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系統識別號 U0002-0907200622102900
中文論文名稱 歐洲聯盟在以巴衝突中的政策立場與作為: 1990-2005
英文論文名稱 The Political Position and Action of the European Union towards the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: 1990-2005
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 吳忻宇
研究生英文姓名 Sing-yue Wu
學號 692030710
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-23
論文頁數 295頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡政文
委員-陳文生
委員-施正權
中文關鍵字 以巴衝突  和平路線計畫  巴勒斯坦解放組織  共同外交暨安全政策  四方會議 
英文關鍵字 Israeli-Palestinian Conflict  Road Map  Palestine Liberation Organization  Common Foreign and Security Policy  the Quartet 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 歐洲聯盟歷經了1970年代的歐洲政治合作(EPC)和1990年代初期展開的共同外交暨安全政策(CFSP),從原本對以巴衝突的政策分歧,逐漸發展出高度的政策共識,認為在以色列人和巴勒斯坦人之間的衝突持續進行的情況下,中東地區的長期穩定和平跟民主化,就會不斷遭受到極端的民族主義和宗教思想的破壞,並且加深伊斯蘭人口對西方社會和以色列的仇恨和對立。而雖然美國和歐洲聯盟不斷強調中東地區發展民主的急迫性,可是一個充滿對西方社會敵視的中東穆斯林社會,勢必難以發展和諧的和相互尊重的民主政治。因此歐洲聯盟在以巴衝突中的任務,是要改善巴勒斯坦地區的人道、經濟和政治社會發展環境,支持和平路線計畫(Road Map)的進展,並且協助巴勒斯坦人建立民主的、獨立的和可實現的巴勒斯坦國(democratic, independent and viable Palestinian State)所需要的政治組織和制度,因為妥善解決以、巴之間的紛爭是恢復中東地區穩定和平的必要過程。
英文摘要 After the EU underwent the integrative process of the European Political Cooperation (EPC), since the early seventies, and the more complex institutional integration in the ninties, the EU has since gradually cast aside its divergent views toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and developed a high level of political consensus regarding the conflict. The EU emphasizes the destructive effects the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict can have on the greater Middle East. Damaging the long time stability and peace in the Greater Middle East by creating more and more radical nationalistic and religious ideologies, which enhance the clash between the Islamic societies against Israel and the Western world.
Although the EU and the USA both continue to lay emphasis on the urgency to develop democratic values in the Middle East, but an Islamic society with a hostile view towards the USA and other nations which are seen as her allies, is bound to fail in creating harmonious and tolerant democratic political institutions. That is why the mission of the EU in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is mainly to improve the humanitarian, economical and socio-political environment of the Palestinian Territories, by supporting the Road Map and helping the Palestinians to establish the political structures and institutions a democratic, independent and viable Palestinian state needs. A just solution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is therefore a necessary step towards the creation of longstanding political and societal stability and peace in the Middle East.
論文目次 目次

