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系統識別號 U0002-0803201216023100
中文論文名稱 分音節與英文多音節字彙教學之研究
英文論文名稱 The Role of Phonological Syllabification in the Teaching and Learning of English Polysyllabic Words
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 林澤宏
研究生英文姓名 Tse-Hung Lin
學號 893010180
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-01-10
論文頁數 253頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳秀潔
委員-鄧慧君
委員-范瑞玲
委員-王藹玲
委員-張雅慧
中文關鍵字 多音節單字  分音節  拼字錯誤  音韻覺識  字形覺識  構詞覺識  英文字彙習得 
英文關鍵字 polysyllabic words  phonological syllabification  spelling errors  phonological awareness  orthographic awareness  morphological awareness  vocabulary acquisition 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討按照多音節字彙的「實際發音」將其分成個別音節的教學內容,在增進臺灣的英語文學習者習得多音節字彙之成效上,所能扮演的角色。本研究的參與者,是三十一名就讀北臺灣某技術學院二技部應用外語系一年級的學生。研究者編製二份包含不同單字的分音節相關知識及能力測驗試卷,供參與者進行前測、後測及延宕後測。前測之後的三個星期中,參與者接受五節由作者開發的「英文多音節字彙的分音節」教學。參與者的作答內容及個人資料,則由研究者進行量化與質性的分析。
量化分析的結果顯示,在三次測驗中,參與者在B(計算音節數)與C(選出正確分成音節的單字)、C與D1(聽寫單字,拼寫出全部字母始得分)、C與D2(單字中正確拼寫出的音節皆可得分)三個子測驗之間的平均分數,皆呈現統計的顯著正相關。變異分析(ANOVA)的結果說明,在三次測驗中,當以單字中正確拼寫出的音節數計分時,參與者的測驗分數確實呈現統計上的顯著差異。再者,分音節教學意見調查問卷的結果顯示,參與者認為,整體而言,英文多音節單字分音節教學確實有助於增進其學習、記憶及拼寫英文多音節字彙的能力。而質性分析的結果則顯示,參與者拼寫多音節單字的錯誤,可以區分為音韻、字形及構詞三個類別。以上這些結果說明,多音節字彙的分音節教學,對於英語文學習者習得多音節單字之成效,確實具有顯著程度的影響。
本研究之發現對臺灣的英語文教學提供多項啟示。首先,臺灣的英語文學習者應該「回歸基本」,確實掌握英文字母的正確發音,熟諳英語語音與英文字母的對應,學習正確區辨英語語音與英文字母,以利充分理解「音節」的概念。其次,教師可教導學習者應用本研究提議之「口手並用,邊唸邊拼寫」的多感官方法;亦即,按照多音節單字的發音將其分成音節,然後在逐一唸出各個音節的同時,動手拼寫出該單字的全部字母。最重要的是,教師應該有系統地教導學習者如何整合音韻、字形及構詞這三個語文領域的知識,以協助其提升習得英文多音節字彙的成效。
英文摘要 This study investigated the role of an instruction in the principle of phonological syllabification—the division of polysyllabic words into their constituent syllables—in facilitating Taiwanese EFL learners’ acquisition of English polysyllabic words.
Participants were 31 first-year Applied English majors in a two-year program at an institute of technology in northeastern Taiwan. They took two parallel versions (serving as the pretest, the posttest, and the retention test) of the Syllabification Skills Test consisting of four subtests. Over a period of three weeks, they received the Phonological Syllabification Instruction for five class periods. Data were analyzed using the nonparametric Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient and a one-way repeated measures ANOVA.
Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the participants’ mean scores on the Subtests B (syllable counting) and C (syllable division), C and D1 (dictated spelling, scores assigned to fully correct spellings of words), as well as C and D2 (scores awarded to correctly spelled syllables in words) in all three tests. However, no such correlation existed between the participants’ performance on the Subtest A (phoneme counting) and their performance on the Subtest B. The results of ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference in the participants’ mean scores on the dictated spelling subtest across all three tests, when their written spellings were rated according to the number of correctly spelled syllables in words. The overall results of the Participant Perception Survey Questionnaire revealed that the participants felt that the Phonological Syllabification Instruction, as a whole, was conducive to improving their ability to learn and memorize English polysyllabic words. Finally, an in-depth qualitative analysis indicated that the participants made spelling errors on almost all linguistic features identified in each of the three broad linguistic categories: phonology, orthography, and morphology. These results suggest that the Phonological Syllabification Instruction does have a role in the learning of English polysyllabic words in Taiwanese EFL learners.
The findings from this study have important implications for English Language Teaching in Taiwan. First, Taiwanese EFL learners need to master letter name knowledge, sound–spelling correspondences, and the distinction between sounds and letters. Second, teachers may teach learners to “divide and conquer” polysyllabic words syllable by syllable, using the multisensory approach proposed in this study. Above all, it is suggested that educators teach learners to integrate knowledge of the three linguistic categories that is required to master English polysyllabic words effectively.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Acknowledgments… i
Chinese Abstract… iii
Abstract… iv
Table of Contents… vi
List of Tables… ix
List of Appendices… xi

