||Enhancing EFL Students’ Listening Comprehension of TV News via Video-based Instruction with Pre-listening Activities
||Department of English
||The aim of this study is to investigate an alternative instruction to teach EFL listening comprehension in an EFL environment, such as Taiwan. This study examined two types of instruction of English listening teaching in a Taiwanese college for a comparative experiment. The participants were first-year Spanish majors and they were divided into two groups, with one group, the control group (CG), instructed with video-based instruction without any pre-listening activities while the other, the experimental group(EG), with video-based instruction and schematic pre-listening activities. Both groups received 12 times of different instruction, and a pretest before the instruction and a posttest after the instruction were utilized to measure participants’ performance on listening comprehension. In addition, the delayed posttest was conducted to investigate the long-term effect of this study. Results show that experimental group (EG) not only made considerable improvement, it also performed better than the control group (CG) significantly. The control group (CG), in effect, showed regression rather than progression after 12-week instruction. The results bolster our hypothesis that schematic pre-listening activities could enhance students’ listening comprehension ability extensively. Further, the results of the questionnaire and a small-scale interview indicated that the participants in the experimental group think their English improved and their attitude was positive about CNN TV news, and their cultural awareness was enhanced more than the control group. Our study underlines the urgency for EFL teachers to have an alternative pedagogy to instruct English listening comprehension, as the CEEC will put listening comprehension as one of the requirement of college entrance exam in Taiwan.
English Abstract ii
Chinese Abstract iii
Table of Contents v
List of Tables and Diagrams ix
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 The Statement of Problem 4
1.3 The Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 6
1.6 Definition of Terms 6
1.6.1 Pre-listening Activities 7
1.6.2 Authenticity 7
1.6.3 Schemata 7
1.7 Organization of the Thesis 8
Chapter Two Literature Review 10
2.1 The Teaching and Learning of EFL Listening 10
2.1 Cognitivist’s Views on List Comprehension 12
2.2 Piaget’s Assimilation, Accommodation, and Equilibration 13
2.3 Definition of Schemata 14
2.4 Formal Schemata, Linguistic Schemata, and Content Schemata 17
2.5 The Effectiveness of Pr-listening Activities to Activate Schemata 24
2.6 Empirical Studies of Mental Schemata of Listening Comprehension 33
2.7 Video-based Instruction 35
2.8 The Merit of Teaching Listening Comprehension with TV news 37
2.9 Motivations enhanced by Video-based Instruction 39
Chapter Three Methodology 43
3.1 Subjects 43
3.2 The Experimental Lesson 44
3.3 The Control Lesson 44
3.4 Instruction 44
3.5 Questionnaires 47
3.6 Small-Scale Interviews 48
3.7 Materials 49
3.8 Instrument 49
3.9 Summary of the Experimental Design 50
Chapter Four Results and Discussion 51
4.1 The Reliability and Validity of the Questionnaire 51
4.2 Results and Discussion of the Pilot Study 53
4.3 Main Study: Results and Discussion of Research Question 1 55
4.4 Results and Discussion of Research Question 2 58
4.5 Results and Discussion of Research Question 3 62
4.6 Results and Discussion of Research Question 4 67
4.7 Comparison of the Experimental Group and the Control Group 71
4.8 Summary of Data and Results 72
Chapter Five Conclusion 73
5.1 Significance and Implication of the Study 74
5.2 Limitation of the Study 75
5.3 Suggestions for the Future Research 76
5.4 Summary of Conclusion 76
Appendix A 87
Appendix B 90
Appendix C 93
Appendix D 94
Appendix E 97
List of Tables and Diagrams
Diagram 2.1: Piaget’s Cognitive Schema 14
Diagram 2.2: A Diagram of Someone’s Possible Schema 24
Table 3.1 Teaching Materials and Time Schedule of the Experiment 44
Table 4.1 Reliability Result 53
Table 4.2 Paired Sample T-test of the Mean Scores of the Pretest of Listening Comprehension Test in Pilot Study 53
Table 4.3 Paired Sample T-test of the Mean Scores of the Posttest of Listening Comprehension Test in Pilot Study 54
Table 4.4 Descriptive Statistics for Pretest, Posttest and Delayed Posttest 55
Table 4.5 Descriptive Statistics for Pretest and Delayed Posttest 56
Table 4.6 Descriptive Statistics for Positive Perception of the VBI enhanced by TV News 61
Table 4.7 Descriptive Statistics for Self-assessment of English Improvement 64
Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics for Students’ Cultural Awareness 68
Table 4.9 Descriptive Statistics Comparison of Questionnaires 71
||Abbe, A., Gulick, L. M. V., & Herman, J. L. (2007). Cross-cultural Competence in army leaders: A Conceptual and Empirical Foundation. (SR 2008-01). Arlington, Virginia: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing Reading. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Allan, M. (1985). Teaching English with Video. Longman, London.