摘要 i
謝辭 v
目次 vii
圖目次 xiii
表目次 xv
專有名詞對照表 xvii
專有名詞縮寫對照表 xix
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與研究目的 1
一、研究動機 1
二、研究目的 3
第二節 研究方法與研究途徑 4
一、研究途徑 4
二、研究方法 6
第三節 研究範圍與研究限制 6
一、研究範圍 6
二、研究限制 7
第四節 論文架構與文獻探討 8
一、論文架構 8
二、文獻探討 10
第五節 重要名詞解釋 12
第二章 以巴衝突的概述 17
第一節 以巴衝突的歷史背景 17
第二節 以巴衝突的癥結 49
第三章 歐洲聯盟對以巴衝突的政策發展 65
第一節 冷戰期間歐洲聯盟立場的演進 66
第二節 後冷戰時期的政策發展 79
一、1990年代初期 80
二、1990年代後期 82
三、後911時期 86
第三節 影響歐洲聯盟對以巴衝突的因素 92
一、內在因素 92
(一)朝向共同外交政策的發展 93
(二)歐洲聯盟的穆斯林人口 95
(三)歐洲與以巴衝突在歷史上的密切關連性 97
(四)能源利益 98
(五)歐洲聯盟主要會員國與中東地區國家的傳統友誼關係 102
二、外在因素 103
(一)國際體系的轉變 104
(二)區域性安全 106
(三)國際恐怖主義 107
(四)美國謀求中東和平的挫折 110
第四章 歐洲聯盟對以巴衝突的決策過程 113
第一節 發展背景 113
第二節 法源依據與組織架構 114
一、法源依據 114
(一)歐洲聯盟條約 114
(二)阿姆斯特丹條約 115
(三)尼斯條約 116
二、組織架構 117
第三節 決策程序與政策執行工具 121
一、決策程序 121
二、政策執行工具 124
(一)外交工具 126
(二)經濟工具 128
(三)軍事和非軍事工具 130
第四節 歐洲聯盟會員國的政策立場 133
一、主要會員國 135
二、次要會員國 146
三、其它會員國 152
第五章 歐洲聯盟解決以巴衝突的政策架構及執行過程 155
第一節 解決架構 155
一、區域經濟發展工作小組 156
二、歐洲-地中海夥伴關係 157
三、歐洲睦鄰政策 159
四、歐洲聯盟對中東地區國家的雙邊關係 161
五、中東和平進程 162
第二節 執行過程 164
一、改善巴勒斯坦人的經濟環境 165
二、增進區域性的穩定 170
三、巴勒斯坦當局的改革 171
四、協助巴勒斯坦人建立民主的政治體制 176
五、協助巴勒斯坦當局維護治安與邊界管理的能力 179
(一)歐洲聯盟協助巴勒斯坦警察協調機關 180
(二)歐洲聯盟在拉發交叉點的邊界協助任務 182
第三節 執行過程所遭遇到的困難 184
一、巴勒斯坦地區經濟環境的持續惡化 185
二、推動區域性的穩定不易有進展 187
三、巴勒斯坦當局的貪污情形嚴重 188
四、歐洲聯盟和以色列政府在以巴衝突的議題上的立場分歧 189
第六章 歐洲聯盟在以巴衝突中所扮演的角色 193
第一節 歐洲聯盟的角色 193
一、協調者 194
二、促成美國決策 195
三、促成以巴談判 199
第二節 歐洲聯盟會員國的角色 203
一、主要會員國 204
二、次要會員國 208
三、其它會員國 211
第七章 評估與展望 215
第一節 評估 216
一、事實評估 216
(一)歐洲聯盟在以巴和平進程中所扮演的角色 216
(二)歐洲聯盟採取具體行動的侷限性 217
(三)歐洲聯盟具體協助和平進程的領域 220
(四)歐洲聯盟的決策機制 223
(五)歐洲聯盟會員國的政策立場與歐洲聯盟共同政策的關係 226
二、理論評估 227
(一)對以巴衝突的探討 227
(二)對歐洲聯盟政策立場的探討 229
(三)對歐洲聯盟具體作為的探討 231
第二節 展望 232
第八章 結論 239
一、內部政策整合階段 240
二、具體行動發展階段 242
參考書目 247
附錄 269
地圖 287


圖目次

圖 1- 1:論文研究架構圖 9
圖 3- 1:國際體系和歐洲聯盟外交決策的相互關係圖 105
圖 7- 1:共同外交暨安全政策:1999年初期的混亂政策決策模式 225
表目次

