淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1001201917011500
中文論文名稱 二十及二十一世紀[後女性主義]
英文論文名稱 ‘POST’-FEMINISMS IN THE 20th AND 21st CENTURIES
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 107
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生中文姓名 簡伊佐
研究生英文姓名 YI TSO CHIEN
學號 801110080
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-12-24
論文頁數 158頁
口試委員 指導教授-羅艾琳
委員-海柏
委員-黃逸民
委員-杜德倫
委員-謝惠玲
中文關鍵字 生態批評  生態學  女性主義  馬克思主義生態批評  後殖民生態批評  後人類主義  超人類主義 
英文關鍵字 Ecocriticism  Ecosophy  Feminism  Marxist Ecocriticism  Postcolonial Ecocriticism  Posthumanism  Transhumanism 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文旨在通過對所選文學和電影的批判性分析,闡述過去五十年來女性主義理論的幾個
軌跡。 當代女性主義論述大部分仍然是以人道主義為中心,因此仍然涵跨在第一波和第二波女
性主義學者的範圍內。 然而,正如我將在本論文中討論的那樣,在許多情況下,當代女性主義
論述是後人類主義的。 在那些範例中,當代女性主義已經超越了以人文主義為中心的提問,反
映並交叉在後人類主義以及生態批評和動物研究領域的學術和活動工作。 我論文標題中['後' -
女性主義]一詞中的[後]指的是所謂的轉變。 當代大部分的女性主義論述並非全由西方的女性主
義模式所主導,這種變化部分歸功於專門研究後殖民主義研究(和後殖民生態批評)的學者的
努力。本論文標題中['後' - 女性主義]一詞中的 [後] 也指的是這種關注的轉變或擴展。 通過閱
讀這些文學和電影作品來說明給定的轉變,這些作品要求或提出反映人道主義,後人類主義,
人類中心主義和物種主義的女性主義理論的問題。 這個在很大程度上歸功於第一波和第二波女
性主義者的開創性工作,後者以西蒙·德·波娃 (Simone De Beauvoir)為代表。 她的作品在20世紀
70年代非常有影響力,因此(在我的論文的第二章)我評論了西蒙·德·波娃的一篇開創性作品。
本論文中的[後'女性主義]主要是指20世紀70年代以後出現的女性主義論點,與後殖民主義,生
態批評,動物研究和後人類學等最近的學術(直到20世紀70年代後不久或之後才出現的學科)
的論點密切相關。
本論文共分六章。第一章作為論文的介紹,介紹了整體論點。它包括對兩項研究的廣泛評
論,因為它們為整篇論文中的論點提供了依據。這兩項研究分別是生態女性主義和生態哲學家
Val Plumwood的「女性主義和自然的掌握」以及後人類思想家Elaine L. Graham的「後/人類代表:
怪物,外星人和其他大眾文化」。第二章的主題是「女性主義學者Backwaters與法國新浪潮電影:亞倫雷奈(Alain Resnais) 的<去年在馬倫巴> (Last Year at Marienbad)」。我通過對第二波女性
主義的經典研究,西蒙·德·波娃的<第二性>以及後結構主義學者對法國新浪潮電影的研究及評
論來批評這部電影。第三章,「後殖民女性主義和生態女性主義:艾米塔.葛旭 (Amitav Ghosh)
的<餓潮>」,側重於後殖民作家Amitav Ghosh的小說作品<餓潮>(The Hungry Tide)。我批評
小說中女性角色的表現形式,特別是這些表徵如何隱含地表現出對西方女性主義角色模型的偏
見。第四章,「馬克思主義女性主義和生態學:琳達霍根的<太陽風暴>和史蒂芬西格爾的<
絕地戰將>」,通過馬克思主義影響的女性主義思想以及馬克思主義影響的生態科學立場來論
述一部小說和一部電影。 第五章,「超人主義的女權主義和動物研究批評:伊格言(Egoyan Zheng)
的<嗜夢人>,Alex Garland的<機械姬>和Neill Blomkamp的<極樂世界>」,主要從後人類
女性主義觀點對該學科本身的批判的角度(即對後人類主義所採取的主流方向,超人主義的批判)
來講述兩部電影 - 在我的後人類女性主義批評中,我特別提到了人工智能的超人類探究領域。
第六章是論文的結論,重點論述了論文的主要內容和主旨。
英文摘要 My dissertation aims to illustrate several trajectories in feminist theory in the last fifty
years through a critical analysis of selected literature and film. Much of contemporary
feminist discourse remains humanist-centered discourse and so continues in the vein of
the projects of first and second-wave feminist scholars. However, in many instances, as I
will discuss in this dissertation, contemporary feminist discourse has moved beyond
humanist focused inquiries, reflecting and crossing over with scholarly and activist work
in the areas of posthumanism as well as ecocriticism, and animal studies. The “post” in
the word “‘post’-feminisms” in the title of my dissertation refers to said shift. Much of
contemporary feminist discourse also is not as dominated by western models of feminism,
a change that owes in part to the work of scholars who specialize in postcolonial studies (and postcolonial ecocriticism). The “post” in the word “‘post’-feminisms” in the title of
