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系統識別號 U0002-0903200917074000
中文論文名稱 間接土壓力模式應用於側潰影響之樁基波動方程分析
英文論文名稱 Study on Lateral Spreading Affected Piles Using Indirect Earth Pressure Model and Wave Equation Analysis
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 徐守亨
研究生英文姓名 Shou-Heng Hsu
學號 694311027
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-01-07
論文頁數 158頁
口試委員 指導教授-張德文
委員-李維峰
委員-邱俊翔
中文關鍵字 側潰  地盤變位  波動方程  樁基礎 
英文關鍵字 lateral spreadiong  ground displacement  wave equation  pile foundtion 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 本研究之間接土壓力模式,係以一維波動方程模擬地盤側潰狀態下之樁基礎動力反應,依據現場土層鑽探資料與鄰近測站之地震紀錄,由Tokimatsu(2003)建議之地盤變位模式估算地盤永久變位量,再將地震加速度積分兩次而得之正規化地震位移視為地震力對地盤變位的影響,進而求得地盤受震過程之位移反應,並以此為前置解,最後藉由樁身土壤彈簧將地盤變位傳遞於樁身上。樁身剛度以簡易Bouc-Wen模式模擬其非線性行為,以瞭解液化地盤內基樁之變形行為與破壞機制。本研究以參數研究及日本地震時之基樁破壞案例驗證本模式之合理性。
研究結果顯示:(1)針對底層未液化土層,傳統方法僅適用於堅硬土層;本研究所採用Ishihara & Cubrinovski(2004)建議之方法可用於不同類型土層,並將底層未液化土壤以土壤彈簧模擬其非線性行為;(2)本研究採用簡易Bouc-Wen模式處理樁體非線性行為,其中α、z參數由基樁資料彎矩-曲率圖回算求得;(3)由參數研究發現,永久變位模式之五參數皆各有其影響力。其中地下水位深度的模擬效果較差;基樁長度與液化層厚度若太為相近,會使得樁底位移有所滑移;土壤彈簧折減因子β將使得基樁位移減小;(4)由參數研究與實際案例分析結果顯示,樁基礎之最大彎矩易發生於液化層上下方交界處而致使基樁發生破壞,其原因在於上下方交界處附近之土壤位移反應因弱化而造成基樁整體變形曲線中之轉折,應於液化層上下交界處加強樁基礎結構強度,確保其結構物之安全性;(5)本研究以樁基波動分析程序(EQWEAP)為架構,以地盤變位模式為前置解,進行地盤側潰後對樁基礎影響之行為分析。亦可以土壓力模式為前置解進行分析;(6)與直接土壓力模式比較之下,本研究之分析結果應較為略小;(7)本研究所建立之動力分析模式,可清楚反映樁基礎於受震期間對液化影響產生之變形行為與內力反應,亦能透過位移、彎矩、剪力之剖面圖,瞭解較能代表樁基礎實際受震行為之瞬間反應。
英文摘要  The indirect earth pressure model with one dimensional wave equation analyses is used to simulate the seismic responses of a single pile affected by soil lateral spreading. With the field investigation, the permanent ground displacement can be estimated according to the method proposed by Tokimatsu(2003). The permanent ground displacement multiplied by the normalized seismic displacement function is regarded as the seismic responses of the ground displacement. Finally, the dynamic ground displacement profile is applied to the pile elements through the soil springs , and the pile non-linearity is simulated by the simplified Bouc-Wen Model. Thus the deformations and failure mechanism of the pile are able to be understood. This analysis is also validated by the parameter studies and the case studies of pile failure due to earthquake in Japan.
  The results of this study are concluded as follows:(1)For the underlying non-liquefied layer, the soil springs are used to simulated its non-linearity. (2)The pile non-linear behavior is characterized by the simplified Bouc-Wen Model where α and z are back calculated from the tri-linear moment-curvature relationship. (3)From the parameter studies: It can be found that the five parameters of the Permanent Model all influence the analyses. However , the simulation of the factor, zw is not as fine as others. Compared with the thickness of the liquefied layer, if the length of the pile is not long enough, the displacement of the pile tip will be not so closer to zero. The pile response is smaller when the stiffness reduction coefficient, β, is applied. (4)The largest pile displacement would occurs at the pile head. The values of the moments at the pile head or the interface between the liquefied layer and the underlying non-liquefied layer may exceed the ultimate moment. So the two section of a pile is in need of strengthening to ensure the safety of the superstructure. (5)The frame of this study is based on the Earthquake Wave Equation Analysis of Pile(for short: EQWEAP). The pre-solution involved is the ground displacement profile, and it also can be the direct earth pressure profile. (6)Compared with the direct earth pressure model ,the responses of this study are smaller. (7)The indirect earth pressure model is relatively simple, and the instant responses at different times are able to be caught easily.
論文目次 第一章 緒論
1-1 研究動機與目的 1
1-2 研究方法與內容 2

