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中文論文名稱 高屏溪斜張橋受風之實場量測與理論分析的比較研究
英文論文名稱 Comparative Study of Aerodynamic Responses of Kao-Ping-Hsi Cable-Stayed Bridge between field measurements and buffeting analysis
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 鄭詩穎
研究生英文姓名 Shih-Ying Cheng
學號 695380039
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-07-07
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-林堉溢
委員-陳振華
委員-鄭啟明
委員-林堉溢
中文關鍵字 斜張橋  實場量測  頻率域分解法  隨機遞減法  抖振效應 
英文關鍵字 cable-stayed bridge  field measurements  frequency decomposition  random decrement  buffeting analysis 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 高屏溪橋為國內最長之斜張橋,由於其跨徑長,因而受風影響甚大,因此橋梁受風之實場量測與理論分析的研究是一門重要的課題。因此本文以國內高屏溪斜張橋為標的,於其主跨二分之一處裝置三維風速計與速度計,主跨三分之二處裝設速度計,用以量測颱風經過時橋體周遭之風場特性,以及橋體受風之振動反應,來研究橋梁受風之效應。
本文利用2007年所紀錄到之柯羅莎颱風經過時所紀錄到的資料進行研究。柯羅莎颱風垂直橋軸10分鐘平均風速最大可達16m/s,因此本文以柯羅莎颱風為主軸來探討其風場特性分析以及結構分析,結構反應分別使用FDD法與多自由度RD法分析其結構動力相關特性。最後將分析得之風場特性與結構動力特性代入數值方法中,配合抖振理論模擬橋梁反應,並與實場量測及風洞實驗的結果作比較。
為與實場量測數值作比較,因此以實場量測之風速頻譜、紊流強度、以及實場量測之振動反應所識別之自然頻率與阻尼比配合抖振理論做數值分析。分析結果與實場量測反應比較顯示,垂直向相當吻合,而扭轉向約有30%的誤差,而水平向的誤差較大,再分析數值約為實場量測之1/4。顯示修改數值模型的各相關條件,使之更加接近現地的風場狀況對於橋體受風的反應可以更加接近真實性。斷面風洞模型試驗雖和實場的風場條件有些許的不同,但仍和數值再分析相似,與實場量測反應曲線有一樣的趨勢也很接近實場數值。而全橋風洞試驗由於是為了求得顫振臨界風速所設定的試驗,因而使用的是無因次化風速,實場量測風速與之相比過小,因而在低風速下受雜訊影響,與實場相比顯得較不準確。
英文摘要 Since Kao-Ping-Hsi Cable-Stayed Bridge has the longest span length in Taiwan, it is more sensitive to wind The study to monitor this bridge and compare the field measurements with buffeting theoretical results becomes an important task. Therefore, this bridge was chosen as the target for monitoring. Two 3D anemometers were installed at the middle point of the longer span to measure wind characteristics. Two sets of velocity censors, respectively installed at the middle point and on third point of the longer span, were used to measure the dynamic responses of the bridge.
The aerodynamic behavior of the Kao-Ping-Hsi Cable-Stayed Bridge was analyzed based on the measured data obtained from the field measurements. The data were collected as several typhoons were attacking Taiwan during 2006-2007. Among these typhoons, Typhoon Krosa was the strongest and its maximum 10 min. mean wind speed was as high as 16 m/s. The effects of this typhoon on the bridge are the main concern in this study. The modal frequencies and damping ratios of the bridge were identified by the methods of FDD and MRD, respectively. These identified parameters along with the fitted wind spectrum were substituted into a numerical model to evaluate the buffeting responses of the targeted bridge. The results obtained from the re-analysis, the field measurements, the section model test and the full model test were compared.
The comparative study indicates that the differences between the results obtained from the re-analysis and the results measured from the field measurements are 10% in the vertical direction and 30% in the torsional direction. The drag response obtained from re-analysis is only 25% of that measured from the field measurements. The possible reason for this large discrepancy results from high noise in the field measurements. Since turbulent intensities and damping ratios used in the section model tests and the full model tests were different from those identified from the field measurements. The results obtained from the section model tests are still consistent with those from on-site measurements. However, the results obtained from the full model test are much larger than the other results. This is because the reduced wind velocity in the tests is low and the high noise affected the results..
