淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)

系統識別號 U0002-0812201011512100
中文論文名稱 語言分佈微觀:台語方言地理研究
英文論文名稱 The Microscopic View of Language Distribution: Dialect Geographical Studies in Taiwanese
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 葉尚芳
研究生英文姓名 Ivy Shang-fang Yeh
學號 895110210
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-12-01
論文頁數 175頁
口試委員 指導教授-卜溫仁
中文關鍵字 台灣閩南語  去塞擦音  掃帚(詞彙研究)  媽祖  阿爾奈-湯普森分類法 
英文關鍵字 Taiwan Southern Min  de-affrication  broom (word study)  Mazu  Aarne-Thompson-Uther classification 
中文摘要 本論文是根據428位田野訪談做成,和閩南語詞彙與民間故事有關。所有的閩南語語料都被轉寫為教會羅馬拼音和國際音標。每位發音人的七個背景因素皆納入研究考量,包括年齡、性別、教育程度、職業、種族、語言背景、和遷移史。本論文分成三部份:(一)、台灣西南部的語音變異研究 (二)、閩南語和客語地區的詞彙分佈研究 (三)、民間故事類型分析。這樣的研究組合和語言學傳統研究一致。
250 位訪談,發音人多半來自雲林縣、嘉義縣、台南縣。「掃帚」主要有七種發音:sàu-chíu, sàu-chhíu, chhàu-síu, chhàu-chíu, thàu-chíu(第二型的去塞擦音), chràu-chhíu (過度國語化), sàu-síu (第一型的去塞擦音)。
法,媽祖的故事可被歸類為第705 和513 型,並符合湯普森的八個主題。這對台灣故事類型索引是一大貢獻。
英文摘要 The dissertation is based on 428 fieldwork interviews and is concerned with Taiwan Southern Min lexicon and narrative. All Southern Min data has been transcribed in Church Romanization and the International Phonetic Alphabet. An informant background database was queried for seven factors (age, sex, education, occupation, ethnic identity, language background, and residential history). The work is divided into three separate parts, i.e. a study of phonetic variation in southwest Táiwān, a lexical distribution study for select Southern Min and Hakka zones, and a classification and analysis of a popular cycle of folktales. This combination of research interests is in line with the philological tradition.
The first part is an analysis of de-affrication among some Southern Mǐn speakers in Táinán County; data from 161 interviews were extracted in this case. The phenomenon involves informants who are male, elderly, and of limited education, who sporadically produce sibilants where affricates would have been expected. For example, 手 (Mandarin shǒu ‘hand’) is usually pronounced in the area concerned as [t˛Hiu9i], but some informants respond with [˛iu9i].
The second part is a dialect geographical study of Southern Min and Hakka expressions for ‘broom’, based on more than 250 interviews mostly from Yúnlín, Jiāyì, and Táinán counties. The common TSM ‘broom’ word has seven variants in the tri-county area: sàu-chíu, sàu-chhíu, chhàu-síu, chhàu-chíu, thàu-chíu (type-2 de-affrication), chràu-chhíu (hypermandarinism), sàu-síu (type-1 de-affrication).
The third part of the dissertation is an attempt to identify the tale types and their motifs for the Māzǔ cycle of narratives on the island; 14 informant narratives are supplemented by various literary versions. Most of the narratives can be designated as a combination of tale types 705 and 513 within the Aarne-Thompson-Uther
classification system for folktales; eight of Thompson’s motifs seem to fit the Māzǔ cycle. These assignments are an important contribution to a specifically Taiwan tale
type index.