第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 前言 5
2-2 土壤液化與側潰 7
2-3 液化之定義與發生機制 10
2-4 影響土壤液化之因素 18
2-5 側潰位移量分析之相關研究 25
2-6 樁基礎破壞機制與非線性模擬方法 33
2-7 樁基礎耐震之動力分析 51

第三章 分析方法與理論推導
3-1 前言 56
3-2 地盤變位模式 57
3-3 公式建立與推導 64
3-4 地盤反力模數 72
3-5 分析流程與樁體非線性模式 76

第四章 參數研究
4-1 前言 84
4-2 假設案例與參數說明 85
4-3 樁基礎受側潰影響之行為分析 91

第五章 案例分析
5-1 前言 102
5-2 案例一 Kobe Tank TA72 103
5-3 案例二 Kobe Pier 211 124

第六章 結論與建議
6-1 結論 138
6-2 展望與建議 143

參考文獻 144

表2-1 霧峰測站量測之加速度表(摘自 林成川,2002) 24
表2-2 1906年加州地震之LSI(摘自 吳俊逸,2000) 27
表2-3 最小旋轉半徑計算表(摘自Bhattacharya et al., 2004) 43
表3-1 反覆與永久變位模式之參數 34
表3-2 地盤反力常數經驗值(摘自Terzaghi,1955) 74
表3-3 地盤反力常數經驗值(摘自Johnson & Kavanaugh,1968) 74
表3-4 地盤反力常數經驗值(摘自Group3.0使用手冊) 75
表3-5 水位之下地盤反力常數經驗值 75
表3-6 各樁徑與α、z參數之關係表(摘自張紹倫,2008) 81
表4-1 參數研究對照表 90
表4-2 921集集大地震霧峰地區側潰調查(摘自林成川,2000) 91
表4-3 參數研究結果統整表 94
表5-1 人工回填島之土壤參數表(摘自 黃俊鴻等人,2006) 105
表5-2 Tank TA72基樁材料性質參數(摘自 黃俊鴻等人,2006) 105
表5-3 反覆與永久變位模式參數表 113
表5-4 Tank TA72各液化潛能評估法分析結果(摘自李漢珽,2008) 114
表5-5 土壤參數表 127
表5-6 Pier 211基樁材料性質參數 127
表5-7 地盤變位參數表 133

