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系統識別號 U0002-0806200523302000
中文論文名稱 結合電化學及薄膜微胞處理程序(MEUF)處理金屬及金屬-螯合劑廢液之研究
英文論文名稱 Combined electrolysis and micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) process for treating wastewaters containing metals or metal/ligand mixtures
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 劉傳崑
研究生英文姓名 Chuan-Kun Liu
學號 891330044
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-05-19
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-李奇旺
委員-陳孝行
委員-王根樹
委員-陳俊成
委員-李柏青
中文關鍵字 結合程序  電化學法  薄膜微胞法  界面活性劑  薄膜阻塞  回收 
英文關鍵字 Hybrid process  Electrolysis process  Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration process  Surfactant  Membrane fouling  Recovery 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文成功的將結合電化學及薄膜微胞法(MEUF)之結合程序運用於去除低濃度銅廢液,其方法為利用MEUF將自由銅離子累積於結合程序中,再利用電化學法還原銅及界面活性劑,在不斷的吸附(MEUF)及脫附(電化學),可經濟有效的處理低濃度金屬銅廢液。根據實驗結果發現,去除效率隨SDS進流濃度、電流密度、pH值及水力停留時間增加而增加,最佳操作條件為當水力停留時間15分鐘、SDS進流濃度5.67mM、pH=6及電流密度66A/m2時,銅去除效率及電流效率可分別達到90.3%及30.5%以上,若以最佳操作條件操作24小時,並不會造成薄膜嚴重的阻塞。添加非離子型界面活性劑 Triton X-100於其臨界微胞濃度以上時,可以有效降低SDS的臨界微胞濃度而且SDS滲出濃度亦可以有效的降低;根據實驗結果發現,去除效率會隨著Triton X-100添加量增加而增加,而且不會影響SDS吸附銅離子的能力,其吸附能力為0.21 mole-Cu/mole-SDS,換句話說,5莫耳SDS可以吸附1莫耳的銅離子,但添加Triton X-100後則會造成薄膜阻塞趨於嚴重。而在混合金屬競爭研究中發現,競爭現象與電負度及金屬原子半徑有密切關係,就本研究而言去除效率依序為 鉛>銅~鎳>鋅,以金屬濃度、SDS濃度及Triton X-100濃度分別為136mg/L、8.5mM及3.01mM為例,鉛、銅、鎳及鋅的去除效率分別為63.8%、18.0%、14.0%及5.2%。另外,薄膜阻塞係數Rc可藉由達西定理求得,由原先起始濃度為13.6mg/L時的0.82 (m-1)上升至136mg/L時的11.28 (m-1) ,造成此現象的原因目前尚未了解,可以於之後再更深入的研究探討。
英文摘要 A novel hybrid process combining electrolysis process and micellar enhanced ultrafiltration process (MEUF) for treatment low-concentration-copper wastewater was developed. While MEUF process is employed to retain copper ions inside the reactor, the electrolysis process liberates copper ions from the micellar-copper complexes and continuously reduces copper ions by electroplating them onto the cathode. Thus the proposed hybrid process is operated as a continuous adsorption (MEUF) and regeneration (electrolysis) process. Experimental results show the removal efficiency of copper increases with increasing feed SDS concentration, current density, initial pH value, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Under the optimum operation condition which has current density of 66A/m2, SDS influent concentration of 5.67mM, pH value of 6, and HRT of 15min, the system was able to obtain copper removal and electrolytic current efficiencies of above 90.3% and 30.5%, respectively, and membrane was not significant with transmembrane pressure (TMP) increasing only around 10% after 24-hour operation.

Addition of a nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene Octyl phenyl ether (Triton X-100), with concentration higher than its critical micellar concentration (CMC), to a MEUF process can decrease the CMC value and permeate concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Results show that the removal efficiency of copper increases with increasing Triton X-100 concentration. The adsorption density (q) of SDS micelles for copper was not affected by Triton X-100 addition with q of around 0.21 mole-Cu per mole-SDS, indicating that each mole copper would need five moles of SDS. However, the membrane fouling was worsening by addition of Triton X-100.

