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系統識別號 U0002-0807201005073100
中文論文名稱 透過電腦輔助教學網站IWiLL針對科技類主修生建構學術性寫作的連貫性
英文論文名稱 Building Coherence in Academic Writing for Science Technology Majors through IWiLL
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 吳宜璇
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Hsuan Wu
學號 695110162
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-06-25
論文頁數 154頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡映雪
委員-范瑞玲
委員-黃月貴
中文關鍵字 連貫性  歷程寫作  心智圖  IWiLL  寫作 
英文關鍵字 Coherence  Process Writing  Mind mapping  IWiLL  Writing 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本研究主要探討和檢驗透過結合互動式網路英語學習網站IWiLL,建構學生對於科技類學術性寫作的連貫性 (coherence)。 雖然許多先前的研究針對錯誤校正 (error correction)的程序和實質的影響探討,尤其在於英文寫作中文法的糾正,但極少數研究是著重於建構學術寫作的連貫性來檢驗對於寫作的功效和文章品質的提升。依據上述的概念,此研究採用歷程寫作 (process writing),心智圖 (mind mapping),和結合電腦資源使學習達到最大的成效。
參與本研究的實驗對象由北部某私立大學20位資訊工程系博士生所組成,且皆選取2009年的下學期春季的寫作研究課程。質性研究的資料蒐集來自於教學前後的寫作測驗;量化研究的資料蒐集則由前後測的問卷調查,其中包含寫作歷程問卷、英文寫作焦慮度問卷,以及IWiLL線上寫作學習問卷。
寫作前後測的分析結果顯示學習者對於文章連貫性技巧的運用(新舊資訊的連結、同義詞和關鍵字的重複,以及指示代名詞所組成的摘要性片語)達統計上顯著的進步。另外,根據兩位評分者針對TOEFL iBT 和Bamberg’s Holistic Coherence的兩個評分項目的前後側寫作分析上,也顯示寫作的整體進步。同時,寫作的進步和連貫性技巧的使用也有顯著的關係。量化結果顯示學習者對於英文寫作的自信心提高且焦慮度下降。
研究結果建議,於此種建構式學習下,對於科技類學術寫作的教學有顯著得成效和突破。另外,本研究同時也鼓勵其他科技領域的寫作教師對於標準課程的規劃可進一步的結合。此外,本研究也發現對於電腦科技教學的結合之困難處需特別關注及考慮,已達到結合電腦輔助教學的最大效益。
英文摘要 This research aims to investigate and examine the effectiveness of building the coherence (Halliday and Hasan, 1976) of scientific/technical academic writing through cooperating the computer-assisted language learning tool, IWiLL (Intelligent Web-based Interactive Language Learning). Although many studies have assessed the procedure and impact of error correction, particularly that of grammar, on EFL writing, few have been done to explore the validity and efficacy of explicating the coherence of academic writing to learners so as to improve their quality of writing. In light of this, process writing, mind mapping, and technology resources were adopted in this research to maximize learning achievement.
The participants in the study are 20 Computer Science and Information Engineering doctoral students enrolled in the Writing Seminar offered by their program at a university in Northern Taiwan in the Spring semester, 2009. The qualitative data were compiled from the pre-and- post English writing assessments and the quantitative data were gathered from the pre-study and post-study questionnaires (English writing process assessment, English writing apprehension questionnaire, and questionnaire of online learning through IWiLL).
The statistical results of pre-study and post-study writing assessments indicated the significant progress of students on the employment of cohesive techniques such as old/new information distribution, synonym and repeated key word, and summary word; meanwhile, the overall improvement also showed in students’ pre-and- post assessments which were graded by two reviewers and based on the criteria of TOEFL iBT and Bamberg’s holistic coherence rubric. Further statistical evidences also projected on students’ pre-and-post writing process assessments and suggested that learners are notably aware of the application of process writing techniques. Furthermore, the data collected from learners’ pre-and-post writing apprehension questionnaires denoted that students’ confidence in composing an academic English writing is enhanced and the anxiety level of writing in English is lower.
The results of this research have arguably shed light on the efficacy of this top-down approach to teaching scientific and technical writing and due to its successful implementation, can be further incorporated into a standard curriculum that can be adopted by practitioners who are now in the field of science and technology. However, some difficulties of incorporating computer technology in such kind of course design have also been observed. These difficulties need to be overcome in order of optimize the role of CALL in language classrooms.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………...i
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………...ii
ABSTRACT.………………………………………...……………………………......iv
TABLE OF CONTENT…..…………………………..................................................vi
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………................ix
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………..........xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION………………………………….......................1
1.1 Background of the Study……………….......................………...……….…....1
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study…………………………...…………...6
1.3 Research Questions…………………………………….……………………...7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW………………...……………...………..9
2.1 Historical Development on the Issue of Error Correction……………………9
2.2 From Textuality to Coherence and Their Significance in Writing Practice….13
2.3 The Merits of Process Writing Approach in L2/FL……….……….…...…....17
2.4 The Concept of Mindmapping in Writing Process…………………………. 19
2.5 The Effectiveness of IWiLL…..……………………………………….……..21
2.6 Theoretical Basis for Lesson Design…………………………………………22
2.7 Summary……………………………….…………………………………….25