論文目次 Part I: Beyond Guānmiào 1
§1. Introduction. 2
§2. Seven background factors 4
§2.1. Age 4
§2.2. Education 5
§2.3. Language background 6
§2.4. Gender 6
§2.5. Occupation 7
§2.6. Ethnic zone 8
§2.7. Geography & residential history 9
§3. Five items showing de-affrication 9
§3.1. Responses to item 188 ‘tree’ {102} 10
§3.2. Responses to item 146 ‘broom’ {93} 11
§3.3. Responses to item 132 ‘flashlight’ {153} 12
§3.4. Responses to item 068 ‘elbow’ {72} 15
§3.5 Responses to item 024 ‘water buffalo’ {116} 21
§4. Summary: Variable rates of de-affrication 22
§5. Causation 23
§5.1. Internal development 23
§5.1.1. Spontaneous phonetic change 24
§5.1.2. Diffusion of literary initials to colloquial initials 25
§5.2. External influence 25
§6. Conclusion 25
§7. Checklists 27
§7.1. Tree raw data checklist 27
§7.2. Broom raw data checklist 32
§7.3. Flashlight raw data checklist 37
§7.4. Elbow raw data checklist 43
§7.5. Water buffalo raw data checklist 48
Part II: Mapping Taiwanese 'broom' 55
§8. Introduction 56
§9. Taiwanese & Hakka 'broom' 57
§10. TSM 'broom' words 57
§11. λ1a Sàu-chíu {93} 58
§12. λ1b Sàu-chhíu {64} 59
§13. λ1c Chhàu-síu {10} 61
§14. λ1g Sàu-síu {92} 61
§15. λ1d Chhàu-chíu {1}, λ1e Thàu-chíu {1}, λ1f Chràu-chhíu {1}, and Mandarin λ3a Sàobǎ {2} 62
§16. λ2 Sàu-se {4} 63
§17. Hakka λ3b Sàu-pá {29} 64
§18. Checklist 66
§18.1. Broom raw data checklist 66
§18.2. Informant background factors for parts I & II 81
§18.3. Informant residential history and map locator for parts I & II 88
Part III: Folktale: Māzǔ 98
§19. Introduction 99
§20. Primary data 99
§20.1. Southern Min texts of Mazu 99
§20.1.1. Mz01 99
§20.1.2. Mz02 103
§20.1.3. Mz03 104
§20.1.4. Mz04 108
§20.1.5. Mz05 111
§20.1.6. Mz06 114
§20.1.7. Mz07 115
§20.1.8. Mz08 118
§20.1.9. Mz09 120
§20.1.10. Mz10 123
§20.1.11. Mz11 128
§20.1.12. Mz12 132
§20.1.13. Mz13 134
§20.1.14. Mz14 137
§21. Secondary sources 140
§22. Pragmatic factors 141
§22.1. Informant background 141
§23. The Finnish method in Taiwan 142
§23.1. Mazu’s name 143
§23.2. Mazu’s birthday 143
§23.3. Mazu’s birth place 143
§23.4. Mazu’s parents 143
§23.5. Number of Mazu’s siblings 144
§23.6. Before Mazu was born 144
§23.7. When Mazu was born 144
§23.8. Mazu’s parents’ attitude when they first saw the baby Mazu 145
§23.9. When Mazu was a child 145
§23.10. When Mazu was a teenager 146
§23.11. When Mazu was alive, she overcame challenges 148
§23.12. Mazu’s love affairs 149
§23.13. Mazu’s marital status 149
§23.14. Religious sects laying claim to Mazu 149
§23.15. Mazu’s age at death and date of death 149
§23.16. How Mazu died 150
§23.17. When Mazu died 151
§23.18. Mazu’s miracles 151
§23.19. How Xuántōng Taoist priest (玄通道士) treated Mazu 156
§23.20. The relationship between Mazu and Bǎoshēng Dàdì (保生大帝) 156
§23.21. The relationship between Mazu and Guānyīn (觀音) 157
§23.22. Mazu statues’ colors 157
§24. Assigning the tale-type code 158
§24.1. Principal motifs 158
§25. Composite version 159
References 162
參考文獻 Aarne, Antti & Stith Thompson. 1961². The Types of the Folktale, a Classification and Bibliography. FFC no. 184.
Âng, Uî-jîn (洪惟仁 Hóng Wéirén). 2009. 「台湾の言語地理学はどこまで進んだか?」(To what degree has Taiwan’s dialectology developed into?). Presented at the 2009 年天理台灣學會第19 回研究大會. Japan: Tenri University 天理大學.
———— & Jiǎn Xiùméi (簡秀梅). 2007. “Guānmiào Fāngyán Qū ‘Chūguīshí’Xiànxiàngde Jiàncéng Fēnbù: Yíge Shèhuì Dìlǐ Fāngyánxué Yánjiù” (The de-affrication phenomenon’s strata distribution in Guanmiao dialect area: a
socio-geolinguistic study, 關廟方言區「出歸時」現象的漸層分佈:一個社會地理方言學研究). Presented at the International Symposium on Microscopic Views of Language Distribution. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
————. 1992. Táiwān Fāngyán zhī Lǚ (Wanderings of the Taiwanese Dialects, 台灣方言之旅). Taipei: Qiánwèi 前衛出版社.
————. (no date). Fāngyán Diàochá Zìbiǎo, Mǐnnányǔ (Dialect Survey Character tables, Southern Min, 方言調查字表,閩南語). Academia Sinica, Institute of History and Philology. (Ms.)
Ashliman, D. L. 1987. A Guide to Folktales in the English Language, based on the Aarne-Thompson Classification System. New York: Greenwood Press.
Barclay, Thomas (巴克禮). 1923. Supplement to Dictionary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of Amoy. Shanghai: Commercial Press. (Combined with Douglas 1873)
Brewer, Warren A. 2008. Mapping Taiwanese. Language and Linguistics Monograph Series A17. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
Brewer, Warren A. (卜溫仁 Pǔ Wēnrén) & Ivy Shangfang Yeh (葉尚芳 Yè Shàngfāng). 2000. “Folk Narrative in the Classroom”. The Proceedings of the International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching in the Age of
Globalization. (淡江大學國際化時代之外語教學國際會議). Taipei, March 21-22, 2000, pp.141-155.
