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中文論文名稱 企業品牌氣味:獨特的嗅覺行銷路徑
英文論文名稱 Olfactory tells everything: Exclusive odor of corporate brand
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 陳暐岳
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Yeh Chen
電子信箱 u9203001@msg.ndhu.edu.tw
學號 698610283
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-05-08
論文頁數 67頁
口試委員 指導教授-張瑋倫
委員-李月華
委員-張巧真
中文關鍵字 品牌氣味  品牌印象  購買意願  系統動力學 
英文關鍵字 Brand odor  Brand image  Purchase intention  System dynamics 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 今天,我們生活在一個品牌的時代,姓名、數字和符號都可以被賦予意義;我們也生活在一個體驗經濟的時代,透過與生俱來的感官接觸並瞭解品牌。Schmitt(1999)指出,現在的消費者不再只是單純購買產品,而是追求情感連結和個人識別,進而激發出強烈的認同觀感。
品牌氣味不僅是一個行銷工具,也是品牌的一種象徵。本研究建立了品牌與消費者的獨特連結,協助品牌在消費者心目中佔有強烈且確切的識別效果。研究過程中,本研究先探討氣味與品牌的初步連結,接著檢查品牌印象對消費者購買願意的強化效果,最終經由品牌管理回歸品牌氣味對消費者的影響。
主要研究模型採用系統動力學,該研究方法具有互動性、真實性和宏觀性三大特點。互動性可以觀察各變數的影響效果與變化作用;真實性則是藉由數據和方程式分析各變數的增減消長;宏觀性則是可以歸納追蹤十來種不同的變數,透過三項特性,足以協助本研究瞭解氣味如何有效影響消費者心中的品牌認知。因本研究牽涉學派較廣泛,故主要研究方法外,也採用兩套模型解釋氣味的影響力,分別是訊息處理模式和推敲可能性模式,前者解釋消費者的大腦如何接收氣味訊息並轉化為有效資訊,後者說明高低品牌認知對於消費者辨別氣味的差異。

本研究挑選三項觀察重點變數,分別是品牌氣味,品牌印象與消費者購買意願。研究過程中,我們安排品牌印象與消費者購買意願為主要操縱變數,透過高低印象與強弱購買意願的交實驗比較,分析品牌氣味在其中扮演的角色與實際影響力。經過研究發現,儘管品牌氣味對於現今市場尚屬於新穎的行銷手法,但隨著長短不一的時間累積,消費者對於品牌氣味都有正面的回應與體悟,尤其成長曲線的幅度在後期發展越是明顯,證明消費者對於品牌氣味的有感與認識。其中,本研究亦觀察到品牌印象在過程中佔有舉足輕重的地位,因為若消費者對於品牌沒有建立足夠的認知,則品牌氣味再強烈或消費意願再強都是枉然,因為消費者根本對於從何處接觸該品牌都沒有印象,更何況需要實際購買。
本研究提出的貢獻可概分兩層面,學術部分,儘管之前已有研究針對品牌與氣味進行實驗,但我們不僅再次確認氣味對於品牌的實質功效,本研究更進一步創造系統動力學的全新思維進行實驗說明,並連結社會學、心理學與管理學等多種專業學科領域。實務部分,強調品牌氣味的值得投資,確認消費者對於品牌氣味的正向回饋,並提出成長數據與上昇曲線作為佐證,此外,強化品牌與氣味的連結度,確保消費者經由明確的品牌印象提升品牌氣味的認知與接受程度。
英文摘要 Today, we live in an era of brands and a corporation provides a name and its customers identify meaning. It is also the era of the experiential economy, and the shortcut to branding is to bring the product closer to customers. Schmitt (1999) revealed that customers nowadays pursue emotional consumption and personal flavor rather than simply purchasing products, Customers are more likely to purchase products of brands whose “personalities” stimulate strong feelings.
A brand odor is not only a marketing tool, it is also a symbol. This research establishes an exclusive linkage between brand and customer; as the brand occupies a unique identifiable position in the customer’s mind. In addition, we aim to discuss odors are assumed to engage with their brands. Next, we attempt to examine if a customer is willing to purchase the products that are associated with brand of special smell. Finally, we want to discover an exclusive odor that helps customers distinguish a brand from others and keep loyalty.
This research utilizes information processing model and elaboration likelihood model (ELM) as the basis theories to build our model for system dynamics. System dynamics can provide insights into the dynamic changes in interactive behavior that are associated with normal human activities and help develop an awareness of complex events in the real world.
In the stimulation, we select three variables to be major observed factors, which are Brand odor, Brand image, and Purchase intention. We also manipulate strong and weak brand image to affect other two factors, and realize how odor could be an intermediary factor between odors and brand effectively. Experiments reveal that the trend demonstrates even if the use of a brand odor novel, intentions to purchase are cultivated over time, Significantly, brand image plays a critical role in customer mind to judge a brand. Moreover, this study discovered that experiential marketing is effective to capture the interest of customers but not easy to help maintain profits.
Finally, this research provides certain contributions. This research is connected by elucidating the relationship between brand and odor. We also prove the exclusiveness of brand odor by using a long-term simulation method of system dynamics.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Acknowledgement .......................................................................................................... I
中文摘要....................................................................................................................... III
Abstract ..........................................................................................................................V
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background ................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Problem Statement .................................................................................... 3
1.3 Research Question ..................................................................................... 4
1.4 Purpose of Study ........................................................................................ 6
1.5 Contributions ............................................................................................. 7
1.6 Organization of Paper ................................................................................ 8
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................................... 9
2.1 Olfactory Sense .......................................................................................... 9
2.2 Information Processing Model ................................................................. 12
2.3 Elaboration Likelihood Model .................................................................. 15
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................... 17
3.1 System Dynamics ..................................................................................... 17
3.2 Research Framework ................................................................................ 21
3.2.1 Causal Loop Diagram .................................................................... 21
3.2.2 Stock and Flow Diagram ............................................................... 26
CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS .............................................................................................. 29
4.1 Simulate Settings ...................................................................................... 29
4.2 Analysis with Strong Brand Image ........................................................... 31
4.3 Analysis with Weak Brand Image ............................................................. 37
4.4 Validity of System Dynamics .................................................................... 42
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................ 44
5.1 Cross Analysis ........................................................................................... 44
5.1.1 Analysis of Purchase Intention ..................................................... 44
5.1.2 Analysis of Brand Odor ................................................................. 46
5.1.3 Analysis of Brand Image ............................................................... 48
5.2 Conclusion ................................................................................................ 49
5.3 Managerial Implications ........................................................................... 51
5.4 Limitation ................................................................................................. 53
CHAPTER 6 REFERENCE ........................................................................................... 54

