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中文論文名稱 丹麥的北極戰略–以格陵蘭治理為例
英文論文名稱 Denmark's Arctic Strategy - A Case Study of Greenland Governance
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生中文姓名 黃鈺翔
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Xiang Huang
學號 606330214
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2020-06-30
論文頁數 143頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-曾怡碩
委員-蔡增家
中文關鍵字 丹麥  格陵蘭  北極治理  北極戰略  地緣戰略 
英文關鍵字 Denmark  Greenland  Arctic Governance  Arctic Strategy  Geopolitics 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 氣候變遷使北極地區的政治、經濟和社會發展產生了變化,該地區的經濟潛力和環境變化帶來了新的地緣政治,使得北極成為各國博弈的場域,本論文首先闡述了當前北極治理的全貌,包含該地區的法律建制和組織運行,以及環北冰洋五國在北極戰略的話語論述,並在後面針對丹麥的北極戰略上進行更深入的分析。
丹麥透過格陵蘭島在北極的事實存在成為北極國家,但目前丹麥僅負責格陵蘭的外交及防務,其餘內政皆交由格陵蘭自治政府負責,因此丹麥在制定北極戰略需考慮如何正確的治理格陵蘭,並與格陵蘭自治政府在共同利益上達到良好的平衡,筆者在論文中將丹麥對格陵蘭的治理分成政治、經濟、軍事、社會等四大面向進行探討,分析格陵蘭的因素如何影響丹麥的北極戰略。
在丹麥考慮格陵蘭整體發展的同時,丹麥也需留意其他外部行為者在北極的行動,因此筆者將丹麥與外部行為者的互動分為三項,包括美中在格陵蘭島上的競逐;與丹麥有領土爭議的加拿大與俄羅斯;以及丹麥在國際組織上的作為(五國集團及北極理事會)。通過內外因素解析丹麥北極戰略的方式,能夠了解當前北極地區的政治動向,並為未來新的北極戰略和情勢提供參考。
英文摘要 Climate change has changed political, economic, and social development on the Arctic region. The economic potential and environmental changes of Arctic also make this area become a game field for all countries.
First, this thesis describes the current Arctic governance, including the legal system, organizational operation, and the purpose on the Arctic strategy of Arctic 5. ln the following chapters, this thesis will analyze Denmark’s Arctic strategy in more depth.
Denmark became an Arctic country because of Greenland’s presence in the Arctic. But Denmark is only responsible for Greenland’s foreign affairs and defense, and the rest of internal affairs are transferred to the Greenland Self-Government. Therefore, Denmark needs to consider how to govern Greenland well and achieve a good balance of common interests with Greenland self-government. In this part, the author divides the governance of Greenland into four aspects: political, economic, military, and social for discussion. Finally, this thesis will analyze how Greenland factors affect Denmark's Arctic strategy.
Denmark also needs to pay attention to the actions of other external actors in the Arctic, because it will affect Denmark’s Arctic strategy. Therefore, the author divides the interaction between Denmark and external actors into three categories, including the competition between the United States and China on Greenland; Territorial disputes between Denmark, Canada, and Russia; Denmark’s actions on Arctic international organizations (A5 and Arctic Council). By analyzing Denmark's Arctic strategy, we can understand the current political trends in the Arctic region and provide references for new Arctic strategies and situations in the future.
論文目次 目錄

目錄 iii
圖目錄 v
表目錄 vi
第一章、緒論 1
第一節、研究動機與目的 1
第二節、研究範圍與限制 2
第三節、研究方法與途徑及架構 3
第四節、文獻檢閱 5
第二章、北極治理的建置與發展 16
第一節、北極法律建制的形成與發展 16
第二節、北極理事會的成立與轉變 23
第三節、各國對北極的戰略與治理 28
第四節、小結 47
第三章、丹麥對格陵蘭之治理 49
第一節、政治面向:格陵蘭的獨立困境 49
第二節、經濟面向:漁業、礦業及旅遊業 59
第三節、軍事與安全:海上安全的建構 72
第四節、社會面向:教育、就業與傳統文化危機 76
第五節、小結 85
第四章、丹麥對北極地緣戰略之考量 88
第一節、格陵蘭島上的美中競逐 88
第二節、格陵蘭在領土及大陸棚延伸案的爭端 104
第三節、丹麥在國際組織上的作為 115
第四節、小結 124
第五章、結論 127
第一節、本研究之發現 127
第二節、本研究的未來建議 131
參考文獻
壹、中文部分 133
貳、英文部分134


圖目錄
圖1-1、研究架構圖 5
圖1-2、北極航道示意圖 7
圖2-1、北極地區示意圖 17
圖2-2、北極地區各國大陸棚聲索區域示意圖 22
圖2-3、北極圈國家軍事基地示意圖 33
圖2-4、北極圈國家破冰船數量示意圖 34
圖3-1、格陵蘭議會歷年政黨席位數 53
圖3-2、2009年–2019年至格陵蘭遊客人數趨勢 67
圖3-3、格陵蘭完成各階段教育的人數 77
圖3-4、2016年格陵蘭人民25–64歲的教育程度 78
圖4-1、俄羅斯與美國及格陵蘭相對位置示意圖 90
圖4-2、GIUK缺口示意圖 90
圖4-3、冰上絲綢之路示意圖 93
圖4-4、格陵蘭的三個機場項目與全球美國軍事設施、極地絲綢之路以及中國在歐洲的機場投資相對位置 97
圖4-5、漢斯島示意圖 105
圖4-6、北冰洋大陸棚聲索重疊區域 111