Altman, R. (1989). The Video Connection: Integrating Video into Language Teaching. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Al-Issa, A. (2006) Schema Theory and L2 reading comprehension: Implication for teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3, 7, 41-48.
Anderson, A. & Lynch, T. (1988). Listening. New York: Oxford University Press.
Anderson, N. (1999). Exploring Second Language Reading: Issues and Strategies. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Baltova, I. (1994). The impact of video on the comprehension skills of core French students. Canadian Modem Language Review, 50, 507-521.
Bacon, S. M. (1992). Phases of listening to authentic input in Spanish: A descriptive study. Foreign Language Annals, 25, 317-334.
Baker, N. (1996). Using the TV news in the EFL classroom. Zielsprache, 26(2): 30-33.
Berne, J.E. (1995). How does varying pre-listening activities affect second language listening comprehension? Hispania, 78( 2 ), 316-329.
Brewer, W. F., & Nakamura, G. V. (1984). The nature and functions of schemas. In R. S. Wyer & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of Social Cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 119-160). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Brown, H.D. (2006). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Pearson ESL, Fifth Edition. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Brown G. & Yule G. (1983) Teaching the Spoken Language, Cambridge University Pres
Byrnes, H. (1984). The role of listening comprehension: A theoretical base. Foreign Language Annals, 17, 318-330.
Carrell, P.L. (1987). Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 21 (3), 461-481.
Carrell, P.L. & Eisterhold, J.C. (1983) Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy, in Carrell, P.L., Devine, J. and Eskey, D.E. (eds) (1988) Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading. Cambridge: CUP.
Celce-Murcia, M., & Olshtain, E. (2000). Discourse and Context in Language Teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, pp.29-42(1) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Chen, A. (2009). Listening Strategy Instruction: Exploring Taiwanese College Students‟ strategy Development. Asian EFL Journal, Vol.11(2), pp. 54-85.
Chen, G.M., & Starosta, W.J. (2000), The development and validation of the intercultural communication sensitivity scale. Human Communication, 3, 1-15
Chiang, C.S., & Dunkel, P. (1992). The effect of speech modification, prior knowledge, and listening proficiency on EFL lecture learning. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 345-374.
Chung, J. & Huang, S. (1998). The effects of three aural advance organizers for video viewing in a foreign language classroom. System 26 (1) 553-565.
Coniam, D. (2001). The use of audio or video comprehension as an assessment instrument in the certification of English language teachers: A case study. System, 29, 1-14.
Dornyei, Z. (2000). Teaching and Researching Motivation. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd
Edasawa, Y., Takeuchi, O., & Nishizaki, K. (1990). Use of films in listening comprehension practice. IALL Journal of Language Learning Technologies, 23 (3), 21-34.
Erten, I. H., & Razi, S. (2009). The effects of cultural familiarity on reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 21, 60–77.
Ervin, B.K. (1992). Does knowledge of culture and instruction using thematic units affect listening comprehension. Reading Psychology Journal, 12, 43-61.
Gardner, R.C. & Lambert, W. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Genc. B. and Bada, E. (2005). Culture in language learning and teaching. The Reading Matrix, 5(1), 73-84.