Cài, Dīngcái (蔡丁財). (ed.). 1993. Guǐyǒu Nián Běishànwěi Yíng Māzǔ, Lù’ěrmén Tiānhòu Gōng Wénhuà Jì (The Ceremony of Worshiping Matsu at Peishawei,“The Culture Season” 1993, Luerhmen Tian-Ho Temple [sic], 癸酉年北汕尾迎
媽祖‧鹿耳門天后宮文化季). Táinán: Táinán Lù’ěrmén Tiānhòu Gōng Wénjiào Gōngyì Jījīnhuì 台南鹿耳門天后宮文教公益基金會.
Cài, Xiānghuī (蔡相煇). 2006. Māzǔ Xìnyǎng Yánjiù (The Study of Mazu’s Belief,媽祖信仰研究). Taipei: Showwe Information Co., Ltd. [sic] 秀威資訊科技股份有限公司.
————. 1989. Táiwān-de Wángyé yǔ Māzǔ (Taiwan’s Wangye and Mazu, 台灣的王爺與媽祖). Taipei: Táiyuán 臺原出版社.
Cài, Xiǎolíng (蔡小玲). (drama producer). Hǎi zhī Chuánshuō—Lín Muòniáng, Māzǔ Chuánqí (Shàng) (The Legend of Sea—Lin Muoniang, Mazu’s Legend, Part One, 海之傳說—林默娘,媽祖傳奇(上)). Retrieved 20090716 from:
————. Hǎi zhī Chuánshuō—Lín Muòniáng, Māzǔ Chuánqí (Xià) (The Legend of Sea—Lin Muoniang, Mazu’s Legend, Part Two, 海之傳說—林默娘,媽祖傳奇(下)). Retrieved 20090716 from:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5v8E4qdl8KQ&feature=related
Cáo, Zhìyún (曹志耘). (chief compiler). 2008. Hànyǔ Fāngyán Dìtú Jí (Linguistic Atlas of Chinese Dialects, 汉语方言地图集). Běijīng: Commercial Press.
Chén, Jié (陳潔). Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (1): Guānyú Lín Muòniáng-de Lìshǐ Kè (New Mazu’s Legend (1): History Class about Lin Muoniang, 新媽祖傳奇(1):關於林默娘的歷史課). Retrieved 20090727 from:http://www.minghui-school.org/school/article/2009/4/3/77029.html
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (2): Māzǔ Shí hàn Qípánzǐ (New Mazu’s Legend (2): Mazu Stone and Chessmen, 新媽祖傳奇(2):媽祖石和棋盤子).Retrieved 20090727 from:http://www.minghui-school.org/school/article/2009/4/4/77030.html
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (4): Liǎngge Xiǎoyāo-de Gùshì (New Mazu’s Legend (4): Stories about Two Little Devils, 新媽祖傳奇(4):兩個小妖的故事).Retrieved 20090727 from:
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (5): Liǎngge Xiǎoyāo-de Gùshì (New Mazu’s Legend (5): Stories about Two Little Devils, 新媽祖傳奇(5):兩個小妖的故事).
Retrieved 20090727 from:http://www.minghui-school.org/school/article/2009/4/7/77105.html
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (6): Liǎngge Xiǎoyāo-de Gùshì (New Mazu’s Legend (6): Stories about Two Little Devils, 新媽祖傳奇(6):兩個小妖的故事).
Retrieved 20090727 from:http://www.minghui-school.org/school/article/2009/4/8/77106.html
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (7): Shítóulǎo Jiǎng-de Liǎng Yāo Gǎiguòzìxīn-de Gùshì (New Mazu’s Legend (7): Stories about Two Devils’Repentance and Reformation from Shitoulao, 新媽祖傳奇(7):石頭佬講的兩妖
改過自新的故事). Retrieved 20090727 from: http://www.minghui-school.org/school/article/2009/4/9/77107.html
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (8): Zhāng Fúbǎo hàn Lǐ Qiǎo’ér (New Mazu’s Legend (8): Zhang Fubao and Li Qiao’er, 新媽祖傳奇(8):張福寶和李巧兒).
Retrieved 20090727 from:
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (9): Hǎitáng Huāyǐng Yuèyuán Shí (New Mazu’s Legend (9): When There Are a Full Moon and Shadows of Begonias, 新媽祖傳
奇(9):海棠花影月圓時). Retrieved 20090727 from:
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (11): Shítóulǎo Jiǎng-de
Māzǔ-de Gùshì (New Mazu’s Legend (11): Mazu Stories from Shitoulao, 新媽祖傳奇(11):石頭佬講的媽祖的故事). Retrieved 20090727 from:
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (12): Shítóulǎo Jiǎng-de
Māzǔ-de Gùshì (New Mazu’s Legend (12): Stories from Shitoulao, 新媽祖傳奇
(12):石頭佬講的媽祖的故事). Retrieved 20090727 from:
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (14): Shùnfēng’ěr hàn Qiānlǐyǎn Jiǎng-de
Māzǔ-de Gùshì (New Mazu’s Legend (14): Stories from Shunfeng’er and
Qianliyan, 新媽祖傳奇(14):順風耳和千里眼講的媽祖的故事). Retrieved
20090727 from:
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (15): Shùnfēng’ěr hàn Qiānlǐyǎn Jiǎng-de
Māzǔ-de Gùshì (New Mazu’s Legend (15): Stories from Shunfeng’er and
Qianliyan, 新媽祖傳奇(15):順風耳和千里眼講的媽祖的故事). Retrieved
20090727 from:
————. Xīn Māzǔ Chuánqí (16): Shùnfēng’ěr hàn Qiānlǐyǎn Jiǎng-de
Māzǔ-de Gùshì (New Mazu’s Legend (16): Stories from Shunfeng’er and
Qianliyan, 新媽祖傳奇(16):順風耳和千里眼講的媽祖的故事). Retrieved
20090716 from:
Chén, Shèngtáng (陳聖堂). (ed.). 2002. Táibě Xiàn Zōngjiào Yìshù Jié (Religion and
Art Festival in Taipei County, 台北縣宗教藝術節). Taipei: Taipei Co. Cultural
Affairs Bureau 台北縣政府文化局.