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY…………..………………………..…..…..26
3.1 Participants……………………...………...…....…..…...................................26
3.2 Instruments…....................................................................................................27
3.3 Essay Raters of the Pre- and Post-test….……………………………………..31
3.4 Construction of Instructional Materials………………………………….........31
3.4.1 Instructional Setting and Syllabus……………………………………....32
3.4.2 Lesson Plan and Materials…………………………………..………..…33
3.5 Procedure of Data Collection…….…………………………….........…….......36
3.6 Data Analysis………………………………………….……………………....38

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………………….……......…40
4.1 Result and Discussion of the Research Question 1………………………....…40
4.1.1 Reliability between the Two Essay Raters………………….…………...41
4.1.2 Analysis of the Pre- and Post-writing Assessment………….……….......42
4.2 Result and Discussion of the Research Question …...………………………...48
4.2.1 The Reliability and Validity of the Writing Process Questionnaire……..50
4.2.2 Analysis of the Pre- and Post-study Questionnaires on Writing Process Assessment………………………..……………………………………..51
4.3 Result and Discussion of the Research Question 3…………………………...60
4.3.1 The Reliability and Validity of English Writing Apprehension Questionnaire…………………………………………………………...61
4.3.2 Results of the Pre- and Post-study Questionnaires on English Writing Apprehension…………………………………………………………..62
4.3.3 The Reliability and Validity of IWiLL Online Learning Questionnaire...65
4.3.4 Analysis of the Pre- and Post-study Questionnaires on IWiLL Online Learning………………………………………………………………...66
4.4 Summary………………..…………………………………………………….74

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION…………………………………….………...….76
5.1 Discussion and Summary of the Major Findings……………………………..76
5.1.1 Relationship between Coherence Instruction and Writing Quality…….76
5.1.2 Coherence Instruction and the Subjects’ Perception on Process
Writing………………………………………………………………….78
5.1.3 Coherence Instruction, English Writing Apprehension, and the Subjects’ Perception on IWiLL………………………………………………...…79
5.2 Pedagogical Implications………………………………………………….......81
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research…………………….……....83
5.3.1 Limitations of the Study………………………………………………...83
5.3.2 Suggestions for Future Research………………………………………..84