Gruba, P. (1993). A comparison study of audio and video in language testing. JALT Journal 16 (1), 85-88.
Harden, R.N., & Dent, J.A. (2005). A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers. Third edition. China: Churchill Livingstone.
Herron, C., & Hanley, J. (1992). Using video to introduce children to a foreign culture. Foreign Language Annals, 25, 419-426.
Ho, S.T.K. (2009) Addressing culture in EFL classrooms: The challenge of
shifting from a traditional to an intercultural stance. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 2009, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 63–76, National University of Singapore
Imhof, M. (1998). What makes a good listener? Listening behavior in instructional settings. International Journal of Listening vol. 12 pp. 81–105. (1998).
Jun, W., & Wu, W. (2007). Analysis of schema theory and its influence on reading. US-China Foreign Language, 5(11), 18-21.
Kaplan, R.B. (1980). Cultural thought patterns in intercultural education. In K. Croft (Ed.), Readings on English as a second language (pp. 401-418). Cambridge, MA:Winthrop.
Katchen, J. (1996). Using Authentic Video in English Language Teaching: Tips for Taiwan’s Teachers. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co. Ltd.
Kemp, J. (2010). The listening log: motivating autonomous learning. ELT Journal, 64/4.
Ketchum, E. M. (2006). The cultural baggage of second language reading: An approach to understanding. Foreign Language Annals, 39, 22–42.
Krashen, S.D. (1985), The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications, New York: Longman
Landry, K. (2002). Schemata in second language reading. The Reading Matrix, Vol.2, No.3, Retrieved from: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/article/thoeries-reading
Lin, L. Y. (2002). The Effects of Feature Films upon Learners’ Motivation, Listening Comprehension Performance and Speaking Skills: The Learner-centered Approach. Taipei: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Long, D.R. (1989). Second language listening comprehension: A schema theoretic perspective. Modern Language Journal, 75, 196-204.
Long, D. R. (1990). What you don’t know can’t help you: An exploratory study of background knowledge and second language listening comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 65-80.
Mueller, G. A. (1980). Visual contextual cues and listening comprehension: An experiment. Modern Language Journal, 64, 335-340.
Mandler, J.M. (1984). Stories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects of Schema Theory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Markham, P. L., & Latham, M. (1987). The influence of religion-specific background knowledge on listening comprehension of adult second language students. Language Learning, 37, 157-170.
Nassaji, H. (2002). Schema theory and knowledge-based processes in second language reading comprehension: A need for alternative perspectives. Language Learning, 52, 439–481.
Nisida, H. (1999). A cognitive approach to intercultural communication based on schema theory. Int. J. Intercultural Rel, Vol. 23(5), pp 753-777. Great Britain: Elsevier Science Ltd.
Nunan, D. (1998). Listen in. Student’s Book 3. Singapore: International Thomson Publishing.
Ockey, G. J. (2007). Construct implications of including still image or video in computer-based listening tests. Language Testing, 24(4), 517-537.
Oller, J. W. (1995). Adding abstract to formal and content schema: Results of recent work in Peircean semiotics. Applied Linguistics, 16, 273–306.
Opat, A. (2008). Alternative Pathways: Struggling readers utilize art elements for listening/viewing comprehension and artistic response. Unpublished PhD, Kansas State University, retrieved from proquest, UMI No: 3310822.
Piaget, J. (1926). Language and Thought of the Child. London: Paul Kegan. (original work published in 1923)
Purdy, M. (1991). Listening and community: The role of listening in community formation. Journal of the International Listening Association, 5, 51267.
Richardson, C., & Scinicariello, S. (1989). Televised technology in the foreign language classroom. In W. Smith (Ed.), Modern Technology in Foreign Language Education: Applications and projects. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company, (pp. 43-74).
Rost, M. (1990). Listening in Language Learning. London, UK: Longman.
Rost, M. (2002). Teaching and Researching Listening. London, UK: Longman.
