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系統識別號 U0002-0901201217295100
中文論文名稱 在無線隨建即連網路下以不同觀點探討干擾範圍過大之碰撞問題及其解決策略
英文論文名稱 Large Interference Range Collision Problems in Wireless Ad Hoc Network: Problems and Solutions
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 張朝傑
研究生英文姓名 Chau-Chieh Chang
學號 896410130
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2011-12-30
論文頁數 114頁
口試委員 指導教授-石貴平
委員-石貴平
委員-張志勇
委員-廖文華
委員-游國忠
委員-陳彥達
中文關鍵字 無線隨建即連網路  多速率傳輸  傳輸訊號控制  隱藏節點問題  媒體存取協定  IEEE 802.11 
英文關鍵字 Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  Multi-rate  Power Control  Hidden Terminal Problem  MAC Protocol  IEEE 802.11 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 本畢業論文針對過大的干擾範圍所產生的碰撞問題進行討論,此問題命名為 LIRC碰撞問題。LIRC碰撞問題是由隱藏節點問題衍生而來,而在多步跳躍隨建即連網路中,更是一個非常嚴重的問題。過去利用四向交握機制避免隱藏節點問題,然而碰撞問題並未被完全解決。因為座落在發送者和接收者傳輸範圍外的節點仍然可能因發送訊號,而造成傳輸失敗。
在設計媒體存取協定時,除了需要解決碰撞問題外,更要降低能源的消耗,並提高網路吞吐量。因此,本論文首要目標即是解決LIRC問題,並且在三種不同網路環境下討論 LIRC問題的變化與影響,進而設計有效率的媒體存取協定:(1)在無線隨建即連網路中,採取控制傳輸訊號之LIRC問題,(2)在無線隨建即連網路中不採用控制傳輸訊號之LIRC問題,(3)在無線隨建即連網路中,支援多速率傳輸與控制傳輸訊號之LIRC問題。
實驗結果顯示本論文所提出之媒體存取協定能夠使用較低的訊號強度發送資料,以降低能源消耗並且提高空間再利用率,改善整體網路吞吐量。除此之外,本協定更考量傳輸時搭配上多速率調變技術,讓本論文的作法獲得比其他作法更好的能源使用效率。
英文摘要 The dissertation aims to avoid the Large Interference Range Collision problem, denoted as the LIRC problem, which is a notorious problem in contention-based MAC protocol for multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks. LIRC problem is derived from a famous problem, hidden terminal problem. The four way handshake is adopted to prevent hidden terminal problems from happening. However, it has been shown that the four way handshake cannot completely prevent hidden terminal problems because STAs which are out of transmission ranges of both the sender and the receiver are still capable of interfering with the receiver. Besides resolving the collision problem, decreasing the energy consumption and enhancing the network throughput are other critical issues of designing MAC protocols. As a result, the major focus of this dissertation proposes several mechanisms to solve the LIRC problem for three environments: (1) LIRC problem in power-control-based wireless ad hoc networks, (2) LIRC problem in non-power-control-based wireless ad hoc networks, and (3) LIRC problem in multi-rate supported with power control based wireless ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanisms perform much better than the related works in terms of network throughput as well as the energy efficiency.
論文目次 Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 Background 5
2.1 IEEE 802.11 DCF Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 The Three Ranges: TR, CR, and IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3 Large Interference Range Collision Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3.1 The LIRC-PC problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3.2 The LIRC+PC problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3 LIRC Problem in Power-control-based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 13
3.1 Analysis of LIRC+PC Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2 Related Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.3 Range Cover Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.3.1 Sender’s Transmission Range Cover Mechanism (STRC) . . . 20
3.3.1.1 Concept of STRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.3.1.2 Derivation of PSTRC and the Restriction of STRC . . 20
3.3.1.3 STRC MAC Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3.2 Receiver’s Transmission Range Cover Mechanism (RTRC) . . 22
3.3.2.1 Concept of RTRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.3.2.2 Derivation of PRTRC and the Restriction of RTRC . . 22
3.3.2.3 RTRC MAC Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.3.3 Sender’s Carrier-sensing Range Cover Mechanism (SCRC) . . 23
3.3.3.1 Concept of SCRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.3.3.2 Derivation of PSCRC and the Restriction of SCRC . . 24
3.3.3.3 SCRC MAC Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.3.4 Receiver’s Carrier-sensing Range Cover Mechanism (RCRC) . 25
3.3.4.1 Concept of RCRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.3.4.2 Derivation of PRCRC and the Restriction of RCRC . 27
3.3.4.3 RCRC MAC Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.3.5 Comparisons of the Four MAC Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.4 Adaptive Range-Based Power Control (ARPC) MAC Protocol . . . . 31
3.5 Performance Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.5.1 Linear Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.5.1.1 Observations from the Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.5.1.2 The Impact of Carrier-sensing Range to Transmission Range Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.5.1.3 The Impact of Maximum Transmission Range . . . . 39
3.5.1.4 The Impact of Frame Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.5.2 Random Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4 LIRC Problem in Non-power-control-based Wireless Ad Hoc Net-
works 51
4.1 Analysis of LIRC-PC Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.2 Related Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.3 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.4 The Protocol: F-RCRC MAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.4.1 Incorporate RCRC with Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.5 Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5 LIRC Problem in Multi-rate based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 67
5.1 Analysis of LIRC Problem in Multi-rate based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 67
5.2 Related Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.3 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.3.1 RCRC MAC Protocol for the LIRC without Power Control Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.3.2 RCRC MAC Protocol for the LIRC with Power Control Problem 74
5.4 The Protocol: Extensions to Fragmentation-based RCRC(F-RCRC) MAC Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5.4.1 F-RCRC with Multirate Support MAC Protocol . . . . . . . . 78
5.5 Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.5.1 Simulation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.5.2 Chain Topology Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.5.2.1 Performance on Solving LIRC-PC Problem in Chain Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.5.2.2 Performance on Solving LIRC+PC Problem in Chain Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5.5.2.3 Performance on Solving LIRC with Multi-Rate Supported Problem in Chain Topology . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.5.3 Random Topology Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.5.3.1 Performance on Solving the LIRC Problem in Random Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.5.3.2 Performance on Supporting the Multi-Rate Technique in Random Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
5.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6 Conclusions 99
6.1 Summary of Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.2 Future work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Bibliography 101
Publication List of Chau-Chieh Chang 112