論文目次 目錄…………………………………………………………………...I
表目錄………………………………………………………………III
圖目錄……………………………………………………………. ..IV
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………….1
1.1 前言…………………………………………………………………….1
1.2 研就動機與目的…………………………………………………….....1
1.3 研究內容…………………………....……………………………….....2
1.4 論文架構………………………....……………………………….........3
第二章 文獻回顧………………………....………………………………....5
2.1 前言………………………....……………………………….................5
2.2 FDD識別法………………………....………………………………....5
2.3 隨機遞減法………………………....……………………………….....6
2.4 實場量測………………………....……………………………….........7
第三章 理論背景………………………....………………………………....8
3.1 前言………………………....……………………………….................8
3.2 風場分析………………………....……………………………….........8
3.2.1 平均風速………………………....……………………………...8
3.2.2 平均風向………………………....……………………………...8
3.2.3 紊流強度………………………....……………………………...8
3.2.4 紊流長度尺度…………………....……………………………...9
3.2.5 風速擾動頻譜…………………....……………………………...9
3.2.6 風速擾動交頻譜…………………....…………………………..11
3.3 FDD識別理論…………………....……………………………............12
3.3.1 FDD識別之理論背景……....……………………………..........12
3.3.2 FDD識別流程……....……………………………......................14
3.3.3 FDD數值驗證………………………...............................15
3.3.4 實場之FDD識別流程……....……………………………........17
3.4 隨機遞減法識別理論……....……………………………...................18
3.4.1 隨機遞減法…………...……....……………………………......18
3.4.2 單自由度系統………………………………………………….19
3.4.3 多自由度系統………………………………………………….21
3.4.4 實場之隨機遞減法流程……………………………………….21
3.5 橋梁受風之氣動力效應…………………………………………...…23
3.5.1 顫振效應……………………………………………………….23
3.5.2抖振效應………………………………………………………...24
3.5.3 扭轉不穩定…………………………………………………….24
3.5.4 渦流振動……………………………………………………….24
3.5.5 風馳效應……………………………………………………….25
3.6 橋梁受風反應之分析模式…………………………………………...26
3.6.1 自身擾動力…………………………………………………….26
3.6.2抖振力…………………………………………………………..27
3.7 橋體運動方程式之建立……………………………………………...28
3.8 橋梁受風載重之位移反應…………………………………………...29
第四章 實場量測與風洞試驗之配置……………………………...33
4.1 前言…………………………………………………………………...33
4.2 高屏溪橋地理位置與幾何形狀……………………………………...33
4.3 現地儀器配置………………………………………………………...33
4.4 風場分析……………………………………………………………...34
4.5 風洞試驗……………………………………………………………...35
4.5.1 全橋模型風洞試驗…………………………………………….35
4.5.1 斷面模型風洞試驗…………………………………………….35
第五章 實場量測結果與數值計算………………………………...37
5.1 前言…………………………………………………………………...37
5.2 實場量測結果………………………………………………………...37
5.2.1 風場分析結果………………………………………………….37