Reber, A. S., & Reber, E. (2001). The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology (3rd ed.). London: Penguin Books Ltd., England. Retrieved 11 November 2009, from www.psychology.uiowa.edu
Rentsch, J. R., Gunderson, A., Goodwin, G. F., & Abbe, A. (2007). Conceptualizing Multicultural Perspective Taking Skills. (TR 1216). Arlington, Virginia: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Rubin, J. (1995). The contribution of video to the development on competence in listening. In D. Mendelsohn and J. Rubin (Eds.), A guide for the teaching of second language listening (pp. 151-165). San Diego, CA: Dominie Press.
Ruhe, V. (1996). Graphics and listening comprehension. TESL Canada
Journal, 14 (1), 45.
Rumelhart, D.E. (1980) Schemata: the building blocks of cognition. In: R.J. Spiro etal. (eds) Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Rumelhart, D. E. (1997). The Architecture of Mind: A Connectionist Approach. Mass.: MIT Press.
Sadighi, F. Sare, Z. (2006). Is listening comprehension influenced by the background knowledge of the learners? A Case Study of Iranian EFL learners. Linguistics Journal, 1(3).
Schmidt-Rinehart, B. C. (1994). The effect of topic familiarity on second language listening comprehension. Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 179-189.
Stempleski, S. & Tomalin, B. (1989). Use video to stimulate speaking and writing. TESOL Newsletter, 23(5), 21, 31.
Stempleski, S. (1987). Short takes: Using authentic video in the English class. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (21st, Westende, Belgium, April 12-14, 1987).
Suvorov, R. (2008). Context visuals in L2 listening tests: The effectiveness of photographs and video vs. audio-only format. Unpublished MA, Iowa State University, AAT 1454627.
Swaffar, J. & Vlatten, A. (1997). A Sequential Model for Video Viewing in the Foreign Language Curriculum. The Modern Language Journal, 81(2), 175-188.
Tang, C.M. (1991). The role and value of graphic representation of knowledge structures in ESL student learning: An ethnographic study. TESL Canada Journal, 9, 29-38.
Taylor, S. E., & Crocker, J. (1981). Schematic bases of social information processing. In E. T. Higgins, P. Herman, & M. Zanna (Eds.), Social cognition: The Ontario Symposium, Vol. 1. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Terrell, T.D. (1993). Comprehensible input for intermediate foreign language students via video. IALL. Journal of Language Learning Technologies 26 (2), 17-23. The Modern Language Journal, 81, 175-188.
Thorndyke, P. W., & Yekovich, F. R. (1980). A critique of schema-based theories of human memory. Poetics, 9, 23-49.
Tsou, W. (2005). The effects of cultural instruction on foreign language learning. RELC Journal, 36(1), 39-57.
Underwood, M. (1989). Teaching listening. New York: Longman
Vacca, R., & Vacca, J. (1999). Content Area Reading. New York: Longman.
Vandergrift, L. (2002). It was nice to see that our predictions were right: Developing Metacognition in L2 Listening Comprehension. Canadian Modern Language Review 58:555-75.
Vandergrift, L. (2004). Learning to listen or listening to learn. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 3-25.
Weissenreider, M. (1987). Listening to the News in Spanish. Modern Language Journal, 71, 18-27.
Wetzel, C. D., Radtke, P. H., & Stern, H. W. (1994). Instructional Effectiveness of Video Media. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Weyers, J. (1999). The Effect of Authentic Video on Communicative Competence. The Modern Language Journal, 83 (3), 339-349.
Widdowson, H. G. (1983). Learning Purpose and Language Use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yang, J., Chen, C. & Jeng, M. (2010). Integrating video-capture virtual reality technology into a physically interactive learning environment for English learning. Computers & Education 55 (1) 1346–1356.
Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Zeng, Y. (2007). Schema theory and its application in teaching listening for non-English major undergraduates. Sino-US English Teaching, 4(6), 32-36.
Zhang, W. (2006). Effect of schema theory and listening activities on listening comprehension. Sino-US English Teaching, 3(12), 28-31.