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中文論文名稱 拍撲式微飛行器之製作及其現地升力之量測研究
英文論文名稱 The Fabrication of the Flapping Micro Aerial Vehicle and Its On-site Measurement of Unsteady Lift
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 何仁揚
研究生英文姓名 Jen-Yang Ho
學號 692340093
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-07-01
論文頁數 84頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊龍杰
委員-王安邦
委員-李宗昇
委員-陳慶祥
委員-康尚文
委員-楊龍杰
中文關鍵字 拍撲式  微飛行器  微機電技術  聚乙烯氟化物 
英文關鍵字 flapping  MAV  MEMS  PVDF 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學機械工程
中文摘要 本研究利用微機電系統技術製作拍撲式飛行器之鈦合金機翼骨架與聚對二甲苯(parylene)機翼薄膜,並結合非微機電製程製作之拍撲式傳動機構、機身骨架與尾翼,成為一全機重22gw以下,全機尺寸約15cm之拍撲式飛行器。本微飛行器放置於風洞內進行升力量測,就不同風速、拍撲頻率、攻角及機翼形狀等進行討論。
本研究另使用聚乙烯氟化物(PVDF)壓電薄膜材料,製作新型拍撲式機翼結構,本研究並將新型機翼之壓電輸出訊號與風洞測力計升力訊號,進行比對探討,可於風洞測試中進行現地升力量測(on-site lift measurement)。
本研究最後為微飛行器安裝鋰電池進行無遙控之自由飛行測試,飛行距離已達10~15m,成功驗證本拍撲式微飛行器飛行之可行性。
英文摘要 The research of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) is a new field, which attracts much attention in the advanced aeronautical area. The flapping wing, proved by many natural flyers, is the most appropriate way of flying objects with size less than 6 inches. However, there is still plenty of room for studying on the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of flapping wings. The flapping wing, which is light weighted and high strengthened, is composed of a titanium-alloy frame and a parylene skin in this study. Such an integration of fabrication needs the help of MEMS processing.
In the wind-tunnel experimental, the signals from a load cell in the wind-tunnel and the PVDF sensors embedded in parylene wings are acquired simultaneously. Both of the lift signals from the PVDF and the load-cell are basically identical with the same flapping frequency and with the similar qualitative behaviors.
Finally we integrate Li-battery into our MAV system and perform test fly of the MAV prototype. The longest distance which our MAV system can reach is 10~15m so far.
論文目次 目 錄
中文摘要...................................................................................Ⅰ
英文摘要...................................................................................Ⅱ
目錄...........................................................................................Ⅳ
圖目錄....................................................................................VⅢ
表目錄....................................................................................XⅢ

第一章 緒論
1-1 研究動機............................................1
1-2 參考文獻...........................................................2
1-3 研究目的與架構...........................................4

第二章 拍撲式飛行與相關氣動力量測簡介
2-1 拍撲飛行概述...................................................................6
2-2 撲翼機設計原理.............................................................8
2-3 微飛行器所處之雷諾數範圍.................................................12
2-4 非穩態空氣動力場.........................................................13
2-5 Strouhal number.............................................................13
2-6 拍撲機氣動力量測...........................................................16

第三章 微飛行器製作
3-1 微飛行器製作架構.................................................................20
3-2 拍撲式傳動機構製作.............................................................21
3-2-1機構設計.........................................................................21
3-2-2加工製作.........................................................................23
3-3 機翼製作.................................................................................26
3-3-1鈦合金機翼製作.............................................................26
3-3-2 parylene翼膜製作..........................................................28
3-3-3 PVDF機膜製作..............................................................31
3-4 機身主要結構.........................................................................34
3-4-1 機頭...............................................................................34
3-4-2 傳動機構安裝...............................................................34
3-4-3 機身骨架.......................................................................35
3-4-4 尾翼與尾翼固定架.......................................................35
3-5 控制晶片和動力源.................................................................37
3-5-1 電池...............................................................................37
3-5-2 無線控制模組...............................................................38
3-5-3 減重(無線接收器與速度控制器).................................39
3-6 組裝完成的拍撲式微飛行器.................................................40

第四章 風洞實驗
4-1 風洞實驗測試架構說明.........................................................41
4-2 風洞測試夾具製作.................................................................43
4-2-1 低速風洞.......................................................................43
4-2-2 固定攻角夾具...............................................................44
4-2-3 可變攻角夾具...............................................................45
4-3 升力量測.................................................................................46
4-3-1 測力計...........................................................................46
4-3-2 數據擷取器...................................................................47
4-3-3 固定攻角升力量測.......................................................48
4-3-4 可變攻角升力量測.......................................................55
4-4 PVDF訊號量測.....................................................................70
4-4-1 PVDF 聚乙烯氟化物....................................................70
4-4-2 PVDF 壓電薄膜之現地量測........................................71
4-4-3 PVDF 實驗結果............................................................72

第五章 結果與討論
結果與討論..............................................................................73


第六章 建議事項
建議事項.................................................................................77

參考文獻..................................................................................................79

附錄
本拍撲式微飛行器之研發費用分析與提供相關零組件或代工服務廠商名錄......................................................................................................83

