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中文論文名稱 數位時代的木建築之構築研究 — 韓國工藝模式於互卡木構造之應用
英文論文名稱 The Tectonics of Timber Architecture in the Digital Age — the Applications of Korean Crafting Pattern to Interlocking Joint
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 109
學期 1
出版年 110
研究生中文姓名 徐智英
研究生英文姓名 Ji Young Seo
學號 607365029
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2021-01-18
論文頁數 176頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳珍誠
指導教授-游雅婷
委員-張恭領
委員-陳宏銘
中文關鍵字 構築  關節  互卡  模式  木材腳料 
英文關鍵字 Tectonics  Articulation  Interlocking joints  Patterns  Timber 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 鑑於數位設計和先進的製造技術,木材構造,尤其是互卡,已重新成為當代建築領域的焦點。大多數關於互卡結構的研究都集中在木板的卡榫形式上,和關注於線性木材單元的互卡接頭的設計實驗。在這種情況下,這項研究對實現三米高的互卡木構造涼亭、大規模製造提出了挑戰。

為了重新詮釋傳統的木材構造,本文定義了構造的主要特徵:樣式、互卡構造和關節。這項研究重新思考了傳統樣式作為空間交流,新的意義和作用。換句話說,它說明了樣式可以結合建築環境、文化和先進技術,新構造的實用方法。

在樣式研究的基礎上,持續研究關節構造,將接合的單元和整個構造透過互鎖的接頭結合在一起。當它們有選擇性地隱藏和顯現其構造時,可以有定義和表達建築物外立面的可能性,從而表達超出其構造以外的某些形式。

基於前期的研究,使用CNC機銑床對所有260個木材單元和812個卡槽,實現了完整的1:1模型。特殊的木材單元在幾何圖案、互卡構造和先進的製造技術的結合下,提供了複雜的空間表達。它暗示了關節可以提供有效的方式和想法,來表達場所的特殊性,同時具體化為建築的物理形式。
英文摘要 In the light of digital design and advanced fabrication technologies, wood tectonics, especially interlocking joints, have regained focus in the contemporary architectural realm. Most of the researches on interlocking joints focus on joint geometries for timber plates. Meanwhile, there has been attention to the design experiments of interlocking joints for linear timber elements. In this context, this research challenges mass customization of interlocking joints with the realization of a timber pavilion at a three-meter height.

In order to reinterpret traditional wood tectonics, this paper defines key features of tectonics: pattern, interlocking joint, and articulation. This research rethinks the meaning and the role of traditional patterns as new diagrams of spatial communication. In other words, it suggests that patterns could be practical means to revitalize new tectonics that can synthesize built environment, culture, and advanced technology.

Based on the researches on patterns, it proceeds to study tectonic articulation that unite articulated elements with the whole work by means of an interlocking joint. It could define the possibilities of building facades as articulate when they selectively conceal and reveal their constitution, allowing the expression of something beyond their construction.

All earlier studies considered, the full scale 1:1 model has been realized for all the 260 timber elements and 812 notches with a CNC machine. The particlized timber elements give complex spatial articulation in the synthesis of geometric patterns, interlocking joints, and advanced fabrication technologies. It hints that articulation can provide useful sources and ideas for expressing specificities of place and materializing into a physical form of architecture.