Competitive binding of mixed metals onto SDS micelles was studied, and both atomic electronegative and radius of metals affect their removal efficiencies which are in the order of Pb>Cu≒Ni>Zn. For example, with metals, SDS and Triton X-100 concentration fixed at 136 mg/L of each metals, 8.5mM and 3.01mM, respectively, the metal removal efficiency of Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn are 63.8%, 18.0%, 14.0% and 5.2%, respectively. Membrane fouling is calculation by Darcy’s law, and the membrane fouling resistance (RC) increases from 0.8 to 11.28 (m-1) when metal concentration increasing from 13.6 to 136mg/L. The reason for the increases of membrane fouling with increasing metals concentration is not clear at this point, deserving further investigation in the future.
論文目次 第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究背景及目的 1
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 重金屬污染問題 4
2-1-1 常見之處理技術 4
2-2 薄膜分離技術 7
2-2-1 薄膜分離技術 7
2-2-2薄膜技術面臨的問題及解決之道 8
2-2-3 新穎薄膜技術程序 9
2-3 結合界面活性劑-UF的薄膜微胞法及聚電解質-UF的聚電解質薄膜法 13
2-3-1界面活性劑之分類及其運用 13
2-3-2薄膜微胞法(MEUF) 13
2-3-3聚電解質薄膜法(PEUF) 15
2-3-4 影響因子 17
2-4 電化學處理程序 19
2-4-1 傳統電化學處理法 19
2-4-2 新穎電化學處理法 21
2-4-3界面活性劑在電化學反應中所扮演的角色 22
2-5金屬-螯合劑廢液之處理 24
2-5-1 金屬-螯合劑廢水來源 24
2-5-2 處理金屬-螯合劑廢液程序之比較 25
2-5-3薄膜微胞法去除金屬-螯合劑廢液 27
第三章 實驗設備與方法 29
3-1 實驗設備 29
3-1-1 電化學操作系統 30
3-1-2 薄膜系統 31
3-1-3壓力監測 35
3-1-4採樣系統 35
3-2 實驗流程 36
3-3實驗試劑 37
3-4分析方法 41
3-5實驗步驟及其緣由 43
第四章 結果與討論 46
4-1 比較不同程序對於銅離子的去除 46
4-2電流密度的影響 50
4-3界面活性劑起始濃度的影響 53
4-4 PH值的影響 55
4-5水力停留時間的影響 57
4-6 離子強度的影響 60
4-7 螯合劑種類及濃度的影響 62
4-8 混合界面活性劑的影響 67
4-8-1 以批式實驗探討Triton X-100對銅去除效率及薄膜阻塞的影響 67
4-8-2 以結合程序探討Triton X-100對銅去除效率及薄膜阻塞的影響 72
4-8-3 比較不同材質薄膜對添加Triton X-100後之銅去除效率 75
4-9 結合程序去除混合金屬廢液 77
第五章 數值模式 80
第六章 結論與建議 94
參考文獻 96

圖目錄
圖 1、 薄膜積垢示意圖 9
圖 2、 薄膜微胞處理程序示意圖 14
圖 3、電鍍典型製程與污染來源 25
圖 4、 本結合系統處理含銅-螯合劑廢液之示意圖 28
圖 5、 結合程序實驗設備圖 29
圖 6、批式實驗設備圖 30
圖 7、反應槽示意圖 31
圖 8、薄膜清洗示意圖 34
圖 9、 薄膜化學清洗步驟 34
圖 10、 壓力-電流轉換器的電流與壓力轉換圖 35
圖 11、 實驗流程圖 36
圖 12、 利用COD-IC及甲烯藍分析法分析SDS 41
圖 13、比較各種程序對銅離子去除的效果 48
圖 14、滲出液及滯留於反應槽中SDS濃度隨時間變化的關係圖 49
圖 15、銅去除率於不同操作電壓下隨時間的關係圖 50
圖 16、 比較結合系統與電化學法對於銅去除率及電流效率的關係圖 52
圖 17、 SDS進料濃度的影響 54
圖 18、 PH值對銅去除的影響 56
圖 19、 水力停留時間對銅去除率的影響 58
