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系統識別號 U0002-0901200610373800
中文論文名稱 泰德.透納報紙形象與領導
英文論文名稱 Press Image and the Leadership of Ted Turner
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 94
學期 1
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 王朝鈺
研究生英文姓名 Chao-Yu Wang
學號 692220097
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-12-26
論文頁數 162頁
口試委員 指導教授-李本京
委員-鄭貞銘
委員-李美華
中文關鍵字 泰德.透納  媒體形象  領導理論  紐約時報  華盛頓郵報  新聞論述分析  有線電視新聞網 
英文關鍵字 Ted Turner  Press Image  Leadership  New York Times  Washington Post  News Discourse Analysis  Cable News Network  CNN 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本名羅勃.愛德華.透納三世(Robert Edward Turner)的泰德.透納(Ted Turner)憑著他獨到而驚人的經營眼光,發動一場劃時代的媒體革命,一手把CNN培植成獲利遠勝美國三大電視網的超級新聞網,而「新聞報導」的定義也因CNN的出現由TNT模式(Today News Today),即「今日的新聞今日報」轉變為NNN模式(Now News Now),即「現在的新聞現在報」;透納更具體實現學社會學者麥克魯漢(Marshall McLuhan)所言的「地球村」(global village)觀念,尤有甚者,更因CNN的誕生引起學界對於「CNN效應」(CNN effect)的廣泛討論。

因而本論文主要分為兩部分進行探討:其一為透納於報紙之形象呈現;其二則為透納於成就事業過程中所表現出之領導行為。在研究方法的運用上,報紙形象部分採樊迪克(Teun A. Van Dijk)的「新聞論述分析法」 (News Discourse Analysis)作為論述基礎,並選取紐約時報(New York Times)與華盛頓郵報(Washington Post)各二十八則新聞報導進行解構;而領導行為部分,則以傳統領導理論作為論述基礎,並以文獻分析法對文本進行探討。

最後研究發現,就新聞論述分析結果而言,於紐約時報的新聞文本中分析出九個個巨巨命題,亦即九個新聞框架;而華盛頓郵報則解構出十個巨巨命題,亦為新聞框架。其中,有八個新聞框架相同,三個新聞框架相異,並且兩報試圖在建構「媒介真實」時因選擇的消息來源不同而造成在表現出透納形象時產生極大的落差。另外,就領導行為部分而言,因在權力論、特質論、情境論、行為論以及權變論下所揭櫫的核心論點不同,筆者以實例試圖解釋透納在各核心論述下所表現出的領導行為。
英文摘要 Ted Turner, born Robert Edward Turner Ⅲ, launched an era-spanning revolution on media. With his exquisite sight on management, he made Cable News Network a super network much more profitable during the middle of the 19th century than other three U.S. major networks. The definition of news was transformed from TNT (Today News Today) model into NNN (Now News Now) model. Moreover, Turner actualized what Marshall McLuhan called “global village”. In addition, the birth of CNN aroused a comprehensive discussion on “CNN effect” among academic circle.

This thesis focuses on two parts: first, Turner’s image presentation on newspaper; Second, Turner’s leadership behavior. On image presentation, “News Discourse Analysis” from Teun A. Van Dijk is applied. 28 stories are extracted from New York Times and Washington Post respectively. On leadership behavior, traditional leadership theory is the basis approach, along with research on text content.

In conclusion, the results of news discourse analysis show that both elite papers represent the same eight news frames, but still have three different news frames.In addition, because both newspapers choose different resources to construct so called “media reality”, it caused much more different press images of Ted Turner’s. As to leadership, this thesis adopted traditional leadership theory such as power-influence approach, trait approach, behavior approach, situational approach and contingency model to explain Ted Turner’s leadership behaviors.
論文目次 第一章 緒論………………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機…………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究架構、範圍與限制…………………………………… 3
第三節 研究問題與方法…………………………………………… 5

第二章 文獻探討...................................... 14
第一節 形象理論………………………………………………… 14
第二節 領導理論…………………………………………….... 21
第三節 媒體再現與真實建構……………………………….... 32

第三章 報紙形象-新聞論述分析與解釋.................. 43
第一節 紐約時報新聞論述分析......................... 43
第二節 華盛頓郵報新聞論述分析…………………………… 73
第三節 兩家報紙巨巨命題之異同比較……………………. 103