表 1- 1:以巴衝突歷史相關文獻 11
表 1- 2:歐洲聯盟對外政策發展相關書籍 12
表 2- 1:聯合國巴勒斯坦分治計畫所決定的人口分布 28
表 2- 2:聯合國難民救濟與工作署的巴勒斯坦難民營數據表 53
表 2- 3:以色列在佔領地區內建設的屯墾區 56
表 2- 4:耶路撒冷的人口結構:2002年 58
表 3- 1:中東地區的主要武器供應國家:1970-74;1975-1979 67
表 3- 2:歐洲共同體的原油進口來源:1973年-1983年 69
表 3- 3:美國對以色列的援助 78
表 3- 4:歐洲政治合作(EPC)行動、共同外交暨安全政策(CFSP)共同立場和聯合行動:1970-95 94
表 3- 5:歐洲聯盟會員國穆斯林人口統計數字 96
表 3- 6:歐洲共同體的原油進口比例 99
表 3- 7:全球的石油蘊藏量演變:依照地理區域和年代分類,1974年、1994年和2004年 100
表 3- 8:世界原油進口排名 101
表 4- 1:歐洲聯盟條約下的共同外交暨安全政策決策程序 123
表 4- 2:對和平進程的支持 125
表 4- 3:關於歐洲聯盟特別代表的任命 125
表 4- 4:協助巴勒斯坦當局 125
表 4- 5:歐洲聯盟的外交工具 127
表 4- 6:歐洲聯盟的經濟工具 129
表 5- 1:歐盟執委會所提出來的歐洲睦鄰和夥伴關係工具承諾金額 160
表 5- 2:以色列、埃及、敘利亞、黎巴嫩和約旦五國的主要貿易夥伴:2004年(單位:百萬歐元) 162
表 5- 3:歐洲聯盟在「地中海援助計劃」中對西岸地區和加薩走廊所提出的財務承諾:1995年-2003年 169
表 5- 4:歐洲聯盟在中東和平進程中對以巴的經濟援助 169
表 5- 5:歐洲聯盟對聯合國難民暨救濟組織的協助:1994-2001 170
表 5- 6:「歐洲聯盟對巴勒斯坦警察支援協調辦公單位」經由捐贈給巴勒斯坦當局的裝備 182
表 6- 1:以色列和歐洲聯盟的貿易量:2000年到2004年 200
表 6- 2:以色列的主要貿易夥伴 201
表 6- 3:以色列對歐洲聯盟的進出口量:1990年和2001年 201
表 6- 4:歐洲聯盟和美國對巴勒斯坦人的援助金額:2005年 202
表 6- 5:歐盟對西岸地區和加薩走廊的經濟援助:1994-2001 203
表 6- 6:比利時在巴勒斯坦地區的正式發展補助:2001-2004 210
表 6- 7:歐洲聯盟會員國對巴勒斯坦人的援助:1994-2003 212
表 7- 1:歐體在中東和平進程和對巴勒斯坦人的經濟援助:1994-2003 221
表 7- 2:阿拉伯人和猶太人眼中巴勒斯坦國的形象 236
表 8- 1:歐洲聯盟對以巴衝突的重大政策演變:1970-2005 241
表 8- 2:歐洲聯盟協助巴勒斯坦人改善政治和經濟環境的領域 243

參考文獻 壹、中文部分
一、書籍
王道、葛斯、唐春華、佐海嫻、蔣仁祥 譯。《近東與中東危機》。台北市:麥田出版:城邦文化發行。2000年。Mejcher, Helmut. Krisenherd Naher und Mittlerer Osten: Sinai, 5. Juni 1967. München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1997.
黃馨慧 譯。《全球新局勢:了解國際新局勢的80個觀念概念》。台北市:一方出版有限公司。2004年。Cordellier, Serge. Le nouvel état du monde: Les id ées-forces pour comprendre les nouveaux enjeux internationaux. Paris: Édition La Découverte & Syros, 2002.
梁永安 譯。《文化與抵抗》。台北縣新店市:立緒文化。2004年。Said, Edward W. Culture and Resistance: Conversations with Edward W. Said. New Century Publishing, 2003.
-- 譯。《一個猶太人的反省》。台北縣新店市:立緒文化。2004年。Marc H. Ellis. Israel and Palestine: Out of the Ashes: the search for Jewish identity in the twenty-first century. London: Pluto Press, 2002.
蔡政文。《當前國際關係理論發展及其評估》。台北市:三民書局。1998年。
蔡百銓 譯。《中東史》。台北市:國立編譯館。2003年。Goldschmidt, Arthur Jr. A Concise History of the Middle East. Westview Press, 2001.
鄭之書 譯。《中東:自基督教興起至二十世紀末》。台北市:麥田出版。1998年。Lewis, Bernard. The Middle East: 2000 years of history from the rise of Christianity to the present day. Rye Field Publications, 1995.

二、論文
沈玄池。《歐洲共同體在以阿衝突中事件中的外交取向:1973-1983》,碩士論文。淡江大學歐洲研究所。1984年。
張念卿。《伊斯蘭激進主義與國際恐怖活動》,碩士論文。國立政治大學外交學系。2001年。
曾嘉文。《歐洲共同安全暨防衛政策(1999-2003)-基於新自由制度主義之研究》,碩士論文。淡江大學歐洲研究所。2004年。
梁玉珊。《比利時之社會分歧與政治體制的轉變(1993-2004)》,碩士論文。淡江大學歐洲研究所。2005年。

三、期刊
卓忠宏。「歐盟地中海政策」。問題與研究,第43卷第4期,民國93年7、8月,頁95-113。

貳、英文部份
一、歐盟官方資料
European Commission, “Communication from the Commission on EU Election Assistance and Observation”, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 11.4.2000 COM(2000) 191 Final.
European Commission, ”The European Union’s oil supplies”, Communication from the Commission, Brussels, 11.10.2000. COM (2000) 631 final.
European Commission, “European Neighbourhood Policy: Country Report: Israel”, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, 12.5.2004. COM (2004) 373 final.
European Commission, “European Neighbourhood Policy: Country Report: Palestinian Authority of the West Bank and Gaza Strip”, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, 12.5.2004. COM (2004) 373 final.
European Commission, “Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Council and the European Parliament: EU-Palestinian cooperation beyond disengagement- towards a two-state solution”, COM (2005) 485 final, Brussels, 5.10.2005