論文目次 Contents.....5
List of Figures.....10
List of Tables.....16
Chapter 1. Introduction.....2
1.1 Research Motivations.....2
1.1.1 The Digital in Architecture.....2
1.1.2 The Restoration of Tectonics in the Digital Age.....4
1.1.3 Expanding the Utilization of Timber.....5
1.1.4 Exploring the Agenda of Traditionality of Today.....6
1.1.5 Towards a Newer Architecture: with Social, Cultural and Political Context.....7
1.2 Research Objectives.....8
1.2.1 Exploring the New Possibilities of Timber Tectonics in the Digital Age.....8
1.2.2 Experimenting the Timber Construction with Linear Timber Elements.....8
1.2.3 Investigating the Potential Application of Geometric Patterns in Traditional Korean Woodworking.....9
1.2.4 Reinterpretation of Traditional Wood Structures with Digital Design and Fabrication Technologies.....9
1.2.5 Inquiring the Role of Timber in Prefabrication.....10
1.3 Related Fields.....11
1.3.1 Digital Fabrication.....11
1.3.2 Parametric Design.....12
1.3.3 Wood Carpentry.....13
1.3.4 Timber Construction.....13
1.4 Research Findings.....15
Chapter 2. Literature Review.....18
2.1 Tectonics.....18
2.1.1 Architectural Theories of Tectonics.....19
2.1.1.1 Gottfried Semper.....19
2.1.1.2 Karl Bötticher.....22
2.1.1.3 Kenneth Frampton.....24
2.1.2 Digital Tectonic Thinking.....26
2.1.2.1 Digital Timber Tectonics.....27
2.1.2.2 Innovation in Materials.....28
2.1.2.3 Innovation in Fabrication.....30
2.1.2.4 Innovation in Digital Design Strategies.....32
2.2 Tectonics and Articulation.....37
2.2.1 Articulation.....37
2.2.2 Tectonic Articulation.....38
2.2.3 Case Studies.....39
2.2.3.1 Kengo Kuma: Particlizing.....39
2.2.3.2 E. Fay Jones: Articulation.....42
2.2.3.3 Gilles Retsin: The Discrete.....44
2.3 Digital Architecture.....47
2.3.1 Generation in Design.....47
2.3.1.1 Parametric and Generative Design.....47
2.3.1.2 Design Tools.....49
2.3.2 Digital Fabrication.....50
2.3.2.1 A Brief History of Digital Fabrication.....50
2.3.2.2 CNC Milling.....51
2.3.2.3 The Fundamentals of CNC.....53
2.3.2.4 Rhino Preparation and CNC.....57
2.3.2.5 CNC Operations.....63
2.3.2.6 CNC Limitations.....68
Chapter 3. Preliminary Design Research in Pattern.....72
3.1 Enclave (飛地) and Non-site (非地).....72
3.1.1 Definitions of Enclave and Non-site.....72
3.1.2 Metaphorical Concepts of Enclave and Non-site.....74
3.1.2.1 Myth of the Flat Earth.....74
3.1.2.2 Religion.....75
3.1.2.3 Dreams.....76
3.1.2.4 The Present Situation between North and South Korea.....77
3.1.3 The Unique Korean Concept of Han.....78
3.1.3.1 Han (恨).....78
3.1.3.2 Historical Origins of Han.....79
3.1.3.3 Four Common Characteristics of han.....80
3.2 Traditional Korean Patterns.....82
3.2.1 Patterns in Traditional Crafts.....82
3.2.1.1 Bojagi.....82
3.2.1.2 Norigae.....84
3.2.1.3 Chaesangjang.....85
3.2.1.4 Changho.....86
3.3 Prototype Design.....93
3.3.1 Design Principles.....93
3.3.1.1 Interlocking.....93
3.3.1.2 Modular Grids.....94
3.3.1.3 Iconic Designing of Hangul.....95
3.3.2 Prototype Models.....97
3.3.2.1 Piling up.....98
3.3.2.2 Tangle.....100
3.3.2.3 Residue.....103
3.3.2.4 Hope.....105
3.4 Summary.....107
Chapter 4. Preliminary Design Research in Interlocking Joints.....109
4.1 Joints and Spatial Arrangements.....109
4.1.1 Wood joinery and Tectonics: Kengo Kuma.....109
4.1.1.1 Chidori.....110
4.1.1.2 Jigoku Gumi.....115
4.1.2 Korean Wooden Architecture: Gongpo.....121
4.2 Advanced Designs.....125
4.2.1 Design Principles.....125
4.2.1.1 Segmentation of Blocks.....125
4.2.1.3 Connection Patterns.....127
4.2.2 Advanced Prototype Models.....128
4.2.2.1 Prototype A.....130
4.2.2.2 Prototype B.....132
4.2.2.3 Prototype C.....134
4.2.2.4 Prototype D.....136
4.2.2.5 Prototype E and F.....138
4.3 Summary....140
Chapter 5. Realization of Timber Pavilion in Repetitive Patterns with Interlocking Joints.....142
5.1 Computational Design.....142
5.1.1 Pattern Logics.....142
5.1.1.1 Expandable patterns.....142
5.1.1.2 Design Experiment of Expandable patterns.....143
5.1.2 Master Surface.....144
5.1.3 Grasshopper Descriptions.....145
5.1.4 Material Optimization.....147
5.1.4.1 Naming.....147
5.1.4.2 Optimization of Materials.....148