Chén, Shìxián (陳仕賢). 2006. Táiwān-de Māzǔ Miào (Mazu Temples in Taiwan, 台
灣的媽祖廟). Taipei: Yuǎnzú Wénhuà Ltd. 遠足文化事業股份有限公司.
Chén, Shújuān (陳淑娟). 1995. Guānmiào Fāngyán Chūguīshí-de Yánjiù (The Study
of De-affrication Phenomenon in Guānmiào Dialect, 關廟方言出歸時的研究).
National Taiwan University M.A. thesis.
Chén, Xiū (陳修) & Chén Wénjīng (陳文晶). (eds.). 1991. Táiwānhuà Dàcídiǎn,
Mǐnnánhuà Zhāngquán Èr Qiāngxì Bùfèn (Taiwanese Dictionary, the Zhangzhou
and Quanzhou Dialects of Southern Min, 臺灣話大辭典,閩南話漳泉二腔系部
份). Taipei: Yuǎnliú 遠流出版公司.
Cheng, Chinchuan (鄭錦全 Zhèng Jǐnquán). 2007. “Yǔyán Fēnbù Wéiguān yǔ
Rénjiān Jiāojì Hóngguān” (Microscopic Views of Language Distribution and
Macroscopic Views of Human Relationship, 語言分布微觀與人間交際宏觀).
Presented at the International Symposium on Microscopic Views of Language
Distribution. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
Chéng, Dàchéng (程大城). 1955. Māzǔ Zhuàn (The Biography of Mazu, 媽祖傳).
Taipei: Xīnrén 新人出版社.
Chien, Hsiumei (簡秀梅 Jiǎn Xiùméi). 2006. Guānmiào Fāngyán Qū ‘Chūguīshí’
Zìlèi Huítóu Yǎnbiàn-zhī Dìlǐ yǔ Shèhuì Fāngyánxué Yánjiù (The geographical
and social dialectology study on the retrograding of tsh→s category in
Kuan-miau dialect of Southern Min in Taiwan [sic], 關廟方言區「出歸時」字
類回頭演變之地理與社會方言學研究). National Kaohsiung Normal
University M.A. thesis.
Chiu, Kunliang (邱坤良 Qiū Kūnliáng), Shih Jufang (施如芳 Shī Rúfāng), Chang
Hsiuling (張秀玲 Zhāng Xiùlíng), Nan Suching (藍素婧 Lán Sùjìng), Hao
Yuhsiang (郝譽翔 Hǎo Yùxiáng). 2002. Yílán Xiàn Kǒuchuán Wénxué Shàngcè
(I-lan Oral Literature [sic], Book One, 宜蘭縣口傳文學上冊). Yílán: Yílán Co.
Government 宜蘭縣政府.
Clarkson, Atelia & Gilbert B. Cross. 1980. World Folktales, a Scribner Resource
Collection. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Douglas, Carstairs (杜嘉德 Dù Jiādé). 1873. Chinese-English Dictionary of the
Vernacular or Spoken Language of Amoy, with the Principal Variations of the
Chang-chew and Chin-chew Dialects. London: Trübner & Co.
Eberhard, Wolfram (艾伯華 Ài Bóhuá). 1999. Zhōngguó Mínjiān Gùshì
Lèixíng (Chinese Folktale Types), translated by Wáng Yànshēng & Zhōu
Zǔshēng. Běijīng: Shāngwù Yìnshū Guǎn.
————. 1972. The Taiwanese Ballads, A Catalogue, Asian Folklore and Social Life
Monographs, v. 22. The Orient Cultural Service, Taipei; 1974 reprint, The
Chinese Association for Folklore.
————. 1971. Studies in Taiwanese Folktales (Táiwān Mínjiān Gùshì Yánjiù, 臺灣民間故事研究). Asian Folklore and Social Life Monographs, v. 1. The Orient
Cultural Service, Taipei; 1974 reprint, The Chinese Association for Folklore.
————. (ed.). 1965 (rev.). Folktales of China. University of Chicago Press.