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Carlsnaes, Walter, and Smith, Steve. (eds.) European Foreign Policy: The EC and Changing Perspectives in Europe. London: Sage Publications, 1994.
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Eliassen, Kjell A. (ed.) Foreign and Security Policy in the European Union. London: Sage Publications, 1998.
Flores, Alexander. The Palestinians in the Israeli-Arab Conflict: Social Conditions and Political Attitudes of the Palestinians in Israel, the Occupied Territories and the Diaspora. Bonn: Europa Union Verlag, 1984.
Fraser, T.G. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan Press, 1995.
Freedman, Robert O. (ed.) The Middle East Since Camp David. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984.
Gerner, Deborah J. One Land, Two Peoples: The Conflict over Palestine. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991.
Gillespie, Richard. (ed.) Mediterranean Politics: Volume I. London: Pinter Publishers, 1994.
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Ginsberg, Roy H. The European Union in International Politics: Baptism by fire. : Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2001.
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Heller, Mark A. A Palestinian State: The implications for Israel. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Hill, Christopher and Smith, Michael. International Relations and the European Union. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Hill, Christopher and Smith, Karen E. European Foreign policy: Key documents. London: Routledge, 2000.
Holland, Martin. European Union Common Foreign Policy: From EPC to CFSP Joint Action and South Africa. Houndmills: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1995.
-- Common Foreign and Security Policy: The first ten years. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
Maresceau, Marc and Lannon, Erwan. The EU’s Enlargement and Mediterranean Strategies: A comparative Analysis. Houndmills: Palgrave, 2001.
Miall, Hugh, Ramsbotham, Oliver and Woodhouse, Tom. Contemporary Conflict Resolution: The prevention, management and transformation of deadly conflicts. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.
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Ovendale, Ritchie. The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Wars. London: Longman, 1984.
Palmer, John. Europe without America? The Crisis in Atlantic Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Park, William and Rees, G. Wyn. (eds.) Rethinking Security in Post-Cold War Europe. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998.
Payne, Richard J. The West European Allies, the Third World, and U.S. Foreign Policy: Post-Cold War Challenges. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.
Peeleg, Ilan. (ed.) The Middle East Peace Process: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1998.
Piening, Christopher. Global Europe: The European Union in World Affairs. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1997.
Regelsberger, Elfriede. (eds.) Foreign Policy of the European Union: From EPC to CFSP and Beyond. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1997.
Roberson, B.A. (ed.) The Middle East and Europe: The power deficit. New York: Routledge, 1998.
Ross, Stewart. Causes and Consequences of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: The war years. London: Evans Brothers Limited, 1995.
Schoenbaum, David. The United States and the State of Israel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Schulze, Kirsten E. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. London: Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1999.
Serre, Francoise de La and Helen Wallace. (eds.) French and British Foreign Policies in Transition: The Challenge of Adjustment. New York: Berg Publishers for the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 1990.
Sharp, Paul. Irish Foreign Policy and the European Community: A study of the impact of interdependence on the Foreign Policy of a Small State. UK: Darthmouth Publishing Company Ltd., 1990.
Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.
Smith, Hazel. European Union Foreign Policy: What it Is and what it Does. London: Pluto Press, 2002.
Smith, Michael E. Europe’s Foreign and Security Policy: The Institutionalization of Cooperation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Soetendorp, Ben. Foreign policy in the European Union: Theory history and practice. London: Pearson Education Limited, 1999.
Sweet, Alec Stone, Sandholtz, Wayne and Fligstein, Neil. (eds.). The Institutionalization of Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Telo, Mario. Europe: a Civilian Power? European Union, Global Governance, World Order. Houndmills, Bakingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
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Tonra, Ben. The Europeanisation of national foreign policy: Dutch, Danish and Irish foreign policy in the European Union. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2001.
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三、期刊
“After Iraq”, New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol.20, No.3, Summer, 2003, pp.4-51.
Al-Haj, Majid, Katz, Elihu, Shye, Samuel. “Arab and Jewish Attitudes: Toward a Palestinian State”, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol.37, No.4 December, 1993, pp.619-632.
Artner, Stephen J. “The Middle East: A Chance for Europe” in International Affairs. Vol.56, No.3, Summer 1980, pp.420-442.
Baramki, Gabriel. “Aspects of Palestinian Life under Military Occupation”, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol.19, No.2, 1992, pp.125-132.
Brynen, Rex. “International Aid to the West Bank and Gaza: A Primer”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.25, No.2, Winter, 1996, pp.46-53.
Desbordes, Etienne. “The Impact of the Iraqi Crisis on the Transatlantic link. A Summary of Views on the US-EU and US-NATO Relationship”, European Security, Vol.12, No.2, Summer 2003, pp.103-110.
Everts, Steven. “The ultimate test case: can Europe America forge a joint strategy for the wider Middle East?”, International Affairs. Vol.80, No.4, 2004, pp.665-686.
Galtung, Johan. “Conflict Theory and the Palestine Problem”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.2, No.1, Autumn, 1972, pp.34-63.
Gavrilis, George. “The Forgotten West Bank”, Foreign Affairs, Vol.85, No.1 January / February, 2006, pp.66-76.
Gorce, Paul-Marie de La. “Europe and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Survey”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.26, No.3, Spring, 1997, pp.5-16.
Gordon, Philip H. “Europe’s Uncommon Foreign Policy”, International Security, Vol.22, No.3, Winter 1997-1998, pp.74-100.
Gunning, Jeroen. “Peace with Hamas? The transforming potential of political participation”, International Affairs, Vol.80, No.2, 2004, pp.233-255.
