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系統識別號 U0002-0901201721545100
中文論文名稱 馬格里布回教移民在法國融合過程研究
英文論文名稱 The Study of Maghreb Muslim Immigrants’ Integration Process in France
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 105
學期 1
出版年 106
研究生中文姓名 韓維民
研究生英文姓名 Wei-min Han
學號 800290032
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2016-12-29
論文頁數 400頁
口試委員 指導教授-馬良文
委員-徐鵬飛
委員-沈中衡
委員-苑倚曼
委員-陳淳文
中文關鍵字 共和主義  穆斯林移民  世俗化  政教分離  頭巾 
英文關鍵字 Republicanism  Maghreb Muslim Immigrants  Integration  laï  cité 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文探討馬格里布回教移民在法國的融合過程。首先,經濟分配不公常引發暴動(例如2005年巴黎市郊暴動),產生融合難題,但非自殺式攻擊。近兩年來,回教移民後裔所發動接二連三恐怖攻擊,研究中心轉向經濟背後更深層因素,因為此等行為觸及意識形態以及屬靈精神領域。這些恐怖份子皆與伊斯蘭國極端組職有聯繫。故法國共和人士面臨此等威脅時,提出大革命之最大遺產政教分離,亦可稱為«國家去宗教化(laïcité)»,來作為精神武裝,欲以此剔除法國社會中的宗教性(回教),保有民主本色(自由、平等、兄弟情誼)。弔詭的是,國家去宗教化卻內含類宗教性之神聖價值:«共和»。此類宗教性卻近似天主教,兩世紀以來兩者之間有牽扯不清的關係:一則引為精神導師、二則轉而視之為仇寇。由此,法國共和主義在爭論不休的回教頭巾問題中,所受到不只是外在的服裝衣著的挑戰,和激進回教徒(法國公民)藉此擴散極端思維,更在於在既有的法國共和屬靈領域之外,另尋他徑,不但破壞法國之統一完整性,使得法國共和主義失去原先世俗與神聖兩端的專斷力量。此等國家危機激化法蘭西國族認同意識,不僅強化自我防衛機制,而且強烈要求回教移民認同法國共和主義。回教移民的年輕世代卻因此倍受排擠,不見容於法國社會,竟皈依回教乞求歸屬感。«國家去宗教化»適得其反。融合,終難有成。
英文摘要 Muslim integration has long been the major concern in the French society. The Paris attacks in January and November of 2015 only made the concern even more worrying that the integration problem may have led to radicalization of young descendants of Muslim immigrants. The attacks and possibly more in the future only not aggravate Islamophobia but also alert the populists against immigration to demand a stricter border control to protect France from any future attack from outside. The populist movement may feed the radicalization and vice versa, both of which antagonize the crisis of national identity that French people seek to rebuild.
However, on the one hand, the crisis of national identity has less to with immigrants than the globalized market economy that cuts through national borders and makes state less capable of allocating and redistributing resources to its citizens. The credibility of state is thus at stake. On the other hand, Muslims are not as reluctant to integrate as they are portrayed to be. Most of them are French and their doubt of Frenchness is only provoked by media or politicians. It seems that the more the French society works to integrate Muslims, the less it succeeds because it III

