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系統識別號 U0002-0809201412264700
中文論文名稱 應用於H.264/AVC畫面內編碼的高效率分層方法及其部署
英文論文名稱 Hierarchical Approach to Efficient Intra Encoding in H.264/AVC and Its Deployments
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 鄭國祥
研究生英文姓名 Kuo-Hsiang Cheng
學號 897410055
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-06-12
論文頁數 88頁
口試委員 指導教授-王英宏
委員-廖弘源
委員-陳振炎
委員-陳朝欽
委員-楊錦潭
委員-陳瑞發
委員-林慧珍
委員-王英宏
中文關鍵字 H.264/AVC  失真率優化  畫面內編碼  畫面內過濾  區塊大小選擇  預測模式 
英文關鍵字 H.264/AVC  rate-distortion optimization (RDO)  intra coding  intra skip  block size selection  prediction mode 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 H.264/AVC視頻編碼標準比以往的標準,如MPEG-2, MPEG-4, 以及H.263,編碼效率有顯著的提高。為增進編碼效率,H.264/AVC編碼器在畫面內編碼上運用了多種的預測模式以採用及率失真優化(RDO)來決定最佳的模式。因為編碼器要運算所有可能的模式,運算的複雜度也隨之劇烈地增加。
本研究針對在H.264/AVC中的畫面內編碼減少運算複雜度,提出階層式高效率畫面內編碼演算法。該演算法共有四個主要部分,即1.快速的畫面內過濾決策;2.基於量化的區塊大小選擇決策;3.基於方向的預測模式決策;與4.快速的畫面內部分過濾決策。
本研究的實驗結果顯示階層式高效率畫面內編碼演算法,其低解析的視訊編碼中可達到平均85%以上的時間節省,在高解析的視訊編碼中可達到平均90%以上的時間節省,同時在品質下降方面是可被忽略的,在編碼長度的上昇是非常微小的。
英文摘要 The H.264/AVC video coding standard can achieve higher coding efficiency than any other previous coding standards, such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and H.263. In order to improve the coding efficiency, the H.264/AVC encoder employs various prediction modes in the intra coding and adopts the rate-distortion optimization (RDO) method for selection of an optimum mode. Since the encoder computes the rate-distortion (RD) costs of all possible coding modes to decide the optimum mode, the computational complexity is dramatically increased.
In this study, an efficient hierarchical approach which consists of the four algorithms: 1) fast intra skip decision; 2) quant-based block size selection decision; 3) direction-based prediction mode decision; and 4) fast partial intra skip decision for H.264/AVC intra encoding is proposed to reduce the computational complexity.
Our experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithms outperform the previous methods. Our overall algorithm can significantly reduce above 85% encoding time for low-resolution video sequences on average, and reduce above 90% encoding time for high-resolution video sequences on average, while the PSNR degradation is negligible and the bit rate increment is minimal.
論文目次 Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. H.264/AVC Overview 1
1.2. H.264/AVC Intra Prediction Overview 4
1.3. H.264/AVC compliant encoder 8
1.4. Organization of Dissertation 10
Chapter 2. Related Works 11
2.1. Related Works on Intra Skip Decision 11
2.2. Related Works on Block Size Selection Decision 14
2.3. Related Works on Fast Prediction Mode Decision 15
Chapter 3. Pre-Experimental Analysis 19
3.1. Intra Skip Decision 19
3.2. Block Size Selection Decision 32
3.3. Prediction Mode Decision 34
3.4. Partial Intra Skip Decision 39
Chapter 4. The Proposed Algorithms 42
4.1. Fast Intra Skip Decision 42
4.2. Quant-based block size selection decision 44
4.3. Direction-based prediction mode decision 55
4.4. Fast Partial Intra Skip Decision 58
Chapter 5. Experimental Results 60
5.1. Fast Intra Skip Decision 60
5.2. Quant-based Block Size Selection Decision and Direction-based Prediction Mode Decision 67
5.3. Fast Partial Intra Skip Decision and Overall Algorithm 72
Chapter 6. Conclusion and Future Work 78
Bibliography 80
Publication List 88

List of Figures
Fig. 1-1. H.264 Encoder Block Diagram. 3
Fig. 1-2. I4MB prediction block. 7
Fig. 1-3. I16MB prediction block. 7
Fig. 1-4. H.264 encoder flowchart. 9
Fig. 1-5.  Mode decision hierarchy of an H.264 compliant encoder. 10
Fig. 3-1. The percentage of the intra MB occupied in P-slice. 23
Fig. 3-2. CIF format Foreman test sequence. (a) the 89th frame, (b) the 90th frame. 29
Fig. 3-3. Integer 8 × 8 DCT. 33
Fig. 3-4. Sum up the absolute quantization AC coefficients. 34
Fig. 3-5. Calculation of variance for (a) vertical, (b) horizontal, (c) down-right, and (d) down-left modes. 36
Fig. 3-6. Candidate modes selection. 37
Fig. 3-7. Partial intra skip decision. 40
Fig. 4-1. Flowchart of the proposed algorithm. 44
Fig. 4-2. H.264 compliant intra encoder flowchart. 45
Fig. 4-3. An ideal distribution of QuantACsum for I4MB, I8MB, and I16MB. 45
Fig. 4-4. Distribution of QuantACsum for I4MB, I8MB, and I16MB (unbalanced error). 48
Fig. 4-5. Distribution of QuantACsum for I4MB, I8MB, and I16MB (I8MB curve bias error). 51
Fig. 4-6. Flowchart of the proposed algorithm. 59
Fig. 5-1. RD curves of Mobile. 75
Fig. 5-2. RD curves of Shields. 76

List of Tables
Table 3-1. Video properties. 20
Table 3-2. Skipping all intra MBs in the inter frame. 24
Table 3-3. The probability of the hit rate and skip rate, and RD performance using adaptive thresholds. 28
Table 3-4. The proportion of the corresponding MB of the proceeding frame is the resulting optimal intra mode. 30
Table 3-5. The proportion of the upper or left MB of the current frame is the resulting optimal intra mode. 30
Table 3-6. The Probability of the hit rate and skip rate, and RD performance when applying an additional rule. 31
Table 3-7. The probability of the hit rate and skip rate, and RD performance using adaptive thresholds. 40
Table 3-8. The Probability of the hit rate and skip rate, and RD performance when applying an additional rule. 41
Table 4-1. Hit rate for block size selection algorithms. 50
Table 4-2. Percentages for four conditions. 54
Table 4-3. Hit rate and filter rate for direction-based intra prediction mode algorithm. 58
Table 5-1. Results of the simulation with 300 frames for each test sequence. 61
Table 5-2. Results of the simulation with 100 frames for each test sequence. 62
Table 5-3. Performance comparison of the proposed and Fuzz_HR algorithms. 64
Table 5-4. Performance comparison of proposed algorithm and algorithm of Kim BG. 65
Table 5-5. Performance comparison of proposed algorithm and algorithm of Kim et al. 65
Table 5-6. Results of simulations with 200 frames for each test sequence. 67
Table 5-7. Performance of our proposed algorithms. 68
Table 5-8. Average performance comparison. 71
Table 5-9. Results of simulations with 200 frames for each test sequence. 73
Table 5-10. Results of simulations with 200 frames for each test sequence. 73
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