圖 20、 水力停留時間對電流效率及SDS滲出的影響 58
圖 21、 水力停留時間對薄膜穿透壓力的影響 59
圖 22、 NACL對銅去除及SDS滲流濃度的影響 61
圖 23、 NACL濃度對薄膜穿透壓力的影響 61
圖24、 比較各種程序對銅-螯合劑去除的效果 63
圖 25、 電流密度對處理含銅-螯合劑廢水的關係 65
圖 26、 水力停留時間對處理含銅-螯合劑廢水的關係 65
圖 27、 薄膜穿透壓力與電流密度的關係圖,此壓力為12小時的瞬時變化圖 66
圖 28、 薄膜穿透壓力與水力停留時間的關係圖,此壓力為15小時的瞬時變化 66
圖 29、 添加不同濃度的TRITON X-100於SDS-MEUF系統中對銅離子去除的影響 68
圖 30、 SDS起始濃度與滲出液濃度的關係圖 69
圖 31、 SDS吸附能力與滲出液中銅離子的關係圖 70
圖 32、 薄膜阻塞變化隨起始金屬濃度的關係圖 71
圖 33、校正黏度變化後之薄膜阻塞變化圖 72
圖 34、 添加不同濃度之TRITON X-100於結合程序中去除銅金屬廢液 73
圖 35、 添加不同濃度之TRITON X-100於結合程序中去除銅金屬廢液之起始濃度與滲流濃度關係圖 74
圖 36、 添加TRITON X-100對結合程序之薄膜穿透壓力的影響 74
圖 37、 未連續添加SDS下銅去除效率及滲出濃度隨時間變化圖 76
圖 38、 混合金屬對TIRTON-SDS-MEUF去除效率、薄膜阻塞及金屬負荷關係圖 78
圖 39、混合金屬對結合程序之金屬去除效率關係圖 79
圖 40、結合程序中滲出液與滯留液的瞬時濃度變化關係圖 80
圖 41、模式所設計之實驗流程圖 82
圖 42、模擬電流密度的影響,理論銅去除效率與實際銅去除效率的關係圖 89
圖 43、模擬SDS起始濃度的影響,理論銅去除效率與實際銅去除效率的關係圖 91
圖 44、模擬水力停留時間的影響,理論銅去除效率與實際銅去除效率的關係圖 93

表目錄
表 1、 一般電鍍廢水的水質 4
表 2、 薄膜特性及其操作方式 7
表 3、 薄膜阻塞物及其解決方法 9
表 4、 本結合程序所使用的薄膜之基本資料 32
表 5、批式實驗所使用的薄膜之基本資料 33
表 6、 實驗中所使用的重金屬藥劑 37
表 7、 實驗中所使用的界面活性劑藥劑 38
表 8、 實驗中所使用的螯合劑藥劑 39
表 9、 量測界面活性劑SDS所使用的藥劑 39
表 10、 配置脫脂酸所使用的藥劑 40
表 11、 利用電學法以批次式處理CU-EDTA廢水 63
表 12、 TRITON X-100起始濃度與去除效率的關係表 72
表 13、於固定TRITON X-100及SDS濃度下,比較不同材質之薄膜對銅之去除效率 75
表 14、 金屬元素電負度及原子半徑表 78
表 15、摸擬電流密度的影響 88
表 16、摸擬SDS起始濃度的影響 90
表 17、摸擬水力停留時間的影響 92


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Lin, C.-F.,Huang, Y.-J.,Hao, O.J. 1999. Ultrafiltration processes for removing humic substances: effect of molecular weight fractions and PAC treatment. Water Research 33(5), 1252-1264.
Liu, C.-K.,Li, C.-W. 2004. Simultaneous recovery of copper and surfactant by electrolytic process from synthetic solution prepared to simulate concentrate waste stream of micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) process. Desalination 169(2), 185-192.
Liu, C.-K.,Li, C.-W.,Lin, C.-Y. 2004. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration process (MEUF) for removing copper from wastewater containing ligands. Chemosphere 57(7), 629-634.
Liu, C.-K.,Li, C.-W. 2005. Combining electrolysis and micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) processes for metal remova. Separation and Purification Technology 43(1), 25-31.