presupposes the necessity to be engaged in such a social engineering; that is, only through laïcité, the core of republican value, can the goal of living together (vivre-ensemble) allegedly make possible among all immigrants, minorities, and the French nationals.
Presumably, the more emphasis on laïcité, the lesser need for Muslims to proselytize Islam by wearing scarves in the public and praying on the city streets. Laïcité has its sacred value, which brings itself close to civil religion. Laïcité may therefore lose its appeal for Muslims to restrain themselves from self-expression of their religion in public. The biggest challenge that Muslims may pose is not really the terrorist attack on civilians, but the spirituality that Islam offers is not tamed but in competition with laïcité. Laïcité will not serve to integrate Maghreb Muslim immigrants.
論文目次 1 Chapter One: Introduction to the Significance on Maghreb Immigrant Problems-------------------------------1
1.1 Research Motive--------------------------------------2
1.2 Methodological Issues--------------------------------8
1.3 Notes on Historiography-----------------------------11
1.4 Research Scope and Limits---------------------------18
1.5 Research Framework----------------------------------20
2 Chapter Two: History and Social Conditions of Maghreb Immigrants in France and Responses from the Public and Major Political Parties---------------------------------25
2.1 Historical Background and Immigration Polices Since WWII----------------------------------------------------26
2.1.1 From 1945 to 1975: policies of Laissez-Faire------26
2.1.2 From 1975 to 2006: Polices of Control-------------31
2.1.3 “The Rise of Islam” and Integration Problem-------38
2.2 Reactions to Immigration from Major Political Parties --------------------------------------------------------42
2.2.1 The Position of National Front--------------------42
2.2.2 The Position of the Republicans-------------------47
2.2.3 The Socialist Party-------------------------------53
2.2.4 The Latest Statistics Concerning the Socialist Party’s Immigration Policy------------------------------60
2.3 Opinion Poll on Immigration and Maghreb Immigrants--64
2.3.1 Muslim Immigrants and Integration-----------------65
2.3.2 Muslim Immigrants and Religions-------------------73
2.4 Social Factors: Demography, Unemployment, and Housing --------------------------------------------------------92
2.4.1 Demography----------------------------------------92
2.4.2 Employment---------------------------------------100
2.4.3 Housing------------------------------------------106
3 Chapter Three: Nation-State and Laïcité: A Historical Development in France Engendering Immigrant and French Identity Problem---------------------------------------113
3.1 Identity, National Identity, Nation and Nation State---------------------------------------------------------114
3.1.1 Identity-----------------------------------------115
3.1.2 National Identity--------------------------------118
3.1.3 French National Identity-------------------------124
3.1.4 Nation-------------------------------------------128
3.1.5 Nation-State-------------------------------------135
3.2 French State and its Challenges--------------------141
3.2.1 French State in the Revolutionary Period---------141
3.2.2 Church and State Relation------------------------145
3.2.3 French State in the Twentieth Century------------150
3.2.4 French State under the Sway of Economic Pressure-----------------------------------------------------------154
3.2.5 European Identity Versus National Identity-------159
3.2.6 Refuge Crisis and European Integration-----------165
3.3 The Notion of Laïcité------------------------------171
3.3.1 Official Definition of Laïcité-------------------171
3.3.2 Historical Development of Laïcité in Three Stages----------------------------------------------------------175
3.3.3 The First Stage of Laïcité-----------------------178
3.3.4 The Second Stage of Laïcité----------------------183
3.3.5 The Third Stage of Laïcité-----------------------186
3.3.6 Two Forms of Civil Religion----------------------189
3.3.7 Catholicism and Civil Religion-------------------194
3.3.8 Ambiguity of Civil Religion----------------------198
4 Chapter Four: Two Theoretical Approaches for Integration: Communitarianism, Multiculturalism, and Their Incompatibility with French Republicanism--------------204
4.1 The Theory of Communitarianism---------------------205
4.1.1 Communitarianism in Historical Perspective-------205
4.1.2 Liberals, Nationalists, and Communitarians-------207
4.1.3 Community-Individual Relation--------------------215
4.1.5 Multinational Market Individualism and Communitarianism---------------------------------------218
4.2 Communitarian and French Republicanism-------------222
4.2.1 Communitarianism in France-----------------------223
4.2.2 Indivisible Republic and Community of the French Nation-------------------------------------------------226
4.2.3 Communitarianism as a Camouflage for Economic Disparity----------------------------------------------232
4.3 The Theory of Multiculturalism---------------------238
4.3.1 Analysis and Definition of Multiculturalism------239
4.3.2 Multiculturalism Viewed as Political Solution to Immigrants and Minority Issues-------------------------242
4.3.3 Long Presence of Minorities in Western Democracies---------------------------------------------------------247
4.3.4 Social Fragmentation as a Result of Multiculturalism---------------------------------------250
4.3.5 Citizenization as a Solution---------------------253
4.4 Multiculturalism and French Republicanism----------256
4.4.1 Republic Model of Assimilation-------------------257
4.4.2 Assimilation and Multiculturalism----------------260
4.4.3 Measurements of Multiculturalism and Its Failure in France-------------------------------------------------263
5 Chapter Five: The Evolving Sacred Laïcité: A Trend Towards Rigidity Unsuited for Vivre Ensemble-----------271
5.1 Muslims in France----------------------------------272
5.1.1 Estimated Numbers of Muslim Population-----------272
5.1.2 The Religiosity of Muslim Immigrants-------------276
5.1.3 Discriminations against Muslim Immigrants--------280
5.1.4 Diverse Origins of Muslims and Their Associations----------------------------------------------------------283
5.1.5 Religious Institutions of Muslim Immigrants------288
5.1.6 Muslim Identity in France------------------------292
5.1.7 Radicalization of Young Muslims------------------297
5.2 Muslim Challenges to Republicanism-----------------302
5.2.1 The Acute Clash of Freedom of Speech and Blasphemy---------------------------------------------------------302
5.2.2 The Controversy over Blasphemy-------------------307
5.2.3 Government’s Response to the Attack: A Reiteration of Laïcité---------------------------------------------318
5.2.4 Muslims’ Reaction to Charlie Hebdo---------------322
5.2.5 The UMP’s Debate on Laïcité on 5 April 2---------326
5.3 Future Republicanism-------------------------------334
5.3.1 Jacobian Republicanism and Its Two Challenges----335
5.3.2 The Baby-Loup Affair: The Ambiguous Application of Laïcité in Private Sector------------------------------343
5.3.3 The Burkini Controversy: The Expanded Application of Laïcité in Political Debate----------------------------362
6 Chapter Six: Conclusion------------------------------367