第四章 透納及其領導行為……………………………………. 110
第一節 透納成長背景及其人格特質探究…………………. 110
第二節 領導理論與透納領導行為……………………………. 118
第三節 透納領導績效…………………………………………. 133

第五章 結論……………………………………………………. 141
第一節 研究結果與解釋………………………………………. 141
第二節 未來研究方向之建議…………………………………. 152
參考書目………………………………………………………………153
圖 表 目 錄
圖1-1:新聞論述的主要基模結構………………………………………………… 7
表1-1:新聞基模結構的意涵……………………………………………………… 7
圖1-2:文本的語意巨觀結構……………………………………………………… 9
表2-1:領導的定義................................................................................................... 22
圖2-1:領導效能研究的一般取向………………………………………………… 26
圖2-2:權變領導理論的歷史源流………………………………………………… 30
圖2-3:「權變模式」中三個理論要素的動態交互作用…………………………. 31
圖2-4:索緒爾的「意義的元素」………………………………………………... 34
表3-1:紐約時報與華盛頓郵報的巨巨命題之異同比較表……………………. 103
表4-1:透納人格特質簡表……………………………………………………….. 117
表4-2:透納權力論之領導行為…………………………………………………. 121
表5-1:透納於兩報所呈現出之巨巨命題及細部比較表………………………. 142
表5-2:透納人格特質與領導行為關連表............................................................. 149
參考文獻 參考書目
中文部分
一. 專書
倪炎元。再現的政治:台灣報紙對「他者」建構的論述分析。台北:韋伯文化,民國九十二年。
李美華等合譯,巴比(Earl Babbie)原著。社會科學研究方法。台北:時英出版社,民國八十七年。
李懷超譯,畢博(Porter Bibb)原著。CNN泰德.透納傳奇。台北:智庫文化,民國八十三年。
林振春。人文領導理論研究。台北:師大書苑,民國八十一年。
林芳玫。色情研究:從言論自由到符號擬象。台北:女書文化,民國八十八年。
羅虞村。領導理論研究。台北:文景出版社,民國七十六年。
洪光遠譯,約克(Gary A. Yukl)原著。組織領導。台北:桂冠,民國八十一年。
洪光遠等合譯,普汶(Lawrence A. Pervin)原著。人格心理學。台北:桂冠,民國八十四年。
洪英正等合譯,杜布里(Andrew J. Dubrin)原著。管理心理學。台北:華泰書局,民國八十六年。
簡妙如等合譯,泰勒(Lisa Taylor)等合著。大眾傳播媒體新論。台北:韋伯文化,民國八十八年。
張錦華。媒介文化、意識型態與女性-理論與實例。台北:正中,民國八十三年。
張錦華譯,費斯克(John Fiske)原著。傳播符號學理論。台北:遠流,民國八十四年。
陳玲玲。社會科學研究方法。台北:時英出版社,民國八十七年。
陳慶瑞。費德勒權變領導理論研究。台北:五南,民國七十八年。
陳琇玲譯,芬斯特(Julie M. Fenster)原著。致富的十五個範本:企業巨擘的成功智慧。台北:先覺,民國九十年。
陳義勝。組織行為。台北:華泰書局,民國七十二年。
陳芸芸譯,馬奎爾(Denis McQuail)原著。最新大眾傳播理論。台北:韋伯文化,民國九十年。
臧國仁。新聞媒體與消息來源-媒介框架與真實建構之論述。台北:三民書局,民國八十八年。
楊意菁等合譯,葛羅斯柏格(Lawrence Grossberg)等合著。媒體原理與塑造。台北:韋伯文化,民國九十年。
楊意菁等合譯,瓊斯(Marsha Jones, Emma Jones)等原著。淺說大眾媒介與社會。台北:韋伯文化,民國九十一年。
鄭貞銘。百年報人﹝6﹞跨國媒體大亨。台北:遠流出版公司,民國九十年,頁一六0。
鍾蔚文。從媒介真實到主觀真實-看新聞,怎麼看?看到什麼?。台北:正中書局,民國八十年。
王麗娟譯,派特勒(Louis Patler)原著。預約成功的300種實戰創意。台北:如何出版社,民國八十九年。
余朝權譯,約克(Gary A. Yukl)原著。領導學。台北:天麟文化事業,民國七十二年。
余朝權。現代管理學。台北:五南,民國九十四年。