List of Figures
2.1 IEEE 802.11 DCF scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 An illustration of the LIRC-PC problem, where S, R, and S′ are the sender, the receiver, and the interfering STAs, respectively. In case that DSR > 0:56TR, LIRC problem is caused by an interfering STA, say S′, located outside the TR of both S and R, but within the IR of R colliding with the receiving of R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.3 An illustration of the LIRC+PC problem. (a) DSR < TR(Pmax). S and R use Pmax to exchange RTS/CTS. S′, a source of interference, is
outside TR(Pmax) of S and R. (b) S and R use the reduced power, PS, to exchange Data/ACK. IR(PS) will be larger than TR(Pmax) due to
the reduction of the sender’s power strength. As a result, S′ is located within IR(PS) and may cause collision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.1 The analyzes of the LIRC+PC problem and the analytical results in terms of DSR varied from 0:05 to 0:7 times of TR(Pmax). (a) The sizes of Awarned, AIR(Pmin), and AIR(Pmax). (b) The sizes of APNT TPC , APNT DCF , and ATR(Pmax) CTS . (c) D=10 and TDATA=400. (d) D=10 and TDATA=800. (e) D=30 and TDATA=400. (f) D=30 and TDATA=800, where D is the network density and TDATA is the transmission time (in time slots) of a DATA frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


3.2 The concept of STRC. (a) S and R use Pmax to exchange RTS/CTS. The gray area is IR(Pmax), which is, in this case, covered by RTS
since DSR ≤ 0:36TR(Pmax). S′, a source of interference, is outside both TR(Pmax) and IR(Pmax). (b) S and R use PSTRC to exchange DATA/ACK, where PSTRC is set to the power level that satisfies DSR+ IR(PSTRC) = TR(Pmax). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

3.3 The concept of RTRC. (a) S and R use Pmax to exchange RTS/CTS. The gray area is IR(Pmax), which, in this case, is covered by CTS
since DSR ≤ 0:56TR(Pmax). S′, a source of interference, is outside both TR(Pmax) and IR(Pmax). (b) S and R use PRTRC to exchange
DATA/ACK, where PRTRC is set to the power level that satisfies TR(Pmax) = IR(PRTRC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.4 The concept of SCRC. (a) S and R use Pmax to exchange RTS/CTS. The gray area is IR(Pmax), which, in this case, is covered by CR(Pmax) of S since DSR ≤ 0:72TR(Pmax). S′, a source of interference, is outside both TR(Pmax) and IR(Pmax). (b) S and R use PSCRC to exchange DATA/ACK, where PSCRC is set to the power level that satisfies DSR+ IR(PSCRC) ≤ CR(PSCRC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.5 Illustrations of the restriction of RCRC on DATA length and the power strengths for the transmissions of RTS/CTS/DATA/ACK. . . . . . . 27

3.6 The concept of RCRC. (a) S uses Pmax to send RTS and R adopts PRCRC to reply with CTS, where PRCRC is set to the power level that
IR(Pmin) = CR(PRCRC). S′ is outside IR(PRCRC). (b) S uses Pmin to send DATA and R uses Pmax to reply ACK. S′ is still outside IR(Pmin). 29