Hanning, Hugh. “Britain East of Suez- Facts and Figures”, International Affairs, Vol.42, No.2, Britain East of Suez: Special Issue, April, 1966, pp.253-260.
Hollis, Rosemary. “The Israeli-Palestinian road block: can Europeans make a difference?”, International Affairs, Vol.80, No.2, March 2004, pp.191-201.
Howard, Michael. “Britain’s Strategic Problem East of Suez”, International Affairs, Vol.42, No.2, Britain East of Suez: Special Issue, April, 1966, pp.179-183.
Hunter, Robert E. and Jones, Seth G. “An independent Palestine: the security dimension”, International Affairs, Vol.80, No.2, March, 2004, pp.203-219.
Hurwitz, Leon. “The EEC in the United Nations: The Voting Behavior of Eight Countries, 1948-1973”, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol.13, no.3 March 1975, pp.224-243.
Ibrahim, Ibrahim. “Palestine in German Public Opinion”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.10, No.1, Autumn 1980, pp.130-135.
Kemp, Geoffrey. ”Europe’s Middle East Challenges”, The Washington Quarterly, Vol.27, No.1, Winter 2003-2004, pp.163-177.
Khalidi, Ahmad S. “Security in a Final Middle East Settlement: Some Components of Palestinian National Security”, International Affairs, Vol.71, No.1, January, 1995, pp.1-18.
Kirchner, Emil. and Sperling, James. “The New Security Threats in Europe: Theory and Evidence”, European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol.7, No.4, Winter, 2002, pp.423-452.
Kolodziej, Edward A. “French Mediterranean Policy: The Politics of Weakness”, International Affairs, Vol.47, No.3, July, 1971, pp.503-517.
Kreisky, Bruno. “Austria and the Palestinian Question”, Journal of Palestinian Studies, Vol.10, No.1, Autumn, 1980, pp.167-174.
Lasensky, Scott. “Paying For Peace: The Oslo Process and the Limits of American Foreign Aid”, The Middle East Journal, Vol.58, No.2, Spring, 2004, pp.210-234.
Leiken, Robert S. “Europe’s Angry Muslims”, Foreign Affairs, July/August, 2005, pp.120-135.
Lewan, Kenneth M. “How Germany Helped to Build Israel”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.4, No.4, Summer, 1975, pp.41-64.
Lewis, Bernard. “The Map of the Middle East: A Guide for the Perplexed”, The American Scholar, Vol.58, No.1, Winter, 1988-1989, pp.19-38.
Lieber, Robert J. “Europe and America in the World Energy Crisis”, International Affairs, Vol.55, No.4, October, 1979, pp.531-545.
Makovsky, David. “How to Build a Fence”, Foreign Affairs, Vol.83, No.2, March/ April, 2004, pp.50-64.
-- “Gaza: Moving Forward by Pulling Back”, Foreign Affairs, Vol.84, No.3, May/June 2005, pp.52-62.
Moughrabi, Fouad. “The International Consensus on the Palestinian Question”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.16, No.3, Spring, 1987, pp.115-133.
Monroe, Elizabeth. “British Bases in the Middle East: Assets or Liabilities?”, International Affairs, Vol.42, No.1, January, 1966, pp.24-34.
Nabulsi, Karma. “The peace process and the Palestinians: a road map to Mars”, International Affairs, Vol.80, No.2, 2004, pp.221-231.
Nakhleh, Emile A. “The Palestinians and the Future: Peace through realism”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.18, No.2, Winter, 1989, pp.3-15.
Nye, Joseph S. Jr. “The Changing Nature of World Power”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol.105, No.2, Summer 1990, pp.177-192.
Olson, Robert K. “Partners in the Peace Process: The United States and Europe”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.26, No.4, Summer 1997, pp.78-89.
Pernice, Ingolf and Thym, Daniel. “A new institutional balance for European Foreign Policy?” European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol.7, No.4, Winter, 2002, pp.369-400.
Perthes, Volker. “Points of Difference, Cases for Cooperation: European Critiques of US Middle East Policy”, Middle East Report, No.208, US Foreign Policy in the Middle East: Critical Assessments, Autumn, 1998, pp.30-32.
Roberts, Adam. “Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol.84, No.1, January, 1990, pp.44-103.
Rogan, Eugene. “No Debate: Middle East Studies in Europe”, Middle East Report, No.205, Middle East Studies Networks: The Politics of a Field. Oct.-Dec., 1997, pp.22-24.
Rondot, Philippe. “France and Palestine: From Charles de Gaulle to Francois Mitterand”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.16, No.3, Spring, 1987, pp.87-100.
Rouhana, Nadim. “The Intifada and the Palestinians of Israel: Resurrecting the Green Line”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.19, No.3, Spring, 1990, pp.58-75.
Rouhana, Nadim and Ghanem, Asad. “The Crisis of Minorities in Ethnic States: The Case of Palestinian Citizens in Israel”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol.30, No.3, August, 1998, pp.321-346.
Said, Edward. “Arabs and Jews”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.3, No.2, Winter, 1974, pp.3-14.
-- “The Idea of Palestine in the West”, MERIP Reports, No.70, September, 1978, pp.3-11.
Schweiss, Christina M. “Sharing Hegemony: The Future of Transatlantic Security”, Cooperation and Conflict: Journal of the Nordic International Studies Association, Vol.38, No.3, pp.211-234.
Shikaki, Khalil. “The Future of Palestine”, Foreign Affairs, Vol.83, No.6, November/ December, 2004, pp.45-60.
Slater, Jerome. “Opinion: Netanyahu, A Palestinian State, and Israeli security reassessed”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol.112, No.4, Winter, 1997-1998, pp.675-689.
Smith, Karen E. “The outsiders: the European neighbourhood policy”, International Affairs, Vol.81, No.4, July 2005, pp.757-773.
Stork, Joe and Paul, Jim. “Arms Sales and the Militarization of the Middle East”, MERIP Reports, No.112, The Arms Race in the Middle East, February, 1983, pp.5-15.
Stork, Joe. “Arms Industries of the Middle East”, MERIP Middle East Report, No. 144, The Middle East: Living by the Sword, January – February, 1987, pp. 12-16.
Tomkys, Roger. “European Political Cooperation and the Middle East: A Personal Perspective”, International Affairs, Vol.63, No.3, Summer, 1987, pp.425-437.
Touma, Emile. “Palestinian Arabs and Israeli Jews”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.6, No.2, Winter, 1997, pp.3-8.
Waldegrave, William and Adams, Michael. “The European Role in the Middle East: An Interview with William Waldegrave”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.20, No.1, Autumn, 1990, pp.80-91.
Wallace, William. “British Foreign Policy after the Cold War”, International Affairs, Vol.68, No.3. July, 1992, pp.423-442.
Walt, Stephen M. “Beyond bin Laden: Reshaping U.S. Foreign Policy”, International Security, Vol.26, No.3, Winter 2001/02, pp.56-78.
Wedgwood, Ruth. “The ICJ Advisory Opinion on the Israeli Security Fence and the Limits of Self-Defense”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol.99, No.1, January, 2005, pp.52-61.
Wenger, Martha. “US Aid to Israel: From Handshake to Embrace”, Middle East Report, No.164/165, Intifada Year Three. May-August, 1990, pp.14-15.