圖1-1 研究分析流程圖 4
圖2-1 液化示意圖(李漢珽重繪自Ishihara, 1985) 7
圖2-2 側潰發生示意圖(重繪自Hamada et al.,1986) 9
圖2-3 飽和砂土不排水試驗液化潛能狀態示意圖
(李漢珽重繪自 Castro, 1969) 10
圖2-4 流動液化發生機制示意圖(李漢珽重繪自 Kramer, 1996) 12
圖2-5 1957年於舊金山MERCED湖沿岸發生流動液化情形
(摘自 Kramer,1996) 12
圖2-6 1976年瓜地馬拉於MOTAGUA河流發生側潰情形
(摘自 Kramer,1996) 14
圖2-7 反覆流動性發生機制示意圖(李漢珽重繪自 Kramer,1996) 15
圖2-8 液化土壤中地盤變位模式
(重繪自 Cubrinovski & Ishihara,2004) 16
圖2-9 1995年神戶地震中各災區之側潰位移
(摘自 Cubrinovski,2006) 31
圖2-10 液化土層中樁-土-結構互制示意圖
(摘自 Tokimatsu and Asaka, 1998) 35
圖2-11 箍筋圍束下混凝土應力與應變模式
(李漢珽重繪自 Kent and Park, 1971) 37
圖2-12 典型基樁之彎矩與曲率關係圖 39
圖2-13 鋼筋混凝土結構之損害分類圖
(李漢珽重繪自 Luo et al., 2002) 39
圖2-14 樁體彎曲特性三線性模式 39
圖2-15 樁體彎曲特性雙線性模式 39
圖2-16 基樁破壞機制模式(摘自 Bhattacharya et al., 2004) 40
圖2-17 工程設計中之樁長與樁徑關係圖(摘自Bond, 1989) 42
圖2-18 蒐集案例之有效細長比(摘自Bhattacharya et al., 2004) 42
圖2-19 有效樁長示意圖(摘自Bhattacharya et al., 2004) 43
圖2-20 Diado混凝土彎曲試驗法(李漢珽重繪自Meyersohn, 1994) 45
圖2-21 試樁之彎矩與曲率關係圖(摘自Meyersohn, 1994) 45
圖2-22 矩形斷面混凝土與鋼筋之彎矩曲率分析示意圖 47
圖2-23 基樁之等值線性模式(摘自Cubrinovski et al., 2004) 48
圖2-24 鋼筋混凝土之撓度變化(摘自 Arthur H. Nilson et al., 2003) 50
圖2-25 慣性矩 對彎矩-轉角關係的影響(摘自 楊宗勳,2000)
50
圖3-1 液化流動地盤中樁-土互制行為模擬模型
(摘自 鐘明劍,2006 ) 56
圖3-2 地震時之最大反覆剪應變(摘自 Tokimatsu and Asaka, 1998) 59
圖3-3 側潰範圍與河岸線水平位移關係圖
(摘自 Tokimatsu and Asaka, 1998) 60
圖3-4 海岸距離與地盤水平位移關係
(摘自 Tokimatsu and Asaka, 1998) 61
圖3-5 分析模型(重繪自Ishihara,2003) 63
圖3-6 樁頂之節點編號 66
圖3-7 樁頂內緣一點之節點編號 66
圖3-8 樁底之節點編號 67
圖3-9 樁底內一點之節點編號 67
圖3-10 樁頂邊界條件(自由端) 67
圖3-11 樁頂邊界條件(剛性端) 67
圖3-12 地盤反力係數 與不排水剪力強度之關係圖
(摘自 Group 3.0使用手冊)
73
圖3-13 分析流程圖 77
圖3-14 樁身剛度折減示意圖(摘自張紹倫,2008) 81
圖3-15 彎矩回歸分析結果(摘自張紹倫,2008) 82
圖3-16 曲率回歸分析結果(摘自張紹倫,2008) 83
圖4-1 標準案例之基樁與地盤剖面圖 88
圖4-2 921地震加速度歷時圖(TCU110) 89
圖4-3 修正後 921地震加速度歷時圖 89
圖4-4 標準案例 94
圖4-5 參數研究分析結果(D0) 96
圖4-6 參數研究分析結果(L) 97
圖4-7 參數研究分析結果(S) 98
圖4-8 參數研究分析結果(H ) 99
圖4-9 參數研究分析結果(Zw ) 100
圖4-10 參數研究分析結果(樁長) 101
圖4-11 參數研究分析結果(β) 102
圖5-1 Mikagehama Island地理位置圖(摘自Ishihara, 2003) 106
圖5-2 人工島上儲油槽Tank TA72位置示意圖
(摘自Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 106
圖5-3 地盤側向變形量(摘自Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 107
圖5-4 液化後地盤位移示意圖
(摘自Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 107
圖5-5 儲油槽結構剖面與土層分佈概況
(摘自Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 108
圖5-6 群樁基礎與擠壓砂樁之配置示意圖
(摘自Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 109
圖5-7 高強度預鑄混凝土樁之彎矩-曲率圖
(摘自Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 109
圖5-8 No.2基樁之側向位移及樁身損害示意圖
(摘自Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 110

圖5-9
No.9基樁之側向位移及樁身損害示意圖
(摘自Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004)
111
圖5-10 神戶地震(1995)加速度歷時曲線圖 112
圖5-11 神戶地震(1995)正規化位移歷時曲線圖 113
圖5-12 地盤反覆變位(Tank TA72) 116
圖5-13 地盤反覆變位之樁身位移(Tank TA72) 117
圖5-14 地盤反覆變位之樁身剪力(Tank TA72) 118
圖5-15 地盤反覆變位之樁身彎矩(Tank TA72) 119
圖5-16 地盤永久變位(Tank TA72) 120
圖5-17 地盤永久變位之樁身位移(Tank TA72) 121
圖5-18 地盤永久變位之樁身剪力(Tank TA72) 122
圖5-19 地盤永久變位之樁身彎矩(Tank TA72) 123
圖5-20 永久與反覆變位模式比較圖(Tank TA72) 124
圖5-21 間接與直接土壓力模式比較圖(Tank TA72) 124
圖5-22 Osaka與Kobe之高速公路系統圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 128
圖5-23 地層高低輪廓示意圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 128
圖5-24 Hanshin公路破壞示意圖(摘自 葉健輝,2006) 129
圖5-25 地表永久變位圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 129
圖5-26 碼頭結構與樁基系統示意圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 130
圖5-27 Pier 211之樁基彎矩與曲率關係圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 131
圖5-28 樁基損害示意圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 131
圖5-29 樁身位移與彎矩分佈曲線(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 132
圖5-30 地盤變位(Pier 211) 135
圖5-31 樁身位移(Pier 211) 136
圖5-32 樁身剪力(Pier 211) 137
圖5-33 樁身彎矩(Pier 211) 138
圖5-34 分析結果與其他學者之比較圖(Pier 211) 139
圖5-35 分析結果與直接土壓力模式比較圖(Pier 211) 139

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