3.7 Comparisons of energy consumption among STRC, RTRC, SCRC and RCRC in terms of DSR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.8 A linear topology, where four STAs A, B, C, and D form a line. The distances between A and D as well as C and D are respectively fixed to 3:2 ∗ TR(Pmax) and TR(Pmax). The distance between A and B, denoted DAB, is varied from 10 m to 250 m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.9 The impact of different carrier-sensing range to transmission range ratios on (a) energy consumption, (b) network throughput, and (c) energy efficiency in terms of the IEEE 802.11 DCF and the ARPC MAC protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.10 The impact of different maximum transmission ranges on energy consumption, network throughput, and energy efficiency in terms of the IEEE 802.11 DCF and the ARPC MAC protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.11 The impact of different frame lengths on energy consumption, network throughput, and energy efficiency in terms of the IEEE 802.11 DCF, SCRC, RTRC, RCRC, and the ARPC MAC protocols, where the short and long frame lengths are 50 and 2000 bytes, respectively. . . . . . . 42

3.12 The impact of different frame lengths on frame error rate in terms of the IEEE 802.11 DCF, SCRC, RTRC, RCRC, and the ARPC MAC
protocols, where the short and long frame lengths are 50 and 2000 bytes, respectively. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

3.13 The comparisons of the IEEE 802.11 DCF, SCRC, RCRC, RTRC, ARPC, and the TPC protocols for different traffic loads in terms of
energy consumption, throughput, and energy efficiency when frame lengths are respectively 50 and 2000 bytes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.1 Fragmentation in IEEE 802.11. (a) An MSDU is fragmented into 3 fragments numbered from 0 to 2, each of length aFragThold, except
the last. (b) RTS/CTS with fragmented MSDU and the NAV setting. 55

4.2 The design concepts of aFragThold and the FIFS. . . . . . . . . . . . 57

4.3 An illustration to obtain the value of aFragThold. . . . . . . . . . . . 59

4.4 An illustration of F-RCRC MAC protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

4.5 An illustration of the F-RCRC protocol with power control support. . 62

4.6 Comparisons of the F-RCRC against the RCRC, IEEE 802.11 DCF, F-RCRC-PC, TPC, and CCR protocols in solving the LIRC problem
in terms of (a) energy consumption, (b) network throughput, and (c) energy efficiency, for different traffic load varied from 10 packets/s to 100 packets/s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

5.1 The analyzes of the LIRC problem with multi-rate support and the analytical results in terms of power level varied from minimum to maximum and in terms of data rate varied from 1Mbps to 11Mbps. . . . . 69

5.2 An illustration of the F-RCRC protocol with power control support. . 78

5.3 The scenario shows two transmission pairs in a chain. A and B are respectively the sender and the receiver and the distance between A and B is denoted as DAB. C and D is another interfering transmission pair and the distance between C and D is denoted as DCD . . . . . . 84

5.4 The scenario shows the LIRC-PC problem, where A and B are respectively the sender and the receiver. C and D is another interfering
transmission pair. DAB is 200m and DCD is 250m. The pair of CD moves away B varied from 100m to 550m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

5.5 Comparisons of F-RCRC, IEEE 802.11 DCF, and RCRC in solving the LIRC-PC problem in chain topology in terms of (a) energy consumption, (b) network throughput, and (c) energy efficiency (Byte/Joule), for different distance between B and C varied from 100 m to 550 m. . 85

5.6 The performance of ARPC, TPC, F-RCRC, and IEEE 802.11 DCF show in the liner topology where the DAD and DCD are respectively
fixed to 800 m and 250 m. DAB is varied from 140 m to 190 m. There are two flows, A → B and C → D, in the simulation. . . . . . . . . . 87

5.7 Comparisons of F-RCRC, IEEE 802.11 DCF, and RCRC in solving the LIRC+PC problem in chain topology in terms of (a) energy consumption, (b) network throughput, and (c) energy efficiency (Byte/Joule), for different distance between A and B varied from 140 m to 190 m. . 88

5.8 This linear topology shows the performance of F-RCRC with multirate, F-RCRC, DCF with multi-rate and DCF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

5.9 Comparisons of F-RCRC, IEEE 802.11 DCF, in supporting the multirate technique in the chain topology in terms of (a) energy consumption, (b) network throughput, and (c) energy efficiency (Byte/Joule), for different distance between C and D varied from 10 m to 250 m. . 91

5.10 Comparisons of F-RCRC, RCRC, IEEE 802.11 DCF, F-RCRC w/o PC, and CCR in solving the LIRC-PC problem in terms of (a) energy
consumption, (b) network throughput, and (c) energy efficiency (Byte/Joule), for different traffic load varied from 10 packets/s to 100
packets/s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

5.11 Comparisons of F-RCRC-MR, DCF-MR, F-RCRC, and DCF in random topology in terms of (a) energy consumption, (b) network throughput,
and (c) energy efficiency (Byte/Joule), for different traffic load varied from 10 packets/s to 100 packets/s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

List of Tables
3.1 Comparisons among STRC, RTRC, SCRC, and RCRC . . . . . . . . 30

3.2 Simulation Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

4.1 Simulation Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.1 Signal to noise ratio, received sensitivity, and modulation under different data transfer rates in IEEE 802.11b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

5.2 Simulation Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
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