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系統識別號 U0002-0807201114220800
中文論文名稱 歐盟共同海運政策下複合運輸發展之研究
英文論文名稱 The Study of the EU Sea Transportation
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 陳瑋純
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Chun Chen
學號 696290427
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-06-15
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳麗娟
委員-曾文瑞
委員-苑倚曼
中文關鍵字 歐洲聯盟  海運服務業談判小組  複合運輸  歐盟共同海運政策  海運服務 
英文關鍵字 European Union  Negotiating Group on Maritime Transport Service (NGMTS)  multimodal transportation  EU common maritime policy  maritime transport service 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要   歐盟的共同海運政策發展分為三個時期,未發展階段、起步階段、共同海運發展階段。1958年歐洲經濟共同體成立時,並未將海運正式納入共同交通政策,直到聯合國定期船運費同盟管理規則公約(United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Code of Conduct for Liner Shipping)訂定後,歐盟通過1979年第754號規章後,歐盟對外一致發表聲明也象徵向共同海運政策邁進。直至1980年代為完成內部市場計劃,希望內部團結一致,歐盟擬定海運發展時間表,分別訂定了1986包裹法案(1986 Package)、分階段開放沿海航行權與內陸運輸等。歐盟共同海運政策未來的發展策略主要朝提昇海運品質與競爭優勢這兩目標邁進。

海運業有其特殊性質,無法只由單一國家管轄,尚須接受國際層面的規範,目前最重要的國際規範為世界貿易組織(World Trade Organization, WTO)中的服務貿易總協定(General Agreement on Trade in Service, GATS)。因海運行業特殊的性質,所以將海運納入服務貿易總協定,藉由GATS體制的規範,達成貿易自由化與減少貿易壁壘。WTO為了使海運服務業能更自由化,於1994年由海運服務業談判小組(Negotiating Group on Maritime Transport Service, 簡稱NGMTS)召開協商會議,討論海運服務業的新相關議題。單一海運服務已無法滿足現今運輸業的需求,複合運輸為近年來海運協商的新議題與談判重點。雖然談判的進程緩慢,但未來談判方式將維持原先的多邊要求與回應,輔以複邊要求的模式進行。

本論文將探討歐盟共同海運政策的發展演進,佐以WTO服務貿易總協定下的海運服務業規範原則與海運服務業談判小組協商情況及未來可能的談判趨勢。歐盟從中如何兼顧其自身利益及經貿的穩定成長,分析目前歐盟海運市場的發展現況,以及發展海運市場對歐盟所造成的利益與衝擊,以作為我國海運市場提昇競爭力的借鏡。
英文摘要 The development of the EU Common Maritime Policy is divided into three stages: initial stage, growth stage, and Common Maritime Policy. The European Economic Community was established in 1958, maritime transport policy was not incorporated in Common Transport Policy. After the establishment of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Code of Conduct for Liner Shipping, the EU enacted Regulation (EC) No. 754/1979 and promulgated it with one voice. It also symbolized that the EU sea transportation policy was approaching to Common Maritime Policy. In order to achieve internal cohesion, the EU set up a timetable for the maritime development in 1980 to complete internal market plan. The EU established 1986 Package Act, cabotage, inland transport. The future developmental strategy of the EU Common Maritime Policy is to enhance competitive advantages and quality of maritime transport.

The jurisdiction of maritime industry is not held by one state but international regulations. The General Agreement on Trade in Service (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is the most important regulation for maritime industry. Due to the uniqueness of the maritime industry, maritime transport was incorporated in the GATS to accomplish trade liberalization and reduce trade barriers. In 1994, the Negotiating Group on Maritime Transport Service (NGMTS) was formed by WTO to discuss new issues about maritime transport service and improve liberalization of maritime transport service. A single maritime policy is applicable to current transport industry. Currently, the negotiation of maritime is focus on multimodal transport. Though the negotiation is in slow progress, the NGMTS still works on initial request and offer, and plurilateral requests.