5.2 CNC Operations for Wood Milling.....149
5.2.1 Rhino settings.....149
5.2.1.1 Size of Work Area.....149
5.2.1.2 Units.....149
5.2.2 Toolpath Settings.....150
5.2.3 End Mills.....151
5.2.4 Template.....152
5.2.4.1 Fixtures.....152
5.2.4.2 Template and Origins.....153
5.3 Fabrication and Assembly.....154
5.3.1 Fabrication.....154
5.3.1.1 Cutting.....154
5.3.1.2 Smoothing.....155
5.3.1.3 Fixing Template.....155
5.3.1.4 Fixing Materials.....156
5.3.1.5 Setting the Origins.....156
5.3.1.6 CNC Milling.....157
5.3.2 Assemblage.....158
5.3.3 Completed Physical Mode.....159
5.4 Summary.....163
Chapter 6. Conclusions.....165
6.1 Conclusions.....165
6.2 Limitations.....166
6.3 Further Researches.....166
References.....167
Appendix.....169

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 - A temporary light timber construction which has been designed based on
bending behavior under the self-weight of over-sized sheets of plywood
https://www.archdaily.com/221650/pavilion-emtech-aa-eth/
Figure 2.1 - Caribbean hut referenced in Semper’s The Four Elements of Architecture
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Caribbean-Hut-on-display-at-the-great-
Exhibition-of-1851-in-London-by-g-Semper-1863_fig4_322700381
Figure 2.2 - Crown election (left) and the first lounge (right) of Haesley Nine Bridges
Golf Club House by Shigeru Ban, 2010
https://worldarchitecture.org/world-buildings/fgng/haesley-nine-bridges-golf-clubhouse-
building-page.html
Figure 2.3 - ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010, University of Stuttgart
https://vimeo.com/48374172
Figure 2.4 - The joints of pavilion of the Théâtre Vidy Lausanne by IBOIS, 2017
https://www.epfl.ch/labs/ibois/projects/completed-projects/vidy-pavilion/
Figure 2.5 - Yusuhara Town Hall by Kengo Kuma, 2006
http://www.town.yusuhara.kochi.jp/kanko/kuma-kengo/eng/town-hall.html
Figure 2.6 - The grid system of Yusuhara Town Hall
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/562950022146580859/
Figure 2.7 - The joints of traditional bracket system
https://www.archdaily.com/199906/yusuhara-wooden-bridge-museum-kengo-kumaassociates/
5004e40d28ba0d4e8d000c11-yusuhara-wooden-bridge-museum-kengokuma-
associates-photo?next_project=no
Figure 2.8 - Thorncrown Chapel
https://thorncrown.com/photogallery.html
Figure 2.9 - Pavilion made with discrete parts by Gilles Retsin, 2017
https://www.retsin.org/filter/work/Tallinn-Architecture-Biennale-Pavilion
Figure 2.10 - Grasshopper and parametric design
https://www.rhino3d.com/features/
Figure 2.11 - Rhinoceros
https://www.rhino3d.com/
Figure 2.12 - Grasshopper
https://www.grasshopper3d.com/
Figure 2.13 - Robotically assembled non-standard brick façade (left) and its
assembling in progress with a robotic arm (right)
Figure 2.14 - Figure 2.5 3D printing with various materials: transparent glass structure
(left), ceramic bricks (middle) and plastic (right)
https://www.dezeen.com/2015/08/26/neri-oxman-3d-printing-transparent-glasssculptural-
structures-mediated-matter-mit-media-lab/
https://www.dezeen.com/2012/10/31/building-bytes-3d-printed-bricks-brian-peters/
https://portella.com/blog/3d-printing-in-architecture/
Figure 2.15 - Typical additive manufacturing method: laser cutting (left)
and milling (right)
http://lasercutting101.com/laser-cutting-machines/
https://www.architectmagazine.com/technology/detail/made-in-germany-by-robots_o
Figure 2.16 - 3-axis CNC milling machine and its controller
Figure 2.17 - VISI, a software for CAM and CAD
https://www.visicadcam.com/visi-2018-r1
Figure 2.18 - Cartesian Coordinate system
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinate_system
Figure 2.19 - The four quadrants of Cartesian Coordinate system
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadrant_(plane_geometry)
Figure 2.20 - The X, Y and Z-axis of the CNC machine
Figure 2.21 - The home position of the CNC machine
Figure 2.22 - VISI CAD CAM software
https://pngimage.net/png-visi-2/
Figure 2.23 - Working near the origin in Rhino
Figure 2.24 - Placing surface-based geometry underneath the XY plane
Figure 2.25 - Giving a boundary box in line
Figure 2.26 - Self-designed template for CNC milling and its origin at corner of the