二. 論文
林家如,「分析柯林頓政府時期美國菁英媒體之兩岸新聞報導--以紐約時報及華盛頓郵報為例」,淡江大學大眾傳播研究所碩士論文,民國九十年。
黃少梅,「前總統李登輝卸任後之媒體形象 以聯合報、中國時報、自由時報三報相關事件報導之分析」,臺灣大學新聞研究所碩士論文,民國九十二年。
錢震宇,「檢視台灣報紙兩岸政治新聞的脈絡與演變-以李登輝執政時期為例」,淡江大學傳播研究所碩士論文,民國九十二年。
許峰勝,「兩岸連鎖餐飲業高績效店舖領導型態異同之研究」,朝陽科技大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民國九十三年。
張秋康,「分析美國菁英媒體對九一一恐怖攻擊事件的新聞報導』。淡江大學傳播研究所碩士論文,民國九十二年。
張美滿,「領導與追隨之命題研究」,朝陽科技大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民 國九十二年。
張永昌,「領導行為理論與實踐」,中山大學政治研究所碩士論文,民國九十二年。
陳信助,「候選人形象研究:以兩千年總統大選候選人連戰、宋楚瑜、陳水扁為例」,淡江大學大眾傳播研究所碩士論文,民國八十九年。
楊意菁,「公共/眾, 民意與媒體再現:以民調報導與談話性節目為例」,政治大學新聞研究所博士論文,民國九十一年。

三. 期刊
範士明。「CNN現象與美國外交」。美國研究,第十三卷第三期,民國八十八年。
戴育賢。「大眾媒體與真實建構:一次現象社會學的探討」。新聞學研究,第四十八期,民國八十三年。
黃昆輝。「教育行政領導理論之分析」。國立師範大學教育研究所集刊,第二十八輯,民國七十五年。
左宜方。「暗渡陳倉-聲東擊西出奇制勝」。決策咨詢,第十二期,民國八十四年。
陳慶瑞、林純文。「費德勒權變領導理論在我國國民中學行政之應用」。屏東師院學報,第14期,民國九十年。
翁秀琪。「我國婦女運動的媒介真實和社會真實」。新聞學研究,第四十八期,民國八十三年。


四. 雜誌
姜敬寬。「搭建地球村」。天下雜誌,第一0七期,民七十九年。

英文部分
(1) 專書
Barthes, R. The Retoric of the Image. London:Fontana, 1997.
Bibb, Porter. It Ain't As Easy As It Looks: Ted Turner's Amazing Story. New York:Crown, 1993.
Friedman M. and Rosenman R. H. Type A Behavior and Your Heart . New York:Alfred A. Knopf, 1974.
Janet Lowe. Ted Turner Speaks: Insight from the World's Greatest Maverick. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1999.
Ken Auletta. Media Man : Ted Turner's Improbable Empire. New York:Norton, 2004.
Merrill, J. C. The Elite Press: Great newspapers of the world. New York: Pitman Publishing Corp, 1968.
Nimmo, Dan and Savage,Robert L. Candidates and Their Images: Concepts, Method, and Findings. Santa Monica, California: Goodyear Publishing, 1976.
Robert Goldberg and Gerald Jay Goldberg. Citizen Turner: The Wild Rise of an American Tycoon. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1995.
Robert L. Kahn and Elise Boulding. "Introduction" to Power and Conflicts in Organizations. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1964.
van Dijk, Teun A. News as Discourse. New Jersey: Erlbaum, 1988.
William E. Rothschild, Risktaker,Caretaker,Surgeon,Undertaker:The Four Faces of Strategic Leadership. New York:John Wiley & Sons,1993.