四、報章雜誌
Whitelaw, Kevin, Kenaan El-Arab, Rodeina, Kassaballi, Samar, Abu Toameh, Khaled, Derfner, Larry and E. Kaplan, David, “Vox Pop”, U.S. News & World Report, March
14, 2005, pp.22-26.

參、德文部份
一、專書
Hubel, Helmut. Frankreichs Rolle im Nahen Osten. Bonn: Europa Union Verlag, 1985.
Gottschald, Marc. Die GASP von Maastricht bis Nizza: Die Ergebnisse und Beschlüsse der Gemeinsamen Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik der EU seit ihrer Entstehung bis zum Vertrag von Nizza. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2001.
Krupp, Michael. Zionismus und Staat Israel: Ein geschichtlicher Abriß. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn, 1992.
Schmitt, Karl and Edinger, Michael. Israel in den neunziger Jahren und die Deutsch-Israelischen Beziehungen. Jena: Universitätsverlag Jena, 1996.
Wagner, Martin. Gebrauchsanweisung für Israel. München: R. Piper GmbH & CO. KG, 1996.
二、期刊
Internationale Politik (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Politik), Nr.10, Oktober 2005, p.5.
Alexiev, Alex. “Wegschauen und verharmlosen”, Internationale Politik, Nr.9, September, 2005, pp.92-98.