Bibliography-------------------------------------------387

List of Charts
Chart 2-1: Visa---------------------------------------------------------------------------------55
Chart 2-2: Visa of Circulation----------------------------------------------------------------55
Chart 2-3: Admission of Stay Document (Admission au séjour)------------------------56
Chart 2-4: Type of Stay Documents---------------------------------------------------------57
Chart 2-5: The Level of Integration of Immigrants in France---------------------------65
Chart 2-6: The Racisim Is a Phenomenon Widespread Enough in France-------------67
Chart 2-7: We Can Find Manual Workers in France--------------------------------------68
Chart 2-8: There Are Too Many Foreigners in France------------------------------------69
Chart 2-9: To Reduce the Number of Unemployment in France, It Is Necessary to
Reduce the Number of Immigrants--------------------------------------------71
Chart 2-10: It Is Difficult for an Immigrant to Inegrate in France----------------------72
Chart 2-11: The Immigrants Who Settle Down in France Do the Work That French
Do Not Want to Do-------------------------------------------------------------72
Chart 2-12: The Level of Tolerance of Different Religions------------------------------74
Chart 2-13: The Anxiety Towards Religious Fundamentalists in France--------------77
Chart 2-14: The Proportion of Muslim Extremists in France----------------------------78
Chart 2-15: The Perception of Islam--------------------------------------------------------80
Chart 2-16: The Attitude of Different Religions Practiced in France-------------------83
Chart 2-17: The Condition of Religion Exercise in France------------------------------86
Chart 2-18: The Compatibility of Dfferent Religions with the Values of the French
Society (2013)------------------------------------------------------------------88
Chart 2-19: The Compatibility of Dfferent Religions with the Values of the French Society (2015)------------------------------------------------------------------91
Chart 2-20: The Evolution of Foreigner and Immigrants Population Until 2011------99
Chart 2-21: Immigration in France--------------------------------------------------------100
Chart 2-22: Roots Make a Difference-----------------------------------------------------103
Chart 2-23: The Immigrants by Socio-Professional Categoryand Country of Birth-----
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------105
Chart 2-24: Net Hourly Salary by Gender and by Socioprofessional Categor-------106
Chart 2-25: Housing Quality----------------------------------------------------------------108
Chart 2-26: Housing Status-----------------------------------------------------------------109
Chart 2-27: The Level of Relative Standard of Living----------------------------------111
Chart 4-1: The Score Chart of Multicultural Index--------------------------------------266
Chart 5-1: Estimated Number of Muslims in France------------------------------------273
Chart 5-2: Religious Denomination in Accordance with the Link to Migration-----277 IX

Chart 5-3: Religion as Identity in Accordance with the Denomination, Gender, and
Religiosity-----------------------------------------------------------------------279

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