5.2.2 結構參數分析結果…………………………………………….39
5.2.2.1 以FDD法識別結構參數……………………………….39
5.2.2.2 以多自由度隨機遞減法識別結構參數…..…………….40
5.2.3 FDD與RD識別之結構動力參數分析結果………………….40
5.3 數值計算與分析……………………………………………………..41
5.3.1 前言……………………………………………………………41
5.3.2 建立數值模型…………………………………………………42
5.3.3 抖振反應分析…………………………………………………42
5.3.4 結果討論與比較………………………………………………45
第六章 結論與建議………………………………………………..49
6.1 結論…………………………………………………………………..49
6.2 建議…………………………………………………………………..50
第七章 參考文獻………………..…………………………………………51
表目錄
表3-1 FDD法識別之自然頻率與阻尼比………………………....…………..55
表3-2 FDD識別之前五個模態自然頻率……………………………………..55
表3-3 FDD識別之前五個模態阻尼比…………………………..…………...55
表3-4 氣動力參數代表的意義……………………………………...………..56
表4-1風速計量測範圍………………………………………………….……..56
表4-2 2007年有紀錄到之侵台颱風…………………………………………..56
表4-3風速計率定公式…………………………………….………………….57
表5-1 柯羅莎颱風風向299°~344°之各分量紊流強度與紊流強度………..57
表5-2 柯羅莎颱風風向299.67~344.67之頻譜參數…………………………57
表5-3 FDD與RD之前六個模態識別結果…………………………………58
表5-4 高屏溪橋橋面斷面性質……………………………………………….58
表5-5高屏溪橋橋塔斷面性質……………………………..………………….59
表5-6高屏溪橋鋼纜材料性質………………………………………………...59
表5-7 高屏溪橋數值模型前十個振態……………………………………….60
表5-8 數值計算之說明………………………………………….……………60
表5-9 風速7m/s數值計算、風洞試驗與實場量測之RMS反應值…………61
表5-10風速13m/s數值計算、風洞試驗與實場量測之RMS反應值………61
圖目錄
圖1-1 Tacoma Narrow Bridge 發生顫振(flutter)的情形…………….….….62
圖3-1 FDD法分析流程圖…………………………………………...………63
圖3-2 反應歷時圖…………………………………………………...………..63
圖3-3 RD訊號曲線……………………………………………………………64
圖3-4 多自由度RD法分析流程圖…………………………………………..64
圖3-5橋面版節點與單位長度受風力之示意圖……………………………...65
圖4-1高屏溪橋之幾何形狀與鋼纜編號……………………………………...66
圖4-2高屏溪橋長期監測系統架設位置圖……………………………..……67
圖4-3高屏溪橋長期監測系統架設剖面圖…………………………………..67
圖4-4高屏溪橋長期風力監測系統架構圖…………………………………..68
圖4-5風向與橋軸方向示意圖………………………………………………..68
圖4-6高屏溪橋長期振動監測系統架構圖………………….………..............69
圖4-7振動量測的自由度設定圖……………………………………………..69
圖5-1 柯羅莎颱風10月6日~10月7日之風速歷時……………………….70
圖5-2 柯羅莎颱風10月6日~10月7日之風向圓餅圖……………………70
圖5-3 柯羅莎颱風風向299.67~344.67之各風速下紊流強度………………71
圖5-4 柯羅莎颱風風向299.67~344.67之各風速下紊流長度尺度…………71
圖5-5 柯羅莎颱風10月6日20:24 ~20:34的順風向紊流頻譜………..72
圖5-6 柯羅莎颱風10月6日20:24 ~20:34的垂直向紊流頻譜…………72
圖5-7 1/2跨及2/3跨各方向頻譜…………………………………………….73
圖5-8 有風狀態下之奇異值圖……………………………………………….73
圖5-9 無風狀態下之奇異值圖…………………………………………….....74
圖5-10 有風狀態下之自相關函數圖………………………………………...74
圖5-11 垂直向第一振態風速與自然頻率關係…………………………….75
圖5-12 拖曳向第一振態風速與自然頻率關係…………………………….75
圖5-13 扭轉向第一振態風速與自然頻率關係…………………………….76
