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系統識別號 U0002-0903201110433800
中文論文名稱 點對點密碼認證金鑰協商協定之設計
英文論文名稱 Designing a Client-to-client Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 廖宜平
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Ping Liao
學號 697470531
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-01-13
論文頁數 81頁
口試委員 指導教授-裝博任
委員-吳庭育
委員-陳省隆
中文關鍵字 點對點  密碼認證金鑰協商  智慧卡 
英文關鍵字 Client-to-client  PAKE  Smart Cart 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 在進行安全通訊前,通訊雙方必須協商出通訊金鑰,一般會由一組安全性較低的密碼協商出一組安全性較高的通訊金鑰,這種協商的過程稱為PAKE(Password-Authenticated Key Exchange),其中兩不同區域的使用者協商金鑰的架構稱為C2C-PAKE。由於在無線網路環境中,封包是在開放性空間中傳遞,因此攻擊者可以隨意的對封包進行竊聽、竄改、攔截等…動作,進而進行各種攻擊,因此通訊協定在通訊過程中能不能抵擋攻擊者的惡意攻擊為一十分重要的要素。本文將攻擊者的可能發動的各種攻擊方式做一整理,再將近幾年的C2C協定分析其中的優缺點與其可能會有的漏洞進而進行安全性的加強。
本文提出的協定主要採用Smart Card協定為主架構加以改良,Smart Card協定讓使用者先交換Smart Card資訊,再使用Mod計算上的特性來達成驗證的目的,利用Mod的計算的特性,可以使傳輸中的資訊包含有隨機數,可以有效抵擋離線字典攻擊。改良上使用Ding等人在2009提出的協定在認證上加上使用密碼交換Diffie-Hellman參數的方式,再將認證封包上加上Diffie-Hellman與伺服器之私密金鑰,如此可以達成密碼、Smart Card資訊與伺服器的私密金鑰三方互相保護之成果。
為了使各協定間能夠公平的評估與比較安全性,因此提出能測試各協定安全性的模組也是必要的。現有的安全性評估模式,大多是將既有的攻擊方式模組化,並且定義攻擊者能力,讓不同安全機制,能夠透過定義好的模組進行安全性評估。本文使用Kazuki提出一種改良性的安全模組做為驗證協定安全性的方式,此改良安全模組可以驗證目前安全模組無法驗證的KCI、LEP與BR,模組的主要不同處在於該模組定義了攻擊者可以取得使用者與伺服器的靜態金鑰(如使用者密碼與伺服器私密金鑰)與暫時的資訊(如生成通訊金鑰前的暫時數據)與可以完全控制某使用者行動的指令,增加這些定義主要是為了確定攻擊者取得使用者之密碼資訊(KCI)以及伺服端之private key(LEP)之後也可以確保協定安全,故使用此模組證明協定之被破解之機率趨近於零後即可證明協定可以抵擋BR、KCI、LEP攻擊。
另外本文也對各協定的計算成本進行比較,由於要達成較高的安全性所增加的計算會增加其計算的成本,因此有必要對其增加的成本與安全性比較是否合理,本文將協定的計算成本分別進行比較,並將各個改變造成的計算成本改變分別列出以方便了解各個改變造成的成本增加以確認此改變是否合理。
文中使用此協定套用到部分實際應用上,C2C-PAKE可以應用在任何用戶需要認證後通訊的地方,本文中實際使用在工作站的認證上。
英文摘要 Before conducting secure communications, users must establish a higher security key for communication from memory low security Password security, this process is known as PAKE (Password-Authenticated Key Exchange),
We list attacker may launch various attacks, We also analysis of nearly years C2C protocol's advantages, disadvantages and their vulnerability, then we strengthen protocol's security. The proposed protocol mainly based Smart Card Framework Agreement to be improved, Smart Card protocol, Smart Card allows users to exchange information first, then use the mod calculation features to achieve the purpose of verification, use the calculation features of mod that allows transmission The information includes a random number, can resist the off-line dictionary attacks. We add Ding, who propose the protocol in 2009 use the a password on the authentication exchange Diffie-Hellman parameter approach, and then add the Diffie-Hellman and server's private key to authentication package, so you can reach the outcome of password, Smart Card information and server's private key constituents mutual protection.
This paper use the Kazuki's improving security module to verify the security of protocol, the improving security module can verify that the KCI, LEP attack current security module can not verify, we use this module to prove protocol can resist the BR, KCI, LEP attack.
This paper also compared the cost of the protocols to demonstrate our protocol increases the scope of reasonable cost.
論文目次 目錄
目錄 VI
圖表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 相關背景與研究 6
2.1常見的攻擊方式 6
2.2C2C協定介紹 9
2.2.1Byun等人的協定 9
2.2.2 Feng等人的協定 11
2.2.3 Wenting等人的協定 13
2.2.4 Shuhua等人的協定 17
2.2.5 Gang等人的協定 19
2.2.6 Ding等人的協定 21
2.3各方法之分析 23
第三章 新的改良型協定 26
第四章 安全性與成本比較 32
4.1安全性證明: 32
4.1.1安全模組 32
4.1.2使用安全模組證明協定之安全 42
4.2安全性及計算成本比較 46
4.2.1 3-party計算次數與傳輸次數比較 46
4.2.2 C2C計算次數與傳輸次數比較 56
第五章 實際應用 68
第六章 結論 71
參考文獻 74

圖表目錄
圖(1.1)2-PARTY PAKE之架構 2
圖(1.2)3-PARTY PAKE之架構 2
圖(1.3)C2C-PAKE之架構 3
圖(1.4) KERBEROS之架構 4
圖(2.1) BYUN等人的協定 10
圖(2.2) FENG等人的協定 12
圖(2.3A) WENTING等人的協定(REGISTRATION PHASE) 14
圖(2.3B) WENTING等人的協定(LOGIN-AND-AUTHENTICATION PHASE) 15
圖(2.4) SHUHUA等人的協定 18
圖(2.5) GANG等人的協定 20
圖(2.6) DING等人的協定 22
圖(3.1)我們提出之協定 27
圖(3.2)使用FENG等人的方法的協定 30
圖(4.1)AID協定 47
圖(4.2)LTE網路節點換手之架構 48
圖(4.3)3-PARTY架構之改良型協定 50
圖(4.4)AID協定C2C架構 57
圖(4.5)C2C計算次數比較圖 61
圖(4.6)各複雜度比較圖 62
圖(4.7)各協定複雜度比較圖 63
圖(5.1)使用KERBEROS之工作站架構 69

表(2.1)各方法之優缺點比較 24
表(4.1)模組能驗證的攻擊方式比較 42
表(4.2)3-PARTY協定之成本與安全性比較 54
表(4.3)C2C協定之成本與安全性比較 60
表(4.4)C2C協定之成本與安全性簡易比較表 60
表(4.5)各種計算方法之複雜度比較表 62
表(4.6)各協定之複雜度比較表 62
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