Madaeni, S.S. 1999. The application of membrane technology for water disinfection. Water Research 33(2), 301-308.
Madaeni, S.S.,Mohamamdi, T.,Moghadam, M.K. 2001. Chemical cleaning of reverse osmosis membranes. Desalination 134(1-3), 77-82.
Madden, T.H.,Datye, A.K.,Fulton, M.,Prairie, M.R.,Majumdar, S.A.,Stange, B.M. 1997. Oxidation of Metal-EDTA Complexes by TiO2 Photocatalysis. Environmental Science & Technology 31(12), 3475-3481.
Marcucci, M.,Ciardelli, G.,Matteucci, A.,Ranieri, L.,Russo, M. 2002. Experimental campaigns on textile wastewater for reuse by means of different membrane processes. Desalination 149(1-3), 137-143.
Matis, K.A.,Peleka, E.N.,Zamboulis, D.,Erwe, T.,Mavrov, V. 2004. Air sparging during the solid/liquid separation by microfiltration: application of flotation. Separation and Purification Technology 40(1), 1-7.
Mavrova, V.,Erwe, T.,B16cher, C.,Chmiel, H. 2003. Study of new integrated processes combining adsorption membrane separation and flotation for heavy metal removal from wastewater. Desalination 157, 97-l 04.
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Molinari, R.,Gallo, S.,Argurio, P. 2004. Metal ions removal from wastewater or washing water from contaminated soil by ultrafiltration-complexation. Water Research 38, 593-600.
Mulligan, C.N.,Yong, R.N.,Gibbs, B.F. 2001. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of contaminated soil: a review. Engineering Geology 60(1-4), 371-380.
Mulligan, C.N.,Eftekhari, F. 2003. Remediation with surfactant foam of PCP-contaminated soil. Engineering Geology 70(3-4), 269-279.
Muslehiddinoglu, J.,Uludag, Y.,Ozbelge, H.O.,Yilmaz, L. 1998. Effect of operating parameters on selective separation of heavy metals from binary mixtures via polymer enhanced ultrafiltration. Journal of Membrane Science 140(2), 251-266.
Muthukumaran, S.,Yang, K.,Seuren, A.,Kentish, S.,Ashokkumar, M.,Stevens, G.W.,Grieser, F. 2004. The use of ultrasonic cleaning for ultrafiltration membranes in the dairy industry. Separation and Purification Technology 39, 99-107.
Paulenova, A.,Rajec, P.,Jezikova, M. 1998. Preconcentration of cadmium by MEUF in sodium dodecylsulphate solutions. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 228(1-2), 119.
Porter, J.J.,Gomes, A.C. 2000. The rejection of anionic dyes and salt from water solutions using a polypropylene microfilter. Desalination 128(1), 81-90.
Rathore, N.S.,Sonawane, J.V.,Kumar, A.,Venugopalan, A.K.,Singh, R.K.,Bajpai, D.D.,Shuki, J.P. 2001. Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane: a novel technique for separation and recovery of plutonium from aqueous acidic wastes. Journal of Membrane Science 189, 119-128.
Ritchie, S.M.C.,Bhattacharyya, D. 2002. Membrane-based hybrid processes for high water recovery and selective inorganic pollutant separation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 92(1), 21-32.
Rivas, B.L.,Moreno-Villoslada, I. 2001. Polyelectrolyte behavior of three copolymers of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid and N-acryloyl-N′-methylpiperazine studied by ultrafiltration. Journal of Membrane Science 187(1-2), 271-275.
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陳宜秀. 民國91年. 天然有機物對於UF薄膜阻堙機制之探討. 碩士論文.
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Ahmed, A.M.,Sedahmed, G.H. 1989. Effect of surfactants on the rate of mass transfer at gas-evolving electrodes. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 19(2), 219-224.
Akita, S.,Yang, L.,Takeuchi, H. 1997. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration of gold(III) with nonionic surfactant. Journal of Membrane Science 133(2), 189-194.