Embree, Bernard L.M. 1973. A Dictionary of Southern Min. Hong Kong Language
Fàn, Hóngwěi (范宏緯). 2008. Liǎng’àn Mínjiān Xìnyǎng Jiāoliú zhī Yánjiù: Yǐ Mǐn
Tái Māzǔ Jiāoliú Huódòng Wéi Lì (Study of Cross-strait civilian communication
in Religion – Interflow of Matsu Culture between Fujian and Taiwan [sic], 兩岸
民間信仰交流之研究—以閩台媽祖交流活動為例). Tamkang University M.A.
Francis, Winthrop Nelson. 1983. Dialectology, an Introduction. London & New York:
Guō, Jīnrùn (郭金潤). (ed.). 1988. Dàjiǎ Māzǔ Jìnxiāng (Dajia Mazu Goes on
Pilgrimage, 大甲媽祖進香). Táizhōng: Táizhōng Co. Cultural Center 台中縣
Guō, Qìngwén (郭慶文). (ed.). 1989. Běigǎng Māzǔ Xiǎnshèng Lù (The Records of
Beigang Mazu’s Devine Manifestation, 北港媽祖顯聖錄). Yúnlín: Běigǎng
Cháotiān Gōng 北港朝天宮.
HFC. 1964. Hànyǔ Fāngyīn Cíhuì. Běijīng University Chinese Dept. Běijīng: Wénzì
Gǎigé Chūbǎnshè.
HFZ². 2003². Hànyǔ Fāngyīn Zìhuì, ed. by Lǐ Shǒuyè 李守業. Běijīng: Wénzì Gǎigé
Hsieh, Chiao-min. 1964. Taiwan–Ilha Formosa, a Geography in Perspective. Taipei.
Hú, Wànchuān (胡萬川) & Wáng Zhèngxióng (王正雄). (eds.). 1998. Dà’ān Xiāng
Mǐnnányǔ Gùshì Jí (Èr) (Southern Min Story Collection from Da’an Village
(Part Two), 大安鄉閩南語故事集(二)), Táizhōng Xiàn Mínjiān Wénxué Jí v. 29
(Taizhong Co. Folk Literature Collection 29, 臺中縣民間文學集29). Táizhōng:
Táizhōng Co. Cultural Center 臺中縣立文化中心.
Huáng, Chénchún (黃晨淳). 2005. Māzǔ-de Gùshì (The Story of Mazu, 媽祖的故
事). Táizhōng: Hǎodú 好讀出版有限公司.
Huáng, Dīngshèng (黃丁盛). 2007. Gēnzhe Māzǔ Qù Lǚxíng (Travel with Mazu,
跟著媽祖去旅行). Taipei: Qíngyì Wénfāng 晴易文坊.
Huáng, Yùshí (黃玉石). 1994. Lín Muòniáng, Māzǔ Chuánqí (Lin Muoniang, Mazu’s
Legend, 林默娘‧媽祖傳奇). Taipei: Guójìcūn Wénkù Shūdiàn 國際村文庫書
Huáng, Zhèngxióng (黃正雄). (chairman of the board). (no date). Guāndù Gōng
Jiǎnjiè (Introduction to Guandu Temple, 關渡宮簡介). Taipei: Guāndù Temple.
Hudson, R.A. 1980. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press.
Ikeda, Hiroko. 1971. A Type and Motif Index of Japanese Folk-Literature. FFC, no.
IPA ’49. 1949. The Principles of the International Phonetic Association. London.
IPA ’99. 1999. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: a guide to the use
of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge University Press.
Jīn, Rónghuá (金榮華). 2000. Pénghú Xiàn Mínjiān Gùshì (Penghu Co. Folktales, 澎
湖縣民間故事). Taipei: Zhōngguó Kǒuchuán Wénxué Xuéhuì 中國口傳文學學
Ko, Kingyi (柯金儀 Kē Jīnyí), Hsieh Shuhsien (謝書賢 Xiè Shūxián) & Hou Yating
(侯雅婷 Hóu Yǎtíng). (eds.). 2004. Legendary Kaohsiung [sic] (傳說高雄).
Kaohsiung: Information Office, Kaohsiung City Government.
Kubler, Cornelius. 1985. “The Influence of Southern Min on the Mandarin of
Taiwan.” Anthropological Linguistics, v.27, pp.156-176.
Lǐ, Lùlù (李露露). 2003. Māzǔ Shényùn—Cóng Mínnǚ Dào Hǎishén (Mazu’s
Verve—From Human Girl to Sea Goddess, 媽祖神韻—從民女到海神). Běijīng:
Xuéyuàn 學苑出版社.
Lǐ, Xiànzhāng (李獻章). (ed.). 1989. Táiwān Mínjiān Wénxué Jí (Taiwan Folktale
Literary Collection, 臺灣民間文學集). Taipei: Lóngwén 龍文出版社.