圖目錄

圖 1-1 自然界飛行生物翼展與重量之關係...................2
圖 2-1 柏努力效應造成之升力.............................6
圖 2-2 鳥類飛行示意圖...................................7
圖 2-3 鳥類滑翔時產生的升力方式.........................7
圖 2-4 鳥類飛行利用摺疊翅膀以減少負升力的產生...........8
圖 2-5 Pénaud 製作之撲翼機..............................9
圖 2-6 平板產生之升力...................................9
圖 2-7 Pénaud之撲翼機力學分析..........................10
圖 2-8 精子利用波動運動(plane wave)得到前進的動力........10
圖 2-9 拍撲式升力和推力之產生示意圖....................11
圖 2-10 Caltech以微機電技術製作3-D機翼.................11
圖 2-11 重量對於雷諾數之變化關係........................12
圖 3-1 本研究微飛行器製作之架構........................20
圖 3-2 以Ornithopter zone設計軟體分析傳動連桿尺..........21
圖 3-3 以Ornithopter zone設計軟體分析機翼拍動對稱性......22
圖 3-4 拍撲機構運作時機翼擺動示意圖....................23
圖 3-5 拍撲式傳動機構立體示意圖........................24
圖 3-6 傳動機構連桿立體示意圖..........................25圖 3-7 拍撲式傳動機構之實體............................25
圖 3-8 拍撲式傳動機構側視圖............................25
圖 3-9 機翼骨架示意圖(機翼A)...........................27
圖 3-10 機翼骨架示意圖(機翼B)...........................27
圖 3-11 機翼骨架示意圖(機翼C)...........................28
圖 3-12 鈦合金骨架完成圖...............................29
圖 3-13 parylene機翼(A)完成圖............................29
圖 3-14 parylene機翼之微機電製作流程.....................30
圖 3-15 鈦合金骨架(機翼B、機翼C) .......................31
圖 3-16 含PVDF壓電薄膜之機翼...........................32
圖 3-17 含PVDF與parylene機翼之微機電製作流程圖.........33
圖 3-18 保麗龍材料之機頭實體............................34
圖 3-19 傳動機構基座之機身骨架插孔......................34
圖 3-20 機身結構完成之實體..............................35
圖 3-21 水平尾翼........................................35
圖3-22 尾翼固定架.......................................36
圖 3-23 組裝後之尾翼固定架..............................36
圖 3-24 高分子鋰電池....................................37
圖3-25 四頻道無線遙控器.................................38
圖3-26 原購得之商用速度控制器與無線接收器...............39
圖3-27 減重與改裝後之速度控制器與無線接收器.............39
圖 3-28 組裝完成之拍撲翼微飛行器........................40
圖 4-1 整體工作架構圖..................................42
圖 4-2 低速風洞設備....................................43
圖 4-3 測試時機翼之運作示意圖..........................44
圖 4-4 彎曲骨架所形成之攻角............................44
圖 4-5 風洞測試夾具機構(固定攻角)......................44
圖 4-6 可任意改變攻角之升力測試夾具....................45
圖 4-7 可快速替換飛行器的測試夾具實景..................45
圖 4-8 測力計..........................................46
圖 4-9 風洞夾具基座....................................47
圖 4-10 數據擷取器......................................47
圖 4-11 固定攻角夾具之風洞實驗流程說明..................49
圖 4-12 未拍動下升力產生的情形..........................50
圖 4-13 機翼A未拍動時所造成之升力值.....................51
圖 4-14 機翼A在風速3.5m/s、頻率10Hz之升力振盪曲線........52
圖 4-15 風速4.8m/s、頻率10Hz之升力曲線圖.................53
圖 4-16 風速6.6m/s、頻率10Hz之升力曲線圖.................54
圖 4-17 利用珍珠板製作之尾翼............................55
圖 4-18 實際飛行時受尾翼攻角而決定飛行姿態..............55
圖 4-19 可變攻角夾具之風洞實驗流程說明..................56
圖 4-20 機翼A實體.......................................57
圖 4-21 攻角0度,風速0m/s................................58
圖 4-22 攻角5度,風速4m/s................................58
圖 4-23 攻角10度,風速4m/s...............................59
圖 4-24 攻角5度,風速8.4m/s...............................59
圖 4-25 攻角10度,風速8.4m/s..............................60
圖 4-26 機翼A升力平移與負升力之延遲.....................61
圖 4-27 機翼B實體.......................................62
圖 4-28 攻角0度,風速0m/s................................62
圖 4-29 攻角5度,風速4m/s................................63
圖 4-30 攻角10度,風速4m/s...............................63
圖 4-31 攻角5度,風速8.4m/s...............................64
圖 4-32 攻角10度,風速8.4m/s..............................64
圖 4-33 機翼B之升力產生情形.............................66
圖 4-34 機翼C實體.......................................66
圖 4-35 攻角0度,風速0m/s................................67
圖 4-36 攻角5度,風速4m/s................................67
圖 4-37 攻角10度,風速4m/s...............................68
圖 4-38 攻角5度,風速8.4m/s...............................68
圖 4-39 攻角10度,風速8.4m/s..............................69
圖 4-40 PVDF壓電薄膜材料...............................70
圖 4-41 機翼A外形之PVDF與測力計訊號擷取圖.............71
圖 5-1 試飛-1..........................................76
圖 5-2 試飛-2..........................................76
圖 5-3 試飛-3..........................................76

表目錄

表3-1 鈦合金材料規格諸元................................26
表3-2 三種機翼尺寸說明..................................26
表3-3 鋰電池之性能......................................37
表3-4 各組件重量表......................................40
表4-1 各風速下、未拍動時因機翼A起始外形所造成之升力.....51
表4-2 機翼A、B、C之初始升力.............................70

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