Allen, H.E.,Chen, P.-H. 1993. Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by EDTA Incorporating Electrochemical Recovery of Metal and EDTA. Environmental Progress 12(4), 284-293.
Baek, K.,Yang, J.-W. 2004. Cross-flow micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration for removal of nitrate and chromate : competitive binding. Journal of Hazardous Materials B108, 119-123.
Barron-Zambrano, J.,Laborie, S.,Viers, P.,Rakib, M.,Durand, G. 2002. Mercury removal from aqueous solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration. Desalination 144, 201-206.
Baticle, P.,Kiefer, C.,Lakhchaf, N.,Leclerc, O.,Persin, M.,Sarrazin, J. 2000. Treatment of nickel containing industrial effluents with a hybrid process comprising of polymer complexation-ultrafiltration-electrolysis. Separation and Purification Technology 18(3), 195-207.
Bejankiwar, R.S. 2002. Electrochemical treatment of cigarette industry wastewater: feasibility study. Water Research 36(17), 4386-4390.
Bektas, N.,Akbulut, H.,Inan, H.,Dimoglo, A. 2004. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions by electro-coagulation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 106(2-3), 101-105.
Benjamin, M.m. 2002. Water Chemistry. Published by McGraw-Hill.
Blocher, C.,Dorda, J.,Mavrov, V.,Chmiel, H.,Lazaridis, N.K.,Matis, K.A. 2003. Hybrid flotation - Membrane filtration process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. Water Research 37, 4018-4026.
Bourgeous, K.N.,Darby, J.L.,Tchobanoglous, G. 2001. Ultrafiltration of Wsatewater:Effect of Particles, Mode of Operation, and Backwash Effectiveness. Water Research 35(1), 77-90.
Braghetta, A.,DiGiano, F.A.,Ball, W.P. 1998. NOM Accumulation at NF Membrane Surface: Impact of Chemistry and Shear. Journal of Environmental Engineering 124(11), 1087-1098.
Brillas, E.,Calpe, J.C.,Casado, J. 2000. Mineralization of 2,4-D by advanced electrochemical oxidation processes. Water Research 34(8), 2253-2262.
Brillas, E.,Casado, J. 2002. Aniline degradation by Electro-Fenton and peroxi-coagulation processes using a flow reactor for wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 47(3), 241-248.
Canizares, P.,Perez, A.,Camarillo, R.,Linares, J.J. 2004. A semi-continuous laboratory-scale polymer enhanced ultrafiltration process for the recovery of cadmium and lead from aqueous effluents. Journal of Membrane Science 240(1-2), 197-209.
Chen, B.G.,Chen, X.,Chen, X. 2000. Electrocoagulation and Electroflotation of Restaurant Wastewater. Journal of Environmental Engineering 126(9), 858-863.
Chen, J.P.,Wang, X. 2000. Removing copper, zinc, and lead ion by granular activated carbon in pretreated fixed-bed columns. Separation and Purification Technology 19(3), 157-167.
Chiarle, S.,Ratto, M.,Rovatti, M. 2000. Mercury removal from water by ion exchange resins adsorption. Water Research 34(11), 2971-2978.
Childress, A.E.,Elimelech, M. 1996. Effect of solution chemistry on the surface charge of polymeric reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 119(2), 253-268.
Childress, A.E.,Elimelech, M. 2000. Relating Nanofiltration Membrane Performance to Membrane Charge (Electrokinetic) Characteristics. Environmental Science & Technology 34, 3710-3716.
Chou, S.,Huang, Y.-H.,Lee, S.-N.,Huang, G.-H.,Huang, C. 1999. Treatment of high strength hexamine-containing wastewater by electro-Fenton method. Water Research 33(3), 751-759.
Dilek, C.,Ozbelge, H.O.,Bicak, N.,Yilmaz, L. 2002. Removal of boron from aqueous solutions by continuous polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration with polyvinyl alcohol. Separation Science and Technology 37(6), 1257-1271.
Doong, R.-a.,Wu, Y.-W.,Lei, W.-g. 1998. Surfactant enhanced remediation of cadmium contaminated soils. Water Science and Technology 37(8), 65-71.