(2) 期刊
Chakravarty Subrata N.“What New Worlds to Conquer?.”Forbes, vol. 151, April 1, 1993.
Chirstian, B. and P-A. Julien.“Defining the Field of Research in Entrepreneurship.” Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 16, March, 2001.
“Interactive Multideals.”Economist, vol. 328, Aug 21,1993.
McConville Jim.“TCM vs. AMC:The Classic Confrontation.”Broadcasting&Cable, vol. 126, Apr 15,1996.
Painton Priscilla.“The Taming of Ted Turner.”Time, vol. 139, Jan. 6, 1992.
“Prince of the Global Village.”Time, vol. 139, Jan. 6, 1992.
“Turner Broadcasting to Acquire New Line Cinema and Castle Rock.”Corporate Growth Report Weekly, Aug. 23, 1993.
“Turner Publishing to Close Down.” Publishers Weekly, vol. 244, Feb.17, 1997.
Steven Cole Smith.“CNN Grows from Gangly Paperboy to World Figure.”,Journal Record, Apr. 12, 1994.
Valerie M.Hudson.“Birth Order of World Leaders: An Exploratory Analysis of Effects on Personality and Behavior.” Political Psychology, vol. 11, no.3, 1990.

(3) 報紙
1. The New York Times (形象解構文本)
Bill Carter. “Books of The Times;The Story of Ted Turner and CNN” The New York Times, September 3, 1990,p.15.
. “Ted Turner's Time of Discontent” The New York Times, June 6, 1993,p.3.
Daniel F. Cuff. “The Formidable Ted Turner” The New York Times, April 5, 1985,p. D1.
Edmund L. Andrews. “The Media Business;Angry Turner Says He Wants NBC” The New York Times, September 28, 1994,p.D18.
George Vecsey. “Sports of the Times;Ted Turner, Peacemaker” The New York Times, December 6, 1985,p. D21.
Geraldine Fabrikant. “Television's 'Bad Boy' Makes Good” The New York Times, August 14, 1983,p.1.
. “MGM Sale Talks Continuing” The New York Times, August 7, 1985,p. D4.
. “Ted Turner Acquire MGM Movie Empire” The New York Times, August 8, 1985,p. A1.
. “Ted Turner's Screen Test” The New York Times, March 30, 1986,p.1.
. “Some Promising Signs for Turner's Empire” The New York Times, January 23, 1989,p.D1.
. “The Media Business;Turner Broadcasting Fills 2 Top-Level Positions” The New York Times, October 2, 1990,p.D21.
. “The Media Business;Turner Broadcasting In Middle-Age Malaise” The New York Times, October 12, 1990,p.D1.
. “How Ted Turner Plans to Play For a Network” The New York Times, August 21, 1995,p.D1.
Herbert Kohl. “Television;What's the Price of Commercials in Classrooms?” The New York Times, August 13, 1989,p.31.
John J. O'Connor. “TV: The Early Days of 24-Hour News” The New York Times, June 5, 1980,p. C23.
Nancy Marx Better. “The Executive Life;At Graduation, Reality and a Lot of Banality” The New York Times, June 2, 1991,p.23.
Reginald Stuart. “He's Getting Interference” The New York Times, September 13, 1981,p.6.
Reuters. “Turner Plans Latin Network” The New York Times, May 25, 1990, ,p.D14.
. “Turner Channel for Moscow” The New York Times, December 30, 1992, ,p.D15.
. “Europe Plan By Turner” The New York Times, March 9, 1993, ,p.D18.
Sally Bedell Smith. “Ted Turner Challenges TV Networks” The New York Times, October 17, 1982,p.56.
. “Turner Broadcasting to Show Soviet Programs” The New York Times, June 5, 1985,p.C26.
. “Ted Turner Forms a Society to Produce 'Global TV Programming '” The New York Times, June 12, 1985,p. C26.
. “U.S. and Soviet Plan World Games” The New York Times, Auguest 7, 1985,p.A18.
Sturt Diamond. “Music TV Unit Set By Turner” The New York Times, August 30, 1984,p.D15.
“Ted Turner Provokes Protests Over Attack On Foes of Abortion” The New York Times, July 15, 1989,p.8.
“Media Critic Accuses Turner's TBS of Bias” The New York Times, July 22, 1989,p.48.
“Education Units Support Turner's Program” The New York Times, December 19, 1989,p.A24.