Chapter 1 Introduction… 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem… 1
1.2 Statement of the Purpose… 8
1.3 Significance of the Study… 10
1.4 Definitions of Terms… 13
1.5 Organization of the Dissertation… 15

Chapter 2 Review of the Literature… 18
2.1 The Significance of Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention… 18
2.2 The Importance of Spelling… 23
2.3 The Types of Knowledge Used in Spelling… 29
2.4 The Challenge of Acquiring English Polysyllabic Words… 30
2.5 The Need for Improving the Efficacy of Polysyllabic Word Acquisition… 32
2.6 The Study of English Syllabification… 34
2.7 The Compilation of a Preliminary Inventory of Suitable Target Words… 38
2.7.1 The Materials That Had Been Taken Into Account… 39
2.7.2 The Five Principles of Word Selection… 44
2.7.3 The Five Principles of Word Exclusion… 55
2.8 The Development of the Syllabification Skills Test… 63
2.8.1 The Phoneme Counting Subtest… 64
2.8.2 The Syllable Counting Subtest… 69
2.8.3 The Syllable Division Subtest… 70
2.8.4 The Dictated Spelling Subtest… 70
2.9 A Proposed Multisensory Approach to Enhancing the Accuracy of the Written Spellings of English Polysyllabic Words… 71
2.10 Research Questions… 74

Chapter 3 Method… 76
3.1 Participants… 76
3.2 Materials… 77
3.2.1 The Consent Form… 78
3.2.2 The Demographic Survey Questionnaire… 79
3.2.3 The Syllabification Skills Test… 79
3.2.4 The Phonological Syllabification Instruction… 91
3.2.5 The Participant Perception Survey Questionnaire… 93
3.3 Procedures… 94
3.3.1 The Pilot Test… 95
3.3.2 The Main Study… 99
3.4 Scoring Methods… 102
3.5 Data Analyses… 103
3.5.1 Data Screening …104
3.5.2 Statistical Procedures… 105

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion… 110
4.1 The Pilot Test… 111
4.1.1 Main Characteristics of the Participants… 111
4.1.2 Results of Data Screening… 111
4.1.3 Item Analysis and Test Reliability… 113
4.1.4 Participants’ Performance on the Syllabification Skills Test… 114
4.1.5 Correlations Between the Subtests of the Syllabification Skills Test… 116
4.1.6 Misspellings Produced by Participants… 117
4.2 The Main Study… 118
4.2.1 Main Characteristics of the Participants… 118
4.2.2 Results of Data Screening… 118
4.2.3 Item Analysis and Test Reliability… 124
4.2.4 Participants’ Performance on the Three Measures… 128
4.2.5 Correlations Between the Subtests in the Three Measures… 130
4.2.6 Comparisons Between Participants’ Performance on the Three Measures… 133
4.2.7 Participants’ Perceptions of the Phonological Syllabification Instruction… 138
4.2.8 Types and Causes of Spelling Errors Produced by Participants… 144

Chapter 5 Conclusions… 163
5.1 Summary of the Study… 163
5.2 Pedagogical Implications… 169
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Study… 172