Fane, A.G.,Beatson, P.,Li, H. 2000. Membrane fouling and its control in environmental applications. Water Science and Technology 41(10-11), 303-308.
Fillipi, B.R.,Brant, L.W.,Christian, J.F.S.D. 1999. Use of Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration at Low Surfactant Concentrations and with Anionic Surfactant Mixtures. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 213, 68-80.
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Liu, C.-K.,Li, C.-W. 2004. Simultaneous recovery of copper and surfactant by electrolytic process from synthetic solution prepared to simulate concentrate waste stream of micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) process. Desalination 169(2), 185-192.
Liu, C.-K.,Li, C.-W.,Lin, C.-Y. 2004. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration process (MEUF) for removing copper from wastewater containing ligands. Chemosphere 57(7), 629-634.
Liu, C.-K.,Li, C.-W. 2005. Combining electrolysis and micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) processes for metal remova. Separation and Purification Technology 43(1), 25-31.
Madaeni, S.S. 1999. The application of membrane technology for water disinfection. Water Research 33(2), 301-308.
Madaeni, S.S.,Mohamamdi, T.,Moghadam, M.K. 2001. Chemical cleaning of reverse osmosis membranes. Desalination 134(1-3), 77-82.
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Marcucci, M.,Ciardelli, G.,Matteucci, A.,Ranieri, L.,Russo, M. 2002. Experimental campaigns on textile wastewater for reuse by means of different membrane processes. Desalination 149(1-3), 137-143.
Matis, K.A.,Peleka, E.N.,Zamboulis, D.,Erwe, T.,Mavrov, V. 2004. Air sparging during the solid/liquid separation by microfiltration: application of flotation. Separation and Purification Technology 40(1), 1-7.
Mavrova, V.,Erwe, T.,B16cher, C.,Chmiel, H. 2003. Study of new integrated processes combining adsorption membrane separation and flotation for heavy metal removal from wastewater. Desalination 157, 97-l 04.
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Molinari, R.,Gallo, S.,Argurio, P. 2004. Metal ions removal from wastewater or washing water from contaminated soil by ultrafiltration-complexation. Water Research 38, 593-600.
Mulligan, C.N.,Yong, R.N.,Gibbs, B.F. 2001. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of contaminated soil: a review. Engineering Geology 60(1-4), 371-380.
Mulligan, C.N.,Eftekhari, F. 2003. Remediation with surfactant foam of PCP-contaminated soil. Engineering Geology 70(3-4), 269-279.
Muslehiddinoglu, J.,Uludag, Y.,Ozbelge, H.O.,Yilmaz, L. 1998. Effect of operating parameters on selective separation of heavy metals from binary mixtures via polymer enhanced ultrafiltration. Journal of Membrane Science 140(2), 251-266.
Muthukumaran, S.,Yang, K.,Seuren, A.,Kentish, S.,Ashokkumar, M.,Stevens, G.W.,Grieser, F. 2004. The use of ultrasonic cleaning for ultrafiltration membranes in the dairy industry. Separation and Purification Technology 39, 99-107.
Paulenova, A.,Rajec, P.,Jezikova, M. 1998. Preconcentration of cadmium by MEUF in sodium dodecylsulphate solutions. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 228(1-2), 119.
Porter, J.J.,Gomes, A.C. 2000. The rejection of anionic dyes and salt from water solutions using a polypropylene microfilter. Desalination 128(1), 81-90.
Rathore, N.S.,Sonawane, J.V.,Kumar, A.,Venugopalan, A.K.,Singh, R.K.,Bajpai, D.D.,Shuki, J.P. 2001. Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane: a novel technique for separation and recovery of plutonium from aqueous acidic wastes. Journal of Membrane Science 189, 119-128.
Ritchie, S.M.C.,Bhattacharyya, D. 2002. Membrane-based hybrid processes for high water recovery and selective inorganic pollutant separation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 92(1), 21-32.
Rivas, B.L.,Moreno-Villoslada, I. 2001. Polyelectrolyte behavior of three copolymers of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid and N-acryloyl-N′-methylpiperazine studied by ultrafiltration. Journal of Membrane Science 187(1-2), 271-275.
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