template
Figure 2.27 - Flat (left) and ball (right) end mills, and its different scalloping
https://wiki.harvard.edu/confluence/display/fabricationlab/Choosing+Tools
https://tourlomousis.pages.cba.mit.edu/fabclass-recitation-toolpath-planning/#TC2.2
Figure 2.28 - Larger tools with smaller stepover leave smaller scalloping
https://fabacademy.org/2019/labs/sorbonne/students/hanneuse-luc/assignments/
week08/
Figure 2.29 - Tools and work coordinate system
Figure 2.30- Climb milling (top) and conventional milling (below)
https://tourlomousis.pages.cba.mit.edu/fabclass-recitation-toolpath-planning/#TC2.2
Figure 2.31 - A crashing happened because of an incorrect “home” setting
Figure 2.32 - Limitations of CNC — rounded shape
https://blog.creatable.com/cnc-guide/
Figure 2.33 - Limitations of CNC — limited shape
https://blog.creatable.com/cnc-guide/
Figure 2.34 - Limitations of CNC — considering material strength
https://blog.creatable.com/cnc-guide/
Figure 2.35 - Limitations of CNC — accessibility shape
https://blog.creatable.com/cnc-guide/
Figure 3.1 - The Flammarion engraving of Flat Earth
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
File:Flammarion_engraving_colored_(edited).jpg
Figure 3.2 - The illustration of Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divine_Comedy#/media/
%20File:Dante_Domenico_di_Michelino_Duomo_Florence.jpg
Figure 3.3 - A poster of ‘Inception’
https://www.amazon.com/Movie-Posters-Inception-11-17/dp/B00GYP5E2E
Figure 3.4 - A map of East Asia
http://afp-cv.blogspot.com/2017/05/name-of-east-asian-countries.html
Figure 3.5 - The illustration picturing the feeling of Han
Figure 3.6 - The pattern of bojagi (left) and work of Piet Mondrian (right), whose use
of squares and color has been compared to bojagi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bojagi
Figure 3.7 - Norigae with different types of knots
https://www.museum.go.kr/site/main/relic/search/view?relicId=211252
https://www.museum.go.kr/site/main/relic/search/view?relicId=212700
https://www.museum.go.kr/site/main/relic/search/view?relicId=114932)
Figure 3.8 - Chaesang (bamboo boxes)
https://www.chf.or.kr/c2/sub1.jsp?brdType=R&bbIdx=100267
Figure 3.9 -Different patterns of changho
https://leeesann.tistory.com/325
Figure 3.10 - A halved joint
Figure 3.11 - The rule of modular grids
Figure 3.12 - Completed physical model of 'piling up’ (left) assembled with a
repetitive rule and the basic assemblage logic (right)
Figure 3.13 - The patterning logic of ‘Piling up’
Figure 3.14 - Computational assembly simulations of 'Piling up' with a generative
growth mechanism
Figure 3.15 - Completed physical model of ‘tangle’(left) assembled with a repetitive
rule and the basic assemblage logic (right)
Figure 3.16 - The patterning logic of ‘Tangle’
Figure 3.17 - Computational assembly simulations of ‘Tangle’ with a zig zag rule
Figure 3.18 - Completed computational model of ‘Tangle’ from different angles
Figure 3.19 - Completed physical model of ‘Residue’ (left) and the basic unit made
with three similar components indicated in a, b, c (right)
Figure 3.20 - The patterning logic of ‘Residue’
Figure 3.21 - Computational model of internal connections of ‘residue’ (upper) and
completed computational model in two different angles each (below)
Figure 3.22 - Completed physical model of ‘hope’ (left) and the basic unit consisted of
three identical component (right)
Figure 3.23 - The patterning logic of ‘Hope’
Figure 3.24 - Completed computational model of ‘hope’
Figure 4.1 - Chidori
Figure 4.2 - Chidori wooden furniture
http://www.architectureofearlychildhood.com/2011/11/cool-modular-furnituresystem-
inspired.html
Figure 4.3 - Assembly diagram of Chidori furniture
Figure 4.4 - GC Prostho Museum Research Center by Kengo Kuma, 2010 (left) and
comparing the joinery difference between Chidori furniture and GC Prostho Museum
Research Center (right)
https://www.archdaily.com/199442/gc-prostho-museum-research-center-kengo-kumaassociates/
5004e0be28ba0d4e8d000ad1-gc-prostho-museum-research-center-kengokuma-
associates-photo
Figure 4.5 - Jigoku Gumi