This thesis works on the development of the EU Common Maritime Transport Policy by discussing maritime transport service, contents of the negotiation, and the future development. From this study, it analyzes the present condition of the EU’s maritime market, and advantages and disadvantages for EU. The successful experience of the EU’s Maritime Common Policy could be the model of the maritime market in Taiwan.
論文目次 目錄
圖目錄 iii
表目錄 iv
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法 5
第三節 文獻評論 6
第四節 研究範圍 10
第五節 研究架構 12
第二章 WTO海運服務規範架構 17
第一節 服務貿易總協定 17
一、GATS 制定之原因與GATS 之內容 17
二、GATS下海運服務主要規範原則 22
第二節 WTO成立後海運服務業談判 30
一、海運服務業談判小組成立背景與目的 30
二、海運服務業談判所規範之主要事業類別 32
第三節 海運服務業談判小組談判歷程 34
一、海運服務業談判小組談判過程 34
二、海運服務業談判成敗之分析 41
三、海運服務業談判最新進程 44
第三章 歐盟的共同海運政策 49
第一節 發展背景及其發展歷程  49
一、歐盟共同海運政策的發展歷程 49
二、歐盟共同海運政策的發展新策略 56
第二節 歐盟共同海運政策重要的法規 58
一、聯合國定期船運費同盟管理規則公約 58
二、1986年包裹立法 62
第三節 歐盟共同海運政策之未來發展策略 66
一、全球化市場的海運政策 66
二、海運品質為競爭優勢之重要關鍵 67
第四章 WTO海運服務規範架構下歐盟海運發展現況 71
第一節 目前歐盟海運市場概況 71
一、歐盟海運市場開放之因素 73
二、歐盟海運市場開放後海運市場概況 75
第二節 歐盟海運市場開放後之複合運輸 80
一、複合運輸的概況 82
二、歐盟複合運輸的連結情況 83
第三節 市場進入與複合運輸的利弊得失 90
一、對歐盟所造成的利益 91
二、對於歐盟產生的衝擊 98
第五章 結論 101
一、歐盟共同海運政策發展背景、歷程與發展新策略 101
二、在WTO海運服務業談判小組現今實行之概況 102
三、歐盟開放海運市場後的利益與衝擊 103
四、歐盟複合運輸施行後對歐盟所造成的影響 105
五、歐盟共同海運政策對台灣的啟示 106
參考文獻 109

圖目錄
圖 一:世界主要港口分佈圖 2
圖 二:研究架構圖 12
圖 三:2007歐盟海運運輸比例 90
圖 四:歐盟前二十大港口分佈圖 95
圖 五:歐盟港口交通量 96
圖 六:歐盟27國港口貨物運輸量 97

表目錄
表 一:海運服務業談判小組之談判會議 34
表 二:1986包裹立法之四項海運規章 63
表 三:歐盟海運運輸成長量 72
表 四:物流運輸的海運貨物量 80
表 五:歐盟27國主要港口數量表 93

參考文獻 中文資料

書籍

王丘明(2009),港埠管理(三版),台北:華泰文化
王騰坤(2005),國際貿易原理與政策,台北:三民書局
林光/張世龍/陳一平(2002),加入WTO對我國航運業影響之研究,台北:交通部運輸研究所
柯澤東(1992),海商法論,台北:國立台灣大學
崔延紘(2002),海洋運輸學(航運業務及港區管理),台北:國立編譯館
陳麗娟(2006),國際貿易法精義,台北:新學林出版圖書公司
陳麗娟(2008),歐洲共同體法導論,台北:五南圖書出版有限公司
陳麗娟(2010),里斯本條約後歐洲聯盟新面貌,台北:五南圖書出版有限公司
張新平(1996),世界貿易組織下之服務貿易,台北:月旦出版社股份有限公司
黃立/李貴英/林彩瑜(2002),WTO:國際貿易法論,台北:元照出版有限公司
曾俊鵬(2005),國際貨櫃運輸實務(二版),台北:華泰文化

期刊

包嘉源/林清發(1991),加入GATT對我國航業之影響評估,航貿週刊,第9105期,頁35-40
李佳逸/張志清/包嘉源/呂頌揚(2009),由各國航運稅制論我國因應之道,航運季刊,第18卷第3期,頁91-111
林長慶(2008),海運服務談判進展與其未來發展之研析,WTO電子報,第111期,頁2-6
邱榮和(1990),台灣參與世界貿易組織海運服務業談判之前景,航運季刊,第9卷第1期,頁8-25
邱榮和(1997),從海運服務業談判小組之會議實錄看世界貿易組織之海運服務業談判概況,船舶與海運,第725期,頁1-8
路豐璟/呂逸卉(2006),WTO服務業貿易談判之主要議題與可能影響,貿易政策論叢,第5期,頁75-106
蔡英文/張新平(2004),服務業貿易自由化及我國相關法規之研究,政大法學評論,第41 期,頁81-138

外文資料

書籍

Martin, Will/Pangestu, Mari (2003), Options for Global Trade Reform-A view from the Asia-Pacific, England: Combridge University Press.
Lowe, David (2005), Intermodal Freight Transport, London: Elsevier Butterworth-Heineman.
Pallis, Ahtanasios A. (2002), The Common EU Maritime Transport Policy Policy Europeanisation in the 1990s, London: Ashgate Publishing Limited
Pallis, Athanasios A. (2002), European Union Port Policy-the movement toward a long –term Strategy, London: Edward Elgar Publishing
Parameswaran, Benjamin (2004), The Liberalization of Maritime Transport Services-with Special Reference to the WTO/GATT Framework, Berlin: Springer
Pålsson, Christopher/Bengtsson, Niklas (2008), OPTIMAR STUDY-Benchmarking strategic options for European shipping and for the European maritime transport system in the horizon 2008-2018 introduction and summary, Sweden: Lloyd’s Register – Fairplay Research
Stevens, Handley (2004), Transport Policy in the European Union, New York :Palgrave Macmillan.