REFERENCES………………………………..…...................…...............................86

APPENDICES
Appendix A Writing Pre-and-post Study Assessment……………………....…..96
Appendix B ETS TOEFL iBT Scoring Rubric for Independent Writing…….....98
Appendix C Bamberg’s Holistic Scale of Coherence……………………….....100
Appendix D English Writing Process Assessment……………………...……..102
Appendix E English Writing Apprehension Questionnaire…………………....107
Appendix F Questionnaire of Online Learning through IWiLL…………….....109
Appendix G Syllabus of Teaching Schedule......................................................112
Appendix H Unit 2---Mind Mapping.................................................................116
Appendix I Unit 3--- Introduction to Paragraph and Cohesion..........................126
Appendix J Unit 6---Writing Principles.............................................................138
Appendix K Peer-review Scoring Rubric...........................................................144
Appendix L The Results of Pre- and Post-Instruction Writing Proficiency Scores and The Use of Cohesive Ties.......................................................146
Appendix M The Examples of Subjects’ Pre- and Post-instruction Writing Proficiency…………………………………………………....….148
Appendix N Descriptive Analysis of the English Writing Apprehension Questionnaire in Two Categories: Positive Statements and Negative Statements………………………………………………………..153

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 The Directions for Students of the Designed Learning Modes…….......33
Table 3.2 The Lesson Plan Constructed for This Study…………………………..35
Table 4.1 Correlation (Reliability) between the Two Essay Raters……………....42
Table 4.2 Paired-Samples T-test of the Writing Assessments……………….........43
Table 4.3 Paired-Sample T-test of the Use of Coherence Techniques in Writing...45
Table 4.4 Descriptive Statistics for the Count of Clauses and Words in Pre- and
Post-writing Tests……………………………………………………..46
Table 4.5 Inter-correlations among Writing Quality, the Use of Old/ New
Information Distribution, Synonym/ Repeated Key Words, Summary
Words, and Linking Words……..…………………………...………...48
Table 4.6 The Course Engagement on Sections of Mind-mapping, Comprehension
Question, Gap-filling Question, Paragraph Writing………...………...49
Table 4.7 Reliability Result of English Writing Process Questionnaire………….50
Table 4.8 Paired-Sample T-test of Writing Process Assessment: Three Individual
Categories…………………………………….…………………….…52
Table 4.9 Subject’ Background Information………………………………...…....53
Table 4.10 Results of the English Writing Process Assessment Questionnaire:
Before Writing……………………………….……………………......55
Table 4.11 Results of the English Writing Process Assessment Questionnaire:
While Writing…………………………………………...…………….57
Table 4.12 Results of the English Writing Process Assessment Questionnaire:
After Writing……………………………………………………….....59
Table 4.13 Reliability Result of English Apprehension Questionnaire………......61
Table 4.14 Factor Analysis on the Validity of English Writing Apprehension
Questionnaire………………………………………………………....62
Table 4.15 Paired-Sample T-test of the English Writing Apprehension on Positive
Statements……………………………………………………........….63
Table 4.16 Paired-Sample T-test of the English Writing Apprehension on Negative
Statements……………………………………...…………………......65
Table 4.17 Reliability Result of IWiLL Online Learning Questionnaire……...…66
Table 4.18 Paired-Sample T-test of Online Learning Experiences through IWiLL:
Four Individual Categories………………………………………….66
Table 4.19 Questionnaire of Online Learning through IWiLL: Part 1.1 Subjects’
General Information about Internet Use…………………………….68
Table 4.20 Questionnaire of Online Learning through IWiLL: Part 1.2 Subjects’
General Information about Internet Use……………………………70
Table 4.21 Results of Questionnaire of Online Learning through IWiLL: Subjects’
Beliefs of IWiLL Learning Experiences and the Available Resources
at the Stage of Pre-writing…………………………….………….….71
Table 4.22 Results of Questionnaire of Online Learning through IWiLL: Subjects’
Beliefs of IWiLL Learning Experiences and the Available Resources
at the Stage of Composing………………………………………...…73
Table 4.23 Results of Questionnaire of Online Learning through IWiLL: Subjects’
Beliefs of IWiLL Learning Experiences and the Available Resources
at the Stage of Revising……………………………..…………….....74
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Coherence-creating Mechanisms in Writing: The Operationalizing
Sequence…………..……………………………………………..……...23
Figure 3.1 The Experiment Procedures and Data Collection………………………38
Figure 4.1 Course Engagement of the Subjects………………………..……..……50
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