三、報章雜誌
Berbalk, Ottmar, Borst, Stefan and Nadja Mathes. “Viel zu verlieren”, Der Spiegel, Nr.7 (13. Februar 2006), p.155.
Bednarz, Dieter, and Schlamp, Hans- Jürgen. ”Der Konflikt betrifft uns alle”, Der Spiegel, Nr.28, 11 July, 2005.
Bednarz, Dieter. Ertel, Manfred. Festenberg, Nikolaus von. Follath, Erich. Hipp, Dietmar. Hoyng, Hans. Knöfel, Ulrike. Leick, Romain. Mascolo, Georg. Matussek, Matthias. Saltzwedel, Johannes. Simons, Stefan. Wiedemann, Erich. “Tag des Zorns”, Der Spiegel, Nr.6, 2. June 2006.
Doerry, Martin , Großbongardt, Annette and Spörl, Gerhard. “Ich habe keinen Zauberstab”, Der Spiegel, Nr.8, Februar 21, 2005, pp.106-108.
Emcke, Carolin. “Musik gegen die Gewalt”, Der Spiegel, Nr.40, September, 27, 2004, pp.135-137.
Grossbongardt, Annette. “Brennende Hügel”, Der Spiegel, Nr.45, Oktober, 30,2004, p.136.
Gruber, Peter and Inbari, Pinhas. “Ein bisschen Frieden”, Focus, Nr.7, 14. Februar, 2005, pp.180-183.
Inbari, Pinhas. “Wir können keinen politischen Frieden ohne einen wirtschaftlichen Frieden erreichen.”, Focus, Nr.9, 28. Februar, 2005.
Inbari, Pinhas, Eberhardt, Wolfram. “Sharon ist der Rebell”, Focus, Nr.34, 22. August, 2005, pp.150-153


