Private Online Courses (SPOCs), referring to a revision of MOOCs, has started locally with on-campus students in tertiary education. But no matter how much advanced technology has developed, the system of traditional courses (TCs) still plays an important role in the vast majority of teaching and learning environments.

This study is based on an experiment conducted at a private university in Taiwan; the aim was to analyze students’ learning behaviors using the Constructivist Learning Theory in three classes: a MOOC, a SPOC and a TC with students who are taught the same materials by different instructing methods. The two treatment groups (the MOOC and SPOC) were given videos, whereas the students in the control group (the TC) met regularly for 2 hours every week without the use of any videos and online lecturing. At the end of the term, the students’ learning behaviors, learning performance, satisfaction with their course, teacher and supplemental technology were compared and analyzed. Other than the quantitative data collection, feedback from the students was also collected for a qualitative analysis. In order to explore the relationships between learning behaviors and performance, Pearson Correlation Analysis was adopted as well.

This dissertation contributed several valuable findings according to the processes and analyses of the experiment. The results showed that constructivism supports effective learning when the students took part actively in student-centered learning. Motivation is a key ingredient in constructive learning theory; not only does it help learning, but also initiates learning itself. Due to the distinct backgrounds and expectations, the results revealed the differences in online participation and learning behaviors between the MOOC and SPOC. The values of traditional courses had also been emphasized based on the analysis of the surveys.

Many research papers point out the pros and cons of online learning, but rarely provide useful information for designing online courses based on the theoretical foundation of Constructivism. This study utilizes the findings from the experiment to generalize valuable suggestions for curriculum developers and learners, higher education providers as well as researchers to better organize MOOCs or SPOCs, in order to enhance teaching and learning outcomes.
論文目次 Acknowledgements ................................................................................. i
Abstract ................................................................................... ..............ii
Table of Contents .................................................................................. vi
List of Tables ...................................................................................... viii
List of Figures ....................................................................................... ix
List of Appendixes ................................................................................. x
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................. 1
Statement of the Problem ................................................................................... 1
Theoretical Foundation ...................................................................................... 2
Purpose of the Study .......................................................................................... 3
Terms and Definitions ....................................................................................... 3
Research Design ................................................................................................ 7
Organization of the Study .................................................................................. 9
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................... 11
The Birth of MOOCs ....................................................................................... 11
The Advantageous Aspects of MOOCs .......................................................... 13
The Controversy over MOOCs ........................................................................ 14
The Trend of SPOCs ........................................................................................ 16
The Applications of SPOCs ............................................................................. 18
Constructivist Learning Theory ....................................................................... 19
Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................................. 25
Research Questions .......................................................................................... 25
Procedure ......................................................................................................... 26
Participants ....................................................................................................... 28
The Host ........................................................................................................... 29
Materials .......................................................................................................... 30
Data Collection ................................................................................................ 34
Chapter 4 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ................................................................... 41
Comparison between the MOOC and SPOC .................................................. 41
Online Participation ......................................................................................... 58
Comparison between the SPOC and TC ......................................................... 62
Interview Results ............................................................................................. 67
Chapter 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ...................................................... 77
Findings and Interpretations ............................................................................ 77
Suggestions to Educators and Learners ........................................................... 86
Research Limitations and Future Studies ........................................................ 93
Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 96
References ................................................................................................................ 103
Appendixes .............................................................................................................. 116

List of Tables
Table 3-1 The main issues and questions discussed in this dissertation ................... 26
Table 3-2 The MOOC student ................................................................................... 28
Table 3-3 Content of the Materials in MOOC .......................................................... 33
Table 3-4 The average scores of two classes ............................................................ 34
Table 3-5 Independent Samples Test ........................................................................ 35
Table 3-6 KMO and Bartlett‘s Test in Factor Analysis ............................................ 36
Table 3-7 KMO and Bartlett‘s Test Factor Analysis ................................................ 38
Table 4-1 The devices used the most to watch the videos ........................................ 46
Table 4-2 Feedback about the videos in question no.13,14,16 ................................. 49
Table 4-3 Independent samples T-test on feedback about the teacher ..................... 50
Table 4-4 The favorable English learning websites in the MOOC and SPOC ......... 52
Table 4-5 Chi-Square Test on favorable websites .................................................... 53
Table 4-6 The reasons why the students did not watch the videos ........................... 53
Table 4-7 The reasons why the students did not write the assignments ................... 54
Table 4-8 Chi-Square Tests on the reasons above .................................................... 55
Table 4-9 Pearson Correlation Analysis on MOOC‘s post-survey ........................... 56
Table 4-10 Pearson Correlation Analysis on SPOC‘s post-survey ........................... 57
Table 4-11 Times of MOOC students watching videos ............................................ 58
Table 4-12 Times of SPOC students watching videos .............................................. 59
Table 4-13 The number of MOOC students who had done the exercises ................ 61
Table 4-14 The records of submitting online assignments ....................................... 63
Table 4-15 Independent samples test on comparison of SPOC and TC ................... 64
Table 4-16 Independent samples test on end-of-semester survey for SPOC and TC.... 67
Table 5-1 List of the aspects beyond the average course satisfaction ...................... 83


List of Figures
Figure 3-1 The framework of the experimental research .......................................... 27
Figure 3-2 The MOOC on the Share Course ............................................................. 31
Figure 3-3 The front page of the SPOC on YZU‘s Portal ......................................... 32
Figure 4-1 Using technology is effective for language learning ............................... 42
Figure 4-2 The results of questions 19-22 in pre-survey .......................................... 43
Figure 4-3 The results of post-survey in the first dimension .................................... 44
Figure 4-4 Online learning is more comfortable in following at my own pace ........ 45
Figure 4-5 Feedback about the videos in question no. 9,11,12,15 ............................ 47
Figure 4-6 The talking head in the video .................................................................. 48
Figure 4-7 English improvement before and after taking the online course ............. 51
Figure 4-8 Times the MOOC videos being watched................................................. 60
Figure 4-9 Times the SPOC videos were watched .................................................... 61
Figure 4-10 Feedback on the students‘ assignment .................................................. 73
Figure 4-11 Feedback on the students‘ assignment .................................................. 74
Figure 5-1 An example of feedback to one of the assignment. ................................. 90
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