圖5-14 垂直向第一振態風速與阻尼比關係……………………………….76
圖5-15 拖曳向第一振態風速與阻尼比關係……………………………….77
圖5-16 扭轉向第一振態風速與阻尼比關係……………………………….77
圖5-17 高屏溪橋有限元素數值模型………………………………………...78
圖5-18 有限元素分析之mode Shape………………………………………..79
圖5-19各風速下橋面板1/2跨處垂直向反應rms值……………………….80
圖5-20各風速下橋面板2/3跨處垂直向反應rms值……………………….80
圖5-21各風速下橋面板1/2跨處水平向反應rms值……………………….81
圖5-22各風速下橋面板2/3跨處水平向反應rms值……………………….81
圖5-23各風速下橋面板1/2跨處扭轉向反應………………………………..82
圖5-24各風速下橋面板2/3跨處扭轉向反應………………………..............82
圖5-25各風速下橋面板1/2跨處垂直向反應rms值……………………….83
圖5-26各風速下橋面板2/3跨處垂直向反應rms值……….……………….83
圖5-27各風速下橋面板1/2跨處水平向反應rms值……….………………84
圖5-28各風速下橋面板2/3跨處水平向反應rms值……….……………….84
圖5-29 各風速下橋面板1/2跨處扭轉向反應rms值………………………85
圖5-30各風速下橋面板2/3跨處扭轉向反應rms值……………………….85
圖5-31帕布各風速下橋面板1/2跨處垂直向反應rms值………………….86
圖5-32帕布各風速下橋面板2/3跨處垂直向反應rms值……………………86
圖5-33帕布各風速下橋面板1/2跨處水平向反應rms值……………………87
圖5-34帕布各風速下橋面板2/3跨處水平向反應rms值……………………87
圖5-35帕布各風速下橋面板1/2跨處扭轉向反應…………….……………..88
圖5-36帕布各風速下橋面板2/3跨處扭轉向反應……………………….......88
圖5-37帕布各風速下橋面板1/2跨處垂直向反應rms值……………………89
圖5-38帕布各風速下橋面板2/3跨處垂直向反應rms值……….…………89
圖5-39帕布各風速下橋面板1/2跨處水平向反應rms值……….…………90
圖5-40帕布各風速下橋面板2/3跨處水平向反應rms值……….………….90
圖5-41帕布 各風速下橋面板1/2跨處扭轉向反應rms值…………………91
圖5-42帕布各風速下橋面板2/3跨處扭轉向反應rms值……………………91
圖5-43梧提各風速下橋面板1/2跨處垂直向反應rms值………………….92
圖5-44梧提各風速下橋面板2/3跨處垂直向反應rms值……………………92
圖5-45梧提各風速下橋面板1/2跨處水平向反應rms值……………………93
圖5-46梧提各風速下橋面板2/3跨處水平向反應rms值……………………93
圖5-47梧提各風速下橋面板1/2跨處扭轉向反應…………….……………..94
圖5-48梧提各風速下橋面板2/3跨處扭轉向反應……………………….......94
圖5-49梧提各風速下橋面板1/2跨處垂直向反應rms值……………………95
圖5-50梧提各風速下橋面板2/3跨處垂直向反應rms值……….……….…95
圖5-51梧提各風速下橋面板1/2跨處水平向反應rms值……….……….…96
圖5-52梧提各風速下橋面板2/3跨處水平向反應rms值……….……….….96
圖5-53梧提各風速下橋面板1/2跨處扭轉向反應rms值………………..…97
圖5-54梧提各風速下橋面板2/3跨處扭轉向反應rms值……………………97
圖5-55韋帕各風速下橋面板1/2跨處垂直向反應rms值………………….98
圖5-56韋帕各風速下橋面板2/3跨處垂直向反應rms值……………………98
圖5-57韋帕各風速下橋面板1/2跨處水平向反應rms值……………………99
圖5-58韋帕各風速下橋面板2/3跨處水平向反應rms值……………………99
圖5-59韋帕各風速下橋面板1/2跨處扭轉向反應…………….……………100
圖5-60韋帕各風速下橋面板2/3跨處扭轉向反應……………………….....100
圖5-61韋帕各風速下橋面板1/2跨處垂直向反應rms值…………………101
圖5-62韋帕各風速下橋面板2/3跨處垂直向反應rms值……….…………101
圖5-63韋帕各風速下橋面板1/2跨處水平向反應rms值……….…………102
圖5-64韋帕各風速下橋面板2/3跨處水平向反應rms值……….………….102
圖5-65韋帕各風速下橋面板1/2跨處扭轉向反應rms值…………………103
圖5-66韋帕各風速下橋面板2/3跨處扭轉向反應rms值…………………103
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