肆、網際網路專文及資源
一、網路專文
Archick, Kristin. “European Views and Policies toward the Middle East” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Order Code RL31956, updated March 9, 2005. 參見,美國國務院官方網站,http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=Kristin+Archick+European+Views+and+Policies+toward+the+Middle+East&btnG=Search, update to 2006.6.7.
Brown, Nathan J. “The Palestinian Reform Agenda” Peaceworks No.48, United States Institute of Peace, December 2002, pp.13, 23-24. United States Institute of Peace: http://www.usip.org/pubs/peaceworks/pwks48.html, update to 2006.3.8.
”German Foreign Policy and the Middle East Conflict”, German foreign policy dialogue Newsletter-issue 07, May, 2002. 參見,Deutsche-Aussenpolitik.De,http://www.deutsche-aussenpolitik.de/newsletter.php, update to 2006.6.7.
Kagan, Robert. “Power and Weakness”, Policy Review, No.113. 參見,Policy Review,http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html, update to 2006.3.19.
Lindstrom, Gustav (ed.) Shift or Rift: Assessing US-EU relations after Iraq. Paris: Institute for Security Studies, 2003.參見,The European Union Institute for Security Studies,http://www.iss-eu.org/, update to 2006.5.28.
Lindstrom, Gustav and Schmitt, Burkard (eds.) One Year on: lessons from Iraq. Paris: Institute for Security Studies, March 2004. 參見,The European Union Institute for Security Studies,http://www.iss-eu.org/, update to 2006.7.5.
Luif, Paul. “EU Cohesion in the UN General Assembly”in EU Institute for Security Studies 2003. 參見,http://www.iss-eu.org, update to 2006.6.8.
Newman, David and Yacobi, Haim. “The Role of the EU in the Israel/Palestine Conflict”, Working Paper Series in EU Border Conflict Studies, No.12 2004 , Department of Politics and Government Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel. 參見,EUBorderConf , The European Union and Border Conflicts, http://www.euborderconf.bham.ac.uk/publications/workingpapers.htm, update to 2006.6.7.
Ortega, Martin (ed.) The European Union and the crisis in the Middle East. Paris: Institute for Security Studies, July 2003.參見,The European Union Institute for Security Studies,http://www.iss-eu.org/, update to 2006.5.28.
Steinberg, Gerald M. “The European union and the Middle East Peace Process”, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Letter No.418, Kislev 5760, November 1999. 參見,Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs,http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp418.htm, update to 2006.6.7.
Whitman, Richard. “The European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: Achievements and Prospects”, Centre for the Study of Democracy, Research Papers, Number 11 (London: University of Westminster Press, Winter, 1996. 參見,http://www.ciaonet.org/wps/sites/west.html, update to 2006.6.7.
Yacoubian, Mona. “Promoting Middle East Democracy: European Initiatives”, United States Institute of Peace. Special Report 127, October 2004, pp.1-15. 參見,United Institute of Peace,http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr127.html, update to 2006.6.8.
Young, Richard. “The European Union and Democracy in the Arab-Muslim World”, Centre for European Policy Studies, Working Paper No.2 November 2002. 參見,Centre for European Policy Studies website,http://www.ceps.be, update to 2006.2.10.
Youngs, Tim. ”Development in the Middle East Peace Process 1991-2000”, International Affairs and Defence Section: House of Commons Library, Research Paper 01/08, 24 January 2001. 參見,http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp2001/rp01-008.pdf, update to 2006.6.7.

二、網路資源
(一)政府官方網站
奧地利外交部(Austrian Foreign Ministry)
http://www.bmaa.gv.at/

比利時外交部官方網站(Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs Belgium)
http://www.diplomatie.be/en/

比利時發展合作部門(Belgian Development Cooperation Department)官方網站,http://www.dgcd.be/en/partner_countries/palestine/index.html

丹麥外交部(Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark)
http://www.um.dk/en/

芬蘭外交部(Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland)
http://formin.finland.fi/english/

法國外交部(French Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/

德國外交部(German Federal Foreign Office)
http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/www/de/index_html

希臘外交部(Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
http://www.mfa.gr/english/

愛爾蘭外交部(Ireland Department of Foreign Affairs)
http://foreignaffairs.gov.ie/

以色列外交部(Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA

義大利外交部(Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Italy)
http://www.esteri.it/ita/index.asp

荷蘭外交部(Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
http://www.bz.nl/default.asp?CMS_ITEM=MBZ257568

西班牙外交部(Spain Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation)
http://www.mae.es/en/Home/

瑞典外交部(Sweden Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2059

美國國務院(United States Department of State)
http://www.state.gov/

美國中央情報局世界紀實年鑑(CIA World Fact Book)
http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/

巴勒斯坦當局官方網站(Palestinian National Authority)
http://www.pna.gov.ps/Jerusalem/index.asp

(二)國際政府間組織官方網站
歐洲聯盟網站(European Union)
http://europa.eu/

國際法院(International Court of Justice)
http://www.icj-cij.org/

石油輸出國家組織(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
http://www.opec.org/home/

阿拉伯石油輸出國家組織(Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries)
http://www.oapecorg.org/

聯合國(United Nations)
http://www.un.org/


聯合國難民救濟與工作署(United Nations Relief and Works Agency)
http://www.un.org/unrwa/index.html

聯合國巴勒斯坦問題資訊系統(United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine)
http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf

(三)國際新聞媒體網站
英國國家廣播公司新聞台(British Broadcasting Corporation News)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/

衛報新聞台(Guardian Unlimited, The Guardian Newspaper)
http://www.guardian.co.uk/

明鏡周刊(Spiegel Online)
http://www.spiegel.de/

(四)非官方民間組織網站
B’Tselem: The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories
http://www.btselem.org/English/index.asp

Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
http://www.jcpa.org/

Policy Review
http://www.policyreview.org/

Search for Common Ground
http://www.sfcg.org/

United States Institute of Peace
http://www.usip.org/index.html
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