List of Tables
Table 1.1 Research Question..........................................................................................5
Table 2.1 Summary of Existing Literatures .................................................................12
Table 3.1 Symbol Description......................................................................................17
Table 4.1 List of Equations in the Simulation..............................................................30

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Procedure of Branding..................................................................................1
Figure 1.2 Important of Five Senses ..............................................................................3
Figure 1.3 Three Purposes of Study...............................................................................7
Figure 2.1 Information Processing Model ...................................................................13
Figure 2.2 Elaboration Likelihood Model ...................................................................15
Figure 3.1 Status of Loops ...........................................................................................19
Figure 3.2 Status of Stock and Flow............................................................................19
Figure 3.3 Status of Time Delay ..................................................................................20
Figure 3.4 Revised Information Processing Model .....................................................22
Figure 3.5 Revised Elaboration Likelihood Model......................................................24
Figure 3.6 Casual Loop Diagram of Odor Delivery ....................................................26
Figure 3.7 Stock and Flow Diagram of Odor Delivery ...............................................28
Figure 4.1 Simulation of Higher Purchase Intention with Higher Brand Image .........33
Figure 4.2 Simulation of Brand Odor with Higher Brand Image and Higher Purchase Intention ....................................................................................................34
Figure 4.3 Simulation of Lower Purchase Intention with Higher Brand Image..........35
Figure 4.4 Simulation of Brand Odor with Higher Brand Image and Lower Purchase Intention ....................................................................................................37
Figure 4.5 Simulation of Higher Purchase Intention with Lower Brand Image..........38
Figure 4.6 Simulation of Brand Odor with Lower Brand Image.................................40
Figure 4.7 Simulation of Lower Purchase Intention with Lower Brand Image...........41
Figure 4.8 Simulation of Brand Odor with Lower Brand Image and Lower Purchase Intention ....................................................................................................42
Figure 5.1 Integrated Curve of Purchase Intention......................................................46
Figure 5.2 Integrated Curve of Brand Odor.................................................................48
Figure 5.3 Integrated Curve of Brand Image ...............................................................49
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