my dissertation refers to that shift or widening of feminist concerns as well. I illustrate the
given transformations through a reading of selected works of literature and film that ask
or raise questions that reflect feminist theoretical engagements with humanism,
posthumanism, anthropocentrism, and speciesism. Such engagements owe significantly to
but also move beyond the groundbreaking work of first- and second-wave feminists, the
latter group of which is represented by Simone De Beauvoir. Her work was very
influential up through the 1970s and thus I comment on a seminal publication by De
Beauvoir (in the second chapter of my dissertation). “‘Post’-feminisms” in this
dissertation mostly refers to feminist arguments that appear after the 1970s and intersect
closely with arguments in the more recent disciplines (disciplines that didn’t emerge until
soon or well after the 1970s) of postcolonialism, ecocriticism, animal studies, and
posthumanism.
There are six chapters in total in the dissertation. The first chapter functions as the
introduction to the dissertation, introducing the overall argument. It includes extensive
comments on two studies, for they inform the arguments in the dissertation as a whole.
The two studies are: ecofeminist and ecophilosopher Val Plumwood’s Feminism and the
Mastery of Nature and posthumanist thinker Elaine L. Graham’s Representation of the
Post/Human: Monsters, Aliens and Others in Popular Culture. The main subject of
Chapter Two, “Feminist Backwaters and French New Wave Film: Alain Resnais’ Last
Year at Marienbad,” is Resnais’ film. I critique that film by drawing on a classic study of
second-wave feminism, Simone De Beauvoir’s The Second Sex as well as by referring to
studies of French New Wave film by poststructuralist scholars. Chapter Three,“Postcolonial Feminism and Ecofeminism: Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide,” focuses
on postcolonial writer Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide. I critique the representations of
female characters in the novel, specifically how those representations implicitly show bias
towards western feminist role models. Chapter Four, “Marxist Feminism and Ecosophy:
Linda Hogan’s Solar Storms and Steven Seagal’s On Deadly Ground,” addresses a novel
and a film through the perspectives of Marxist-influenced feminist thought as well as
Marxist-influenced ecosophical positions. Chapter Five, “A Feminist and Animal Studies
Critique of Transhumanism: Egoyan Zheng’s The Dream Devourer, Alex Garland’s Ex
Machina, and Neill Blomkamp’s Elysium” addresses two films primarily from the
perspective of a feminist posthumanist critique of the discipline itself—namely a critique
of the mainstream direction, transhumanism, that poshumanism has taken. In my feminist
posthumanist critique, I address in particular the area of transhumanism inquiry of
artificial intelligence. Chapter Six functions as the conclusion of the dissertation,
recapping the main points and the thesis.