Lǐ, Xíhuí (李錫回). (ed.). 2002. Rénwǔ Nián Méizhōu Māzǔ Xún’ān Jīnmén Jìyào
(Notes of Meizhou Mazu’s Visiting Jinmen in 2002, 壬午年湄洲媽祖巡安金門
紀要). Jīnmén: Jīnmén Co. Government 金門縣政府.
Lǐ, Yuèxūn (李岳勳). 1986. Wǎnggǎng Māzǔ (Wanggang Mazu, 魍港媽祖). Jiāyì:
Wéngǎng Tàishèng Gōng Guǎnlǐ Wěiyuánhuì 蚊港太聖宮管理委員會.
Lián, Héng (連橫). 1964. Táiwān Yǔdiǎn (Taiwan Dictionary 台灣語典). Taipei:
Zhōnghuá Cóngshū Wěiyuánhuì 中華叢書委員會.
Lien, Chinfa (連金發 Lián Jīnfā). 2005. “Phonological and Lexical Strata in
Taiwanese Southern Min.” POLA Forever. Language & Linguistics Monograph
Series no. W-3. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
Lín, Lí (林藜). 1995. Táiwān Mínjiān Chuánqí 8 (Taiwan Folk Legends 8, 台灣民間
傳奇8). Taipei: Dàotián 稻田出版有限公司.
Lín, Měiróng (林美容). 2001. The Historical Origins of Matsu in Taiwan (台灣媽祖
的歷史淵源). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Lín, Míngyù (林明峪). 1980. Māzǔ Chuánshuō (The Legend of Mazu, 媽祖傳說).
Taipei: Liányǎ 聯亞出版社.
Lín, Zhèngzhāng (林政璋). 2003. Táiwān yǔ Fújiàn Méizhōu Māzǔ Jìnxiāng Jiāoliú
Yánjiù (A study on interchange of worshipping godless of the sea between
Taiwan and Fukien province [sic], 台灣與福建湄洲媽祖進香交流研究).
Tamkang University M.A. thesis.
Luke-Skywalker. Māzǔ-de Gùshì (Shàng) (The Story of Mazu, Part One, 媽祖的故
事(上)). Retrieved 20090716 from: http://blog.udn.com/Luke822/2765544
————. Māzǔ-de Gùshì (Xià) (The Story of Mazu, Part Two, 媽祖的故
事(下)). Retrieved 20090716 from: http://blog.udn.com/Luke822/2768789
Macgowan, John. 1883. English and Chinese Dictionary of the Amoy Dialect.
London: Trübner & Co.
MacIver, Donald. 1926². A Chinese-English Dictionary, Hakka Dialect, as spoken in
Kwang-tung Province. Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press. [rev. by M.C.
Maryknolls, The. 1979. English-Amoy Dictionary. Hóng Huìzhòng (洪惠眾). (ed.).
Taichung: Maryknoll Language Service Center, Taiwan [Revised 1995].
————. 1976. Amoy-English Dictionary. Taichung: Maryknoll Language
Service Center, Taiwan.
Mz1. Tiānhòu Māzǔ (Mazu Queen of Heaven, 天后媽祖). Retrieved 20090716
from: http://www.greatchinese.com/gods/mazu.htm
Mz2. Māzǔ (媽祖). Retrieved from Chinese Wikipedia 20090716:
Mz3. Māzǔ-de Yóulái (The Origin of Mazu, 媽祖的由來). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Mz4. Māzǔ-de Gùshì (The Story of Mazu, 媽祖的故事). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Mz5. Dì Sān Dānyuán, Māzǔ-de Gùshì (Yī) (Unit Three, The Story of Mazu, Part
One, 第三單元,媽祖的故事(一)). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Mz6. Dì Sì Dānyuán, Māzǔ-de Gùshì (Èr) (Unit Four, The Story of Mazu, Part Two,
第四單元,媽祖的故事(二)). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Mz7. Māzǔ-de Gùshì (The Story of Mazu, 媽祖的故事). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Mz8. Chuánshuō Gùshì (The Legend, 傳說故事). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Mz9. Māzǔ Chuánshuō (The Legend of Mazu, 媽祖傳說). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Mz10. Māzǔ-de Gùshì (The Story of Mazu, 媽祖的故事). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Mz11. Māzǔ Quán Jìlù (Mazu’s Complete Record, 媽祖全記錄). Retrieved
20090716 from: http://web.htps.tn.edu.tw/96c2/theme01.htm
Mz12. Māzǔ Xiǎo Gùshì (Mazu’s Little Story, 媽祖小故事). Retrieved
20090716 from:
Mz13. Māzǔ Língyàn Chuánqí (1/5): Dìyī Wèi Huárén Chóngbài-de Hǎishén (The
Miraculous Legend of Mazu (1/5): The First Sea Goddess Worshipped by
Chinese, 媽祖靈驗傳奇 (1/5):第一位華人崇拜的海神). Retrieved 20090726
Mz14. Māzǔ Língyàn Chuánqí (2/5): Tiānshàng Shèngmǔ Gè Miàomíng-de Yuányóu
(The Miraculous Legend of Mazu (2/5): The Holy Mother of Heaven and Temple
Onomastics, 媽祖靈驗傳奇 (2/5):天上聖母各廟名的緣由). Retrieved
20090726 from:
Mz15. Māzǔ Língyàn Chuánqí (3/5): Māzǔ, Qiānlǐyǎn yǔ Shùnfēng’ěr (The
Miraculous Legend of Mazu (3/5): Mazu, Qianliyan and Shunfeng’er, 媽祖靈驗
傳奇 (3/5):媽祖、千里眼與順風耳). Retrieved 20090726 from:
Mz16. Māzǔ Língyàn Chuánqí (4/5): Wàidǎo Kǎyīn, Shénlì Qū Yuānhún (The
Miraculous Legend of Mazu (4/5): Goddess’ Power Drives Away Devils that Pester Humans, 媽祖靈驗傳奇 (4/5):外島卡陰,神力驅冤魂). Retrieved
20090726 from:
Mz17. Māzǔ Língyàn Chuánqí (5/5): Cháobài Māzǔ Wǔ Jìnjì (The
Miraculous Legend of Mazu (5/5): Five Taboos of Worshipping Mazu, 媽祖靈
驗傳奇 (5/5):朝拜媽祖五禁忌). Retrieved 20090726 from:
Mz18. Táiwān Jiésú—Māzǔ Chūshēn Chuánshuō (Taiwan’s Customs—Mazu’s
Legend, 台灣節俗—媽祖出身傳說). Retrieved 20090727 from:
Mz19. Tiānhòu Māzǔ (Mazu Queen of Heaven, 天后媽祖). Retrieved 20090727
from: http://tw.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/question?qid=1005022007347
New Light Association (新光社). 1911. Rìběn Dìlǐ Fēngsú Xì 15 Táiwān (The
Geography and Customs of Japan, 日本地理風俗系15台灣). Tokyo [map p.
170 entitled “台灣在籍漢民族分布圖, Map of the distribution of Han people
residing in Taiwan”].
Norman, J. 1988. Chinese. Cambridge University Press. 2nd ed. 1991.
Ogawa, Naoyoshi (小川尚義), et al. 1907. Nittai-Tai Jiten (Japanese-Taiwanese
Dictionary, Tokyo; 1931-32). Tai-Nittai Jiten (Taiwanese-Japanese Dictionary,
Pullum, Geoffrey K., & William A. Ladusaw. 1996². Phonetic Symbol Guide.
University of Chicago Press.
Qīngliángshān (清涼山). Māzǔ-de Gùshì (The Story of Mazu, 媽祖的故事).
Retrieved 20090716 from: http://blog.yam.com/funtemple/article/12893325
Samuels, Michael L. 1972. Linguistic Evolution with Special Reference to English.
Cambridge University Press [Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 5].
Shěn, Fùjìn (沈富進). 1954. Huìyīn Bǎojiàn (Vocabulary Thesaurus, 彙音寶鑑).
Jiāyì: Wényì Xuéshè 文藝學社.
Shì, Hòuzhòng (釋厚重). 2005. Guānyīn yǔ Māzǔ (Guanyin and Mazu, 觀音與媽
祖). Taipei: Dàotián 稻田出版有限公司.
Shí, Wànshòu (石萬壽). 2000. Táiwān-de Māzǔ Xìnyǎng (Taiwan’s Belief in Mazu,
台灣的媽祖信仰). Taipei: Táiyuán 臺原出版社.
Sū, Jùnyuán (蘇俊源). 2008. Tiānshàng Shèngmǔ Jīng Báihuà Jiěshì (Colloquial
Explanation of the Holy Mother of Heaven Prayers, 天上聖母經白話解釋).
Taipei: Duōshìjiè Túshū Wénhuà Ltd. 多識界圖書文化有限公司.
Táng, Shìguì (唐世貴). 2006. Māzǔ—Hǎishàng-de Bǎohùshén (Mazu—the Sea
Goddess, 媽祖—海上的保護神). Taipei: Jiǔyòudá Wénhuà Ltd. 久佑達文化事
Thompson, Stith. 1955-58 (rev.). The Motif-Index of Folk-Literature, a Classification
of Narrative Elements in Folk Tales, Ballads, Myths, Fables, Mediaeval
Romances, Exempla, Fabliaux. Indiana University Press.
Ting, Naitung (丁乃通 Dīng Nǎitōng). 1978. A Type Index of Chinese Folktales in
the Oral Tradition and Major Works of Non-Religious Classical Literature, FFC
no. 223.
————. 1983. Zhōngguó Mínjiān Gùshì Lèixíng Suǒyǐn (Chinese Folktale Types
Index), translated by Mèng Huìyīng, Dǒng Xiǎopíng, Lǐ Yáng. Shěnyáng:
Chūnfēng Wényì Chūbǎnshè.