Figure 4.6 - Statbuck coffee at Dazifu Tenmangu Omotesando by Kengo Kuma, 2008
https://kkaa.co.jp/works/architecture/starbucks-coffee-at-dazaifutenmanguomotesando/
Figure 4.7 - Assembly diagram of Starbucks coffee at Dazaifu Tenmangu Omotesando
Figure 4.8 - Sunny Hills Japan by Kengo Kuma, 2013
https://www.archdaily.com/484981/sunnyhills-at-minami-aoyama-kengo-kuma-andassociates
Figure 4.9 - Assembly diagram of Sunny Hills Japan
Figure 4.10 - Gongpo of Haeinsa in South Geyongsang Province, South Korea
Figure 4.11 - The most common joint, Gidung-sagae jjaim, used for gongpo
Figure 4.12 - The completed model with the lattice structure resulted in a porosity that
continuously changes the geometrical perception of the surface depending on view
angles
Figure 4.13 - Assembly diagram of the model with the lattice structure
Figure 4.14 - Components of the experimental model inspired by the most common
traditional Korean joint, gidung-sagae jjaim and its diagram of assemblage with
fragmented pieces
Figure 4.15 - Basic interlocking logic of three pieces
Figure 4.16 - Radial aggregation of components
Figure 4.17 - Radial aggregation of components in three-dimension
Figure 4.18 - Realized physical model of prototype A
Figure 4.19 - Diagrams of prototype model A
Figure 4.20 - Realized physical model of prototype B
Figure 4.21 - Diagrams of prototype model B
Figure 4.22 - Diagrams of prototype model C
Figure 4.23 - Diagrams of making a hole on wood with drilling (left) and reproducing
it with a laser cutter (right)
Figure 4.24 - Diagrams of prototype model D
Figure 4.25 - Constraint of triple weaving
Figure 4.26 - Two ways of solving assembly problem: specular addition of two
components (left) and filleting edges of notch (right)
Figure 4.27 - Diagrams of prototype model E
Figure 4.28 - Diagrams of prototype model F
Figure 5.1 - Modified pattern which can be expandable without any extra parts
Figure 5.2 - Completed physical model with expandable patterns
Figure 5.3 - Computational model of expandable model with different types of
notches that make it possible to connect one with another
Figure 5.4 - Design development of master surface
Figure 5.5 - Controlling the slope of the early surface created in Rhino
Figure 5.6 - The entire geometric descriptions created with Grasshopper
Figure 5.7 - Completed computational model of the final design
Figure 5.8 - Timbers with assigned names
Figure 5.9 - Optimization of materials in Grasshopper
Figure 5.10 - The work area of CNC and its units in millimeters
Figure 5.11 - Toolpaths setting of CNC milling
Figure 5.12 - Flat and ball end mills mounted with ER32 collet chuck
Figure 5.13 - Placing and clamping stocks on the sheet for safety matter
Figure 5.14 - Template designed for placing three stocks at one time
Figure 5.15 - Origin at a corner of the template and setting X, Y, and Z homes
Figure 5.16 - Cutting lumbers with a table saw
Figure 5.17 - Planing timber for making timbers with same width and thickness
Figure 5.18 - Fixing a template
Figure 5.19 - Fixing prepared lumbers on the platform of CNC
Figure 5.20 - Setting the zero of X, Y coordinates with a ball end mill (∅ 3 mm) and
changed to a flat end mill (∅ 6 mm) to set Z zero
Figure 5.21 - The one set of timber elements, 130 members
Figure 5.22 - Assembly
Figure 5.23 - The Overview of the timber pavilion 01
Figure 5.24 - The Overview of the timber pavilion 02
Figure 5.25 - The Overview of the timber pavilion 03
Figure 5.26 - The Overview of the timber pavilion 04

Table 3.1 - Four common characteristics of Han
Table 3.2 - Four different pattern types of bojagi
Table 3.3 - Fifteen different types of traditional Korean knots usually applied in Norigae
Table 3.4 - Thirty different patterns of chaesang restored by Seo, Sinjeong
Table 3.5 - Examples of changho patterns
Table 3.6 - Korean vowels that were created based on the Confucian concept of three realms, sancai
Table 3.7 - Three fundamental elements of architecture in hangul: point, line and plane
Table 5.1 - Tables of optimized materials
Table 5.2 - CNC settings for wood milling
Table 5.3 - Needed number of timbers in different lengths
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