論文目次 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
‘POST’-FEMINISMS IN THE 20TH AND 21ST CENTURIES …………………………...1
Elaine L. Graham’s Representation of the Post/Human: Monsters, Aliens and Others
in Popular Culture…………………………………………………………………………..…10
Val Plumwood’s Feminism and the Mastery of Nature………………………………..16
CHAPTER TWO
FEMINIST BACKWATERS AND FRENCH NEW WAVE FILM: ALAN RESNAIS’
LAST YEAR AT MARIENBAD………………………………………………………………25
Jacques Rancière’s The Future of the Image………………………………………………..27
Simone De Beauvoir’s The Second Sex………..…………………………………………….30
Roland Barthes’ Empire of Signs……………...……………………………………….39
CHAPTER THREE
POSTCOLONIAL FEMINISM AND ECOFEMINISM: AMITAV GHOSH’S
THE HUNGRY TIDE………………………………………………………………………..47
Greta Gaard’s Critical Ecofeminism……………………………………………………….….52
Clair Chambers and Susan Watkins’s “Postcolonial Feminism?”………………………63
CHAPTER FOUR
MARXIST FEMINISM AND ECOSOPHY: LINDA HOGAN’S SOLAR STORMS
AND STEVEN SEAGAL’S ON DEADLY GROUND……………………..…………………....72
Linda Hogan’s Solar Storms and Marxist Feminism…………………………………...72
Felix Guattari’s The Three Ecologies and the Marxist-Ecofeminist Figure of
Masu in Steven Seagal’s On Deadly Ground………………………………………………...85
CHAPTER FIVE
A FEMINIST AND ANIMAL STUDIES CRITIQUE OF TRANSHUMANISM:
EGOYAN ZHENG’S THE DREAM DEVOURER, ALEX GARLAND’S EX MACHINA,
AND NEILL BLOMKAMP’S ELYSIUM…………………………………………………………95
Transhumanism…………………………………………………………………...97
The Dream Devourer…………………………………………………………………..101
Artificial Intelligence (AI)………………………………………………………..102
Ex Machina…………………………………………………........................................104
Elysium……...…………………………………….......................................................106
Animal Studies…………………………………………………………………..108
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION……………………………………………………….…117
BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………….153
參考文獻 Anand, Divya. “Words on Water: Nature and Agency in Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry
Tide.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 34.1 (March 2008): 21-44.
Baker, Steve. Picturing the Beast: Animals, Identity, and Representation. Manchester,
Manchester UP, 1993.
Barrowman, Kyle. “Blockbuster Ideology: Steven Seagal and the Legacy of Action
Cinema—Part 2.” 17. 4 (April 2013). Web. 8 Sept. 2018.
.
Barthes, Roland. “The Unknown Language.” Empire of Signs. Trans. by Richard
Howard. New York: New York: The Noonday Press-Farrar, Straus and Giroux,
1982.
Berger, John. “Why Look at Animals.” About Looking. London: Penguin, 1980.
Blade Runner. Dir. Ridley Scott. Prod. Michael Deeley. Dist. Warner Bros., 1982.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London:
Routledge, 1990.
Chambers, Clair and Susan Watkins. “Postcolonial Feminism?” The Journal of
Commonwealth Literature 47.3 (2012): 297-301. DOI:
10.1177/0021989412456167.
Crosland, Margaret. Introduction. The Second Sex (1949) by Simone De Beauvoir.
Trans. and ed. by H. M. Parshley. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. vii-xvii.
De Beauvoir, Simone. “XXI. Women’s Situation and Character.” The Second Sex
(1949). Trans. and ed. by H. M. Parshley. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.
628-660.
Dick, Philip K. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? New York: Doubleday, 1968.
Duignan, Brian. “Jacques Rancière.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2018 Encyclopaedia
Britannica, Inc. Web. 20 April 2017.
.
Ebert, Roger. Rev. of Last Year at Marienbad. Roger Egert.com. Ebert Digital LLC.
30 May 1999. Web. 4 Dec. 2017.

Elysium. Dir. Neill Blomkamp. Prod. Bill Block, Neill Blomkamp, and Simon
Kinberg. Dist. TriStar Pictures, 2013.
Estok, Simon C. The Ecophobia Hypothesis. New York: Routledge, 2018.
Ex Machina. Dir. Alex Garland. Prod. Andrew Macdonald. Dist. Universal Pictures,
2015.
Foster, John Bellamy. Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature. New York: Monthly
Review Press, 2000.
Gaard, Greta. Critical Ecofeminism. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington-Rowman &
Littlefield, 2017.
Garrard, Greg. “Ch 7. Animals.” Ecocriticism. Oxford and New York: Routledge,
2004. 136-59.
Ghosh, Amitav. The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable.
Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2016.
---. The Hungry Tide (2004). New York: HarperCollins, 2004.
Graham, Elaine, L. Representations of the Post/Human: Monsters, Aliens and Others
in Popular Culture. New Jersey: Rutgers UP, 2002.
Guattari, Felix. The Three Ecologies (1989). Trans. by Ian Pindar and Paul Sutton.
London and New Brunswick, New Jersey: The Athlone P, 2000.
Guattari, Felix and Negri, Toni. Communists like Us: New Spaces of Liberty, New
Lines of Alliance, 1990. Trans. Michael Ryan. New York: Semiotext(e), 1990.