期刊

Balassa, Bela (1990), “The United States in The Uruguay Round-Services in The World Economy”, The World Bank, pp.125-131.
Benacchio, Marco/Ferrari, Claudio/Musso, Enrico (2007), “The liner shipping industry and EU competition rules,” Transport Policy, Vol. 14, pp.1-10.
Chlomoudis, C. I./Pallis, P. L./Papadimitriou, S./Tzannatos, E.S. (2007), The liberalization of maritime transport and the island regions in EU. Evidence from Greece, European Transport, No. 37, pp.1-15.
Michalopoulos, Constantine (1999), "The Developing Countries in the WTO," World Economy , Vol. 22, No. 1, pp.117-143.
Lupulescu, A lin (2010), “Free access to seaports, the key to a successful maritime transport liberalization,” Railway Pro Logistic, Vol.66, No.11, pp.32-33.
Nesterowicz, Malgorzata (2003), “Freedom to Provide Maritime Transport Services in European Community Law,” Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, Vol.34, No.4, pp.629-645.
Paixão, A.C./Marlow, P.B. (2001), “A review of the European Union shipping policy”, MARITIME. POLICY. NGMT.,Vol.28, No.2, pp.187-198
Paixão, A.C./Marlow, P.B. (2002), “Strengths and weakness of short sea shipping”, Marine Policy, Vol26, pp.167-178.
Pallis, Athanasios A./Tsiotsis, George-Spiros P. (2008), “Maritime interests and the EU port services directive,” European Transport, No.38, pp.17-31.
Psaraftis, Hn (2005), “EU Ports Policy: Where do we go from here? ,” Maritime Economics and Logistics,Vol.7, pp.73-82.
Toshinori, Nemoto (2005), “Intermodal Logistics Policies in the EU, the U.S. and Japan,” 運輸政策研究, Vol.7, No.4, pp.1-14.
Tuda, L. (1992), “Whither the UNCTAD Liner Code: The Liner Code Review Conference”, Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, Vol.23, No.1, pp.101-121
Tunfors, Henrik (2001), “Liner Conferences” , Faculty of Law and University of Lund, spring, pp.1-90.
Zhang, Hongbin (2004/2005),“Maritime Negotiations in the WTO an analysis of the Doha Round”MSc in Maritime Economics and Logistics, pp.1-54

官方文件

歐盟

Amerini, Giuliano, “European port activity in 2009 hit by the general economic crisis,” Eurostat,
(last visited:2011/6/22)
Consultation on the 5th maritime cabotage report comments of CPMR Island Commission June 2009, Island Commission,
(last visited: 2011/03/01)
ESPO (2007), ESPO annual report 2006-2007, Brussel: ESPO.
ESPO (2010), ESPO annual report 2009-2010, Brussel: ESPO.
European Communities (1985), Progress towards a common transport policy-Maritime Policy, Belgium: European Communities
European Communities (1997), Intermodality and intermodal freight transport in the European Union, COM (97) 243 final
European Commission (2001), Reinforcing Quality Service in Sea Ports: A Key for European Transport proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Market Access to Port Service, COM (2001) 35 final
European Commission (2001), WHITE PAPER-European Transport Policy for 2010: time to decide, COM (2001) 370 final.
European Commission (2003), Consultation paper on the review of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 4056/86 laying down detailed rules for the application of Article 81 and 82 of the treaty to maritime transport, 1-24
European Communities (2006), The Annual Energy and Transport Review For 2004, Luxembourg: Official Publications of the European Communities.
European Commission (2007), Communication From the Commission Communication on a European Ports Policy, COM (2007) 616 final
European Commission (2009), Communication and action plan with a view to establishing a European maritime transport space without barriers, COM (2009) 10 final.
European Commission (2009), Report on impact assessment of different options to simplify reduce eliminate administrative procedures for Short Sea Shipping and implementing a European Transport Space without Barriers, SEC (2009) 46
Eurostat (2008), Energy, transport and environment indicators, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union
Eurostat (2009), Energy, transport and environment indicators, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union
“Marco Polo in action,” European Commission- Transport Marco Polo,
< http://ec.europa.eu/transport/marcopolo/ > (2011/2/10)
Monti, Mario, “A time for Change?, Maritime Competition Policy at the Crossroads,” Europa relaeases rapid.
(last visited: 2010/03/09)
Newton, S./Kawabata, Y./Maurer, H./Pearman, A./van Meijeren, J./de Jong, G.,(2010), Ports and their connections within TEN-T, European Commission Directorate-General Mobility and Transport.
Transport Research Knowledge Centre (2009), Freight Transport Thematic Research Summary, European Commission Directorate-General Energy and Transport.
Warnel, Joanna (2010), Fifth report on maritime cabotage-CPMR Islands Commission Workshop, European Commission Directorate-General for Energy and Transport.

WTO

European Communities and their Member States; Hong Kong, China; Japan; Republic of Korea; Norway and Singapore,“Special Session - Joint Statement from the European Communities and their Member States; Hong Kong, China; Japan; Republic of Korea; Norway and Singapore - The Negotiations o[...]on Maritime Transport Services”,WTO,
(last visited:2010/05/04)
“General Agreement on Trade in Services”, WTO,
(last visited:2010/5/30)
“Trade and Development Report”, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
< http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/tdr2007ch3_en.pdf > (last visited:2010/03/01)
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