2. The Washington Post (形象解構文本)
Angus Phillips. “Turner Retires from Ocean Racing; Turner Quits Racing, Tenacious Up for Sale” The Washington Post, May 12, 1981,p.D1.
Carla Hall. “Turner's Talent Hunt; Cable News Raids the Broadcast Ranks” The Washington Post, April 28, 1980,p.B1.
. “CNN Team Tunes Up” The Washington Post, May 31, 1980,p.C3.
. “Ted and Jane Inc.; in a Merger of Empires, Turner & Fonda Discovered the Power of Love” The Washington Post, May 13, 1991,p.B1.
Charles Trueheart. “Ted Turner Updates Moses; Cable Mogul Delivers Ten 'Ten Initiatives'” The Washington Post, October 31, 1989,p.C1.
David A. Vise. “CBS Chief Slams Turner; Says Broadcaster Lacks 'Conscience' to Own a Network” The Washington Post, March 14, 1985,p.D1.
. “Ted Turner to Buy MGM/UA; 2 Movie Studios' Assets to be Split in $1.5 Billion Deal” The Washington Post, August 6, 1985,p.C1.
. “Murdoch, Turner: a Study in Contrasts; Pursuit of Common Goal Elicits Different Styles” The Washington Post, September 7, 1986,p.H1.
. “CNN's Ted Turner Stays Cool While being Roasted Well” The Washington Post, September 20, 1986,p.D2.
Eleanor Randolph. “Turner Built Empire Bucking Establishment 'He Shouldn't be Underestimated'” The Washington Post, April 19, 1985,p.F1.
Gary Lee. “Goodwill Games Open Without U.S. Boxers; Turner Calls Event 'Model' for Global Relations” The Washington Post, July 5, 1986,p.C1.
Jacqueline Trescott. “CNN's Ted Turner, Front and Center” The Washington Post, July 18, 1988,p.B1.
James A. Miller. The Washington Post, January 16, 1981,p.C2.
Judy Mann. “Stand by Your Women” The Washington Post, December 7, 1994,p.C26.
Mark Potts. “2 More Music Channels Planned; Announcements Come on Eve of MTV's Public Stock Offering” The Washington Post, August 10, 1984,p.E1.
. and Elizabeth Tucker. “Turner Plans Takeover of a Network” The Washington Post, March 2, 1985,p.A1.
Michael Schrage, and David A. Vise. “Murdoch, Turner Launch Era of Global Television; Deregulation, Technology Help in Reshaping Industry” The Washington Post, August 31, 1986,p. H1.
Merrill Brown. “Turner and Jackson Go at It” The Washington Post, June 21, 1982,p.C1.
. “The Great Cable TV War! ABC-Westinghouse's SNC Takes on Ted Turner's CNN Today” The Washington Post, June 21, 1982,p.C1.
. “Ted Turner's TV Dream Edges Toward Profit” The Washington Post, April 24, 1983,p.F1.
. “Ted Turner Plans Bid for ESPN” The Washington Post, April 7, 1984,p.D6.
Paul Farhi. “Turner Says Network Deal being Blocked ; Time Warner Accused of Barring Purchase” The Washington Post, September 28, 1994,p.F3.
Peter Collier. “Captain of the Airwaves” The Washington Post, July 16, 1995,p.X3.
Stephanie Zaharoudis. The Washington Post, October 31, 1981,p.C2.
Tom Shales. “Ted Turner's Nonstop Gamble: CNN Sets Sail;In Arlington, the Show” The Washington Post, June 2, 1980,p.D1.
Tony Kornheiser. “On This Games Show, the Viewers Lose” The Washington Post, July 17, 1986,p.D1.
Sally Quinn. “Who Killed Feminism? ;Hypocritical Movement Leaders Betrayed Their Own Cause” The Washington Post, January 19, 1992,p.C1.
William Safire. “On Language; a Foreign Affair” The Washington Post, April 7, 1991,p.14.



3. 其他(報紙)
Charles Haddad.“CNN May Join Sports Magazine in Cable Channel” Atlanta Journal and Constitution, Feb. 16, 1996,p.F1.
.“CNN Announces Deal to Enhance Web Site,” Atlanta Journal and Constitution, June 5, 1997,p.E3.
.“Turner to Draw 'Line in Sand' in Media War” Atlanta Journal and Constitution, Sep. 28, 1990, p.A1.
Gary Lee. “Soviets, Turner Put Finishing Touches on Goodwill Effort” The Washington Post, June 2, 1986,p.C10.
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