表目錄
表1-1、中國大陸港口至北美、歐洲之航程距離統計表 8
表2-1、北極地區爭端一覽表 21
表2-2、北極地區大陸棚延伸申請案 22
表2-3、北極五國核心戰略文件及立場 45
表3-1、2017年格陵蘭政府收入 60
表3-2、2017年格陵蘭按行業和國籍分列的主要就業情況 81
參考文獻 參考文獻

壹、中文部分
一、專書
朱浤源,1999《撰寫碩博士論文》。臺北:正中書局。
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二、專書譯著
Babbie, Earl著,李美華譯,2005。《社會科學研究方法》(The Practice of Social Research)。台北:石英出版社。

三、期刊論文
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肖洋,2018/6。〈格陵蘭:丹麥北極戰略轉型中的錨點?〉,《太平洋學報》,第26卷第6期,頁78-86。
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四、網際網路
BBC編輯部,2108/12/5。〈氣候變化,全球變暖和聯合國的使命〉,《BBC》,
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蔡榮峰,2014/11/14。〈北極融冰新加坡最緊張:世界強權競逐「偉大的新航道」,台灣該把握機會參一腳〉,《The News Lens 關鍵評論》,

貳、英文部分
一、專書
FAO,2011. Review of the state of world marine fishery resources. Rome: FAO.
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Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon & Gry Thomasen,2018. Learning from the Ilulissat Initiative: State Power, Institutional Legitimacy, and Governance in the Arctic Ocean 2007‒18. Copenhagen: Centre for Military Studies of University of Copenhagen.
Rothwell, Donald., 1996. The Polar Regions and the Development of International Law. New York: Cambridge University Press.

二、專書論文
Buhmann, Karin, 2018. “Chinese Mineral Sourcing Interests & Greenland’s Potential as a Source of ‘Conflict-Free Conflict Minerals’,” in Lassi Heininen & Heather Exner-Pirot, eds., Arctic Yearbook 2018-Special Section: China & the Arctic. Akureyri, Iceland: Northern Research Forum, pp. 1-17.
Dingman, Erica M., 2014. “Greenlandic Independence: The Dilemma of Natural Resource Extraction,” in Lassi Heininen, Heather Exner-Pirot & Joël Plouffe, eds., Arctic Yearbook 2014.Akureyri, Iceland: Northern Research Forum, pp. 228-243.
Henriksen, Anders & Jon Rahbek-Clemmensen, 2017. “The Greenland Card: Prospects for and Barriers to Danish Arctic Diplomacy in Washington,” in Kristian Fischer and Hans Mouritzen, eds., Danish Foreign Policy Yearbook 2017. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, pp. 75-98.
Leng, Tse-Kang,2018. “China’s Arctic Diplomacy: Global and Regional Aspects,” in Tse-Kang Leng & Rumi Aoyama, eds., Decoding the Rise of China. London: Palgrave MacMillan, pp. 147-170.
Loukacheva, Natalia, 2009. “Climate Change Policy in the Arctic: The Cases of Greenland and Nunavut,” in Timo Koivurova & E. Carina H. Keskitalo & Nigel Bankes, eds., Climate governance in the Arctic. Berlin: Springer, pp. 327-350.
Molenaar, Erik J. & Timo Koivurova & Elizabeth Tedsen, &Andrew Reid & Kamrul Hossain, 2014. “Introduction to the Arctic,” in Elizabeth Tedsen & Sandra Cavalieri & R. Andreas Kraemer Editors, eds., Arctic Marine Governance. Berlin: Springer Verlag. pp. 3-19.
Mouritzen, Hans, 2018. “Arctic organisations are nations’ special darlings. But who’s whose ?,” in Kristian Fischer & Hans Mouritzen, eds., Danish Foreign Policy Review 2018. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, p. 115-137.
Olsen, Inuuteq Holm & Jessica M. Shadian,2016. “Greenland & the Arctic Council: Subnational Regions in a Time of Arctic Westphalianisation,” in Lassi Heininen & Heather Exner-Pirot & Joël Plouffe, eds., Arctic Yearbook 2016. Akureyri, Iceland: Northern Research Forum, pp. 229-250.
Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon, 2016. ““An Arctic Great Power”? Recent Developments in Danish Arctic Policy,” in Lassi Heininen, Heather Exner-Pirot & Joël Plouffe, eds., Arctic Yearbook 2016. Akureyri, Iceland: Northern Research Forum, pp. 346-359.

三、期刊論文
Borgerson, Scott G.,2008/3-4 “Arctic Meltdown: The Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 87, No2, pp. 63-77.
Dodds, Klaus,2013/ Summer-Fall. “The Ilulissat Declaration (2008): The Arctic States, “Law of the Sea,” and Arctic Ocean,” SAIS Review of International Affairs, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 45-55.
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四、研討會論文
Orheim, Olav, 2003/6/2-6. “Protecting the Environment of the Arctic Ecosystem, ” paper presented at the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea, Fourth Meeting. New York:United Nations. pp. 1-9.

五、官方文件
AMAP, 1997/5/1. Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report.
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Arctic Council,2009/4. Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report.
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六、研究計畫
Carnaghan, Matthew & Allison Goody, 2006. Canadian Arctic Sovereignty (PRB 05-61E). Ottawa: Canada Library of Parliament.
Marr, Colonel Stephen C., 2017. Conflict, Competition, or Cooperation in the Arctic? (OMB No. 0704-0188). Carlisle: United States Army War College.


七、報紙
københavns universitet center for militære studier,2018/5/22. “Ilulissat-initiativet 10 år efter” københavns universitet center for militære studier.

八、網際網路
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