Halberstam, Judith. Female Masculinity. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1998.
Halberstam, Judith M., and Livingston, Ira, eds. “Introduction: Posthuman Bodies.”
Posthuman Bodies. Ed. by Halberstam and Livingston. Bloomington, Indiana UP,
1995. 1-19.
Haraway, Donna. “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism
in the Late Twentieth Century” (1985). Posthumanism. Ed. Neil Badmington.
Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2000. 69-149.
Hogan, Linda. Solar Storms. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc. 1995.
Huang, Peter I-min. Linda Hogan and Contemporary Taiwanese Writers: an
Ecocritical Study of Indigeneities and Environment. Lanham, Maryland:
Lexington-Rowman & Littlefield), 2015.
---. “Chinese Sci-Fi and Representations of Eco-Feminists: Mad Women and Women
Warriors.” N.d. TS. Ecofeminist Science Fiction. Ed. Doug Vakoch.
Forthcoming.
Huggan, Graham and Tiffin, Helen. Literature, Animals and Environment. London:
Routledge, 2010.
Jameson, Frederic. The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act.
Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1982.
Justice, Daniel Heath. Our Fire Survives The Storm: A Cherokee Literary History
Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2006.
Last Year at Marienbad. Dir. Alain Resnais. Prod. Pierre Courau, et al. Dist. Cocinor.
1961.
Midgely, Mary. Animals and Why They Matter: A Journey Around the Species Barrier.
Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1983.
---. Science as Salvation: A Modern Myth and its Meaning. London, Routledge, 1992.
Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial
Discourses. boundary 2 12/13 (Vol. 12, No. 3-Vol. 13, No. 1) (Spring-Autumn
1984): 333-358.
On Deadly Ground. Dir. Steven Seagal. Prod. Seagal, et al. Dist. Warner, 1994.
O’Neill, Angeline. “Textual Fantasies and Culturality in Native American Fiction. A
Review Article of New Books by Treuer and Justice.” 13.2 (June 2011): 1-10.
Web. 1 Aug. 2018. .
Pindar, Ian and Paul Sutton, translators. “Translators’ Introduction.” The Three
Ecologies (1989) by Felix Guattari. London and New Brunswick, New Jersey:
The Athlone P, 2000. 1-20.
Plumwood, Val. Feminism and the Mastery of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Pulé, Paul. M. “Caring for Society and Environment: Towards Ecological
Masculinism.” Paper Presented at the Villanova University Sustainability
Conference, April 2009. Web. 23 Oct. 2017.
.
---. “Ecology and Environmental Studies.” Routledge International Encyclopedia of
Men and Masculinities. Eds. Michael Flood, Judith Kegan Gardiner, Bob Pease,and Keith Pringle. New York: Routledge, 2007. 158-162.
Rancière, Jacques. The Future of the Image (2003). Trans. by Gregory Elliott. London
And New York: Verso, 2009.
Shapiro, Michael J. “’Manning’ the Frontiers: the Politics of (Human) Nature in Blade
Runner” (Chapter 4). In the Nature of Things: Language, Politics and the
Environment. Edited by Jane Bennett and William Chaloupka London: U of
Minnesota P, 1993. 65-84.
Shiva, Vandana. Opening address. Freedom from Hunger (conference). Sydney,
October 1991.
Sirius, R. U. “A User’s Guide.” Mondo 2000: A User’s Guides to the New Edge.” Ed.
R. Rucker, R. U. Sirius, and Queen Mu. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992.
14-20.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism.”
Critical Inquiry 12.1 (1985): 243-261.
Treuer, David. Native American Fiction: A User's Manual. Minneapolis: Graywolf,
2006.
Warren, Karen. “The Power and The Promise of Ecological Feminism,”
Environmental Ethics 12 (1990). 125-144.
Williams, Raymond. Foreword. Languages of Nature: Critical Essays on Science and
Literature. Ed. by Ludmilla. J. Jordanova. London: Free Association Books,
1986. 10-14.
Williams, Raymond. Marxism and Literature. London: Oxford UP, 1978.
Wright, Laura. Wilderness into Civilized Shapes: Reading the Postcolonial Environment. Athens, Georgia: U of Georgia P, 2010.
Zheng, Egoyan (伊格言). The Dream Devourer (噬夢人). Taipei: Unitas Publishing
Co., Ltd., 2010.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2019-01-18公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-01-18起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2487 或 來信 dss@mail.tku.edu.tw