References… 174
Appendices… 200

List of Tables
Table 2.1 Numbers of Types of Polysyllabic Words in the Revised GSL… 44
Table 3.1 The Numbers of Individual Word Types in Subtests Across Forms A, B, and C of the Syllabification Skills Test… 81
Table 3.2 Word Length, Number of Syllables, and Word Frequency of the Items on the Phoneme Counting Subtest (A) … 85
Table 3.3 Word Length, Number of Syllables, and Word Frequency of the Items on the Syllable Counting Subtest (B) … 86
Table 3.4 Word Length, Number of Syllables, and Word Frequency of the Items on the Syllable Division Subtest (C) … 88
Table 3.5 Word Length, Number of Syllables, and Word Frequency of the Items on the Dictated Spelling Subtest (D) … 90
Table 4.1 Main Characteristics of Participants in the Pilot Test (N = 29) … 112
Table 4.2 Mean Performance Scores on Subtests of the Syllabification Skills Test (Form A, Pilot Test) … 115
Table 4.3 Correlations Between Subtests of the Syllabification Skills Test (Form A, Pilot Test) … 116
Table 4.4 Main Characteristics of Participants in the Main Study (N = 31) … 119
Table 4.5 A Partial List of Test Items With Missing Values on Subtest D in Three Forms of the Syllabification Skills Test… 121
Table 4.6 Outliers Identified in the Main Study… 122
Table 4.7 Normality Assessments for all Variables… 123
Table 4.8 Means of Item Difficulty (P) and Item Discrimination (D) Indices for Each Subtest… 125
Table 4.9 Reliability Analysis for Each Subtest in Three Measures… 128
Table 4.10 Mean Performance Scores on Three Forms of the Syllabification Skills Test… 129
Table 4.11 Correlations Between Subtests in Three Forms of the Syllabification Skills Test… 131
Table 4.12 Paired-Samples t Tests of Participants’ Performance Between Pretest and Posttest (N = 29) … 134
Table 4.13 Paired-Samples t Tests of Participants’ Performance Between Posttest and Retention Test (N = 29) … 135
Table 4.14 Comparison of Participants’ Performance on Subtests A, D1, D2, Test 1, and Test 2 Across the Three Measures (N = 29) … 137
Table 4.15 Comparison of Participants’ Performance on Subtests B and C Across the Three Measures (N = 29) … 138
Table 4.16 Mean Scores and Standard Deviations of Participants’ Perceptions of the Phonological Syllabification Instruction (N = 30) … 140
Table 4.17 Syllable Types and Linguistic Features Contained in the Test Items on Subtest D in Three Measures… 149

List of Appendices
Appendix A A Preliminary Inventory of Suitable Test Words (Monosyllabic Words) … 200
Appendix B1 Consent Form… 203
Appendix B2 Consent Form (Chinese Version) … 204
Appendix C1 The Demographic Survey Questionnaire… 205
Appendix C2 The Demographic Survey Questionnaire (Chinese Version) … 206
Appendix D1 The Syllabification Skills Test, Form A (Pilot Test) … 207
Appendix D2 The Syllabification Skills Test, Form A (Pilot Test, Chinese Version, With Answer Key ) … 210
Appendix E1 The Syllabification Skills Test, Form B (Pretest) … 213
Appendix E2 The Syllabification Skills Test, Form B (Pretest, Chinese Version, With Answer Key) … 216
Appendix F1 The Syllabification Skills Test, Form C (Posttest) … 219
Appendix F2 The Syllabification Skills Test, Form C (Posttest, Chinese Version, With Answer Key) … 222
Appendix G1 The Syllabification Skills Test, Form D (Retention Test) … 225
Appendix G2 The Syllabification Skills Test, Form D (Retention Test, Chinese Version, With Answer Key) … 228
Appendix H The First Handout on the Phonological Syllabification Instruction… 231
Appendix I The Second Handout on the Phonological Syllabification Instruction… 234
Appendix J1 The Participant Perception Survey Questionnaire… 239
Appendix J2 The Participant Perception Survey Questionnaire (Chinese Version) … 243
Appendix K Misspellings Made by Participants in the Pilot Test… 246
Appendix L Misspellings Made by Participants in the Main Study… 248
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