Uther, Hans-Jörg. 2004. The Types of International Folktales, a Classification and
Bibliography based on the system of Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson. Helsinki:
Academia Scientiarum Fennica. (FFC vol. cxxxiii, no. 284, Part I: Animal Tales,
Tales of Magic, Religious Tales, and Realistic Tales, with an introduction; FFC
vol. cxxxiv, no. 285, Part II: Tales of the Stupid Ogre, Anecdotes and Jokes, and
Formula Tales; FFC vol. cxxxv, no. 286, Part III: Appendices.)
Wang, Fred Fangyu. 1967 & 1971. Mandarin Chinese Dictionary. South Orange, NJ:
Seton Hall University Press. [1967 Chinese-English, 1971 English-Chinese].
Wáng, Jiànchuān (王見川) & Lǐ Shìwěi (李世偉). Táiwān Māzǔ Miào Yuèlǎn (The
Reading of Taiwan Mazu Temples, 台灣媽祖廟閱覽). Taipei: Bóyáng Wénhuà Ltd. 博揚文化事業有限公司.
Wang, Katty (王家琦 Wáng Jiāqí). 1998. Peachboy in Taiwan (Táotàiláng zài
Táiwān, 桃太郎在臺灣). 大專學生參與專題研究計畫成果報告, NSC
Wang, William S.-Y. (王士元 Wáng Shìyuán) & Chinfa Lien (連金發 Lián Jīnfā).
1993. “Bidirectional diffusion in sound change,” pp.345-400 in Charles Jones,
ed., Historical Linguistics, Problems and Perspectives. London & New York:
Wéizhēn (唯真). Mínjiān Xìnyǎng—Māzǔ-de Gùshì (Folk Belief: The Story of Mazu,
民間信仰—媽祖的故事). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Wú, Mǐnxiǎn (吳敏顯). 2005. Lǎo Yílán-de Jiǎoyìn (Old Yilan’s Footprints, 老宜蘭
的腳印). Yílán: Yílán Co. Cultural Affairs Bureau 宜蘭縣政府文化局.
Wú, Yànzhēn (吳艷珍). 1995. Māzǔ Xiǎnshèng Yánjiù: Yíge Rénshén Guānxi-de
Sīkǎo (The Study of MA CHU’s Divine Manifestation: A Thinking about the
Relationship between Man and Dod [sic], 媽祖顯聖研究:一個人神關係的思
考). Tamkang University M.A. thesis.
Wurm, S.A., et al. 1987. Language Atlas of China. Hong Kong: Longman. [Pacific
Linguistics, series C, no. 102].
Xǔ, Màosōng (許貿淞). 1999. Tiānhòu Māzǔ Zhuàn (The Biography of Mazu Queen
of Heaven, 天后媽祖傳). Taipei: Púsà 菩薩出版社.
Xǔ, Shí (許寔). Hēimiàn Sānmā-de Chuánshuō (The Legend of Black Face Sanma,
黑面三媽的傳說). Retrieved 20090716 from:
Xú, Xiǎowàng (徐晓望). 1999. Māzǔ-de Zǐmín—Mǐntái Hǎiyáng Wénhuà Yánjiù
(Mazu’s People—Studies of Mintai Ocean Culture, 媽祖的子民—閩台海洋文
化研究). Shànghǎi: Xuélín 學林出版社.
Yáo, Wénqí (姚文琦). 2002. Táiwān Māzǔ Xìnyǎng-de Jìnxiāng Tàidù jí Qí Biànqiān—Cóng Xìnzhòng-de Guāndiǎn Jìnxíng Guānchá (The Attitude and
Change of Chien Shiang on The Ma Tsu Cult in Taiwan—Observation on Cult’s
Opinion [sic], 台灣媽祖信仰的進香態度及其變遷—從信眾的觀點進行觀察).
Shih Hsin University M.A. thesis.
Yeh, Ivy (葉尚芳 Yè Shàngfāng). 2004. Mapping Taiwanese ‘broom’. Presented at
the 37th ICSTLL (International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and
Linguistics), October 1-3, 2004. Lund, Sweden.
————. 2004. De-affrication in Taiwanese Southern Min. Presented at the IACL-12
(12th International Association of Chinese Linguistics), June 18-20, 2004. Tianjin,
————. 2003. Beyond Guānmiào. Presented at the 36th ICSTLL (International
Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics), November 26-30, 2003.
Melbourne, Australia.
————. 2002. Folk Narrative Applications: Two Taiwanese Legends. Tamkang
University M.A. thesis.
Zhāng, Línglíng (張玲玲). 1989. Māzǔ Huí Niángjiā (Mazu Goes Back to Mother’s
Home, 媽祖回娘家). Taipei: Yuǎnliú 遠流出版公司.
Zhōng, Lùshēng (鍾露昇). 1967. Mǐnnányǔ zài Táiwān-de Fēnbù (The Spread of
Southern Min in Taiwan, 閩南語在台灣的分佈). (Ms.)
Zhōu, Zhuójiē (周濯街). 2001. Māzǔ (媽祖). Taipei: Guójiā 國家出版社.

  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2010-12-31公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2010-12-31起公開。

  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2487 或 來信 dss@mail.tku.edu.tw