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中文論文名稱 機器手臂實體切割術與製造的建築應用-以保利龍為材料的減法數位製造
英文論文名稱 The Application of Robotic Arm in Stereotomy and Architectural Constructions – A Subtraction Digital Fabrication based on Polystyrene Foam Material
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 109
研究生中文姓名 姚垠仲
研究生英文姓名 Yaw Meng Hong
學號 606365012
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2020-01-07
論文頁數 208頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳珍誠
指導教授-柯純融
委員-陳宏銘
委員-張恭領
中文關鍵字 切石術  機器手臂製造  熱熔絲切割  形態找尋  側推性網狀結構分析 
英文關鍵字 Stereotomy  Robotic Fabrication  Hot-wire Cutting  Form Finding  Thrust Network Analysis 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 Stereotomy也被稱之為 “切石術” ,一種集合了關於石材特性和構造的理論以及實踐知識的技術,而這技術在現代建築中已被人們遺忘了很長的一段時間了。在古代建築中,傳統的實體切割術是一種需要長時間去實踐的藝術,並廣泛分佈於整個古代和中世紀的地中海地區。過去,實體切割術常被視為建築領域的經典學科,直到工業革命的崛起,建築材料的使用便已改成為鐵,鋼和混凝土。近年來,數位製造和參數化設計已開始被視為當代建築中的技術趨勢。經由這些技術,出現了數位實體切割術,此技術重新復興了將石材用作建築的結構元素。如今,在實體切割術領域裡已有一些研究嘗試將傳統的石材構造與新的製造方式,例如CNC和機器手臂相互結合。此結合開始顯示出了驚人的效果,這些效果也已開始在展覽中展示,原型化甚至開始被使用於建造。另外,在建築中機器手臂的應用也引起了設計師與建築師極大的興趣。這些機器手臂可被自定義或與特定某些任務的設備相結合,使其成為最近創新性建築探索的媒介。儘管許多研究人員與從業人員提出了機器手臂技術在建築實踐中的應用建議,但該領域仍處於起步階段,因此需要設計和建築研究人員進行進一步研究。
本研究討論了數位設計與製造相結合的實體切割術的設計探索,將研究內容分為五個部分。在第一部分中,通過文獻回顧,建立了基本的機器手臂知識,在其中制定了一套用於機器手臂保利龍切割的從設計到製造的基本過程。第二部分,將開發一系列原型設計,以討論通過機器手臂保利龍切割來製造複雜與定制設計的幾何形狀的經驗研究,同時關注模塊化元素和連接類型,這是自支撐結構的必要條件。在第三部分中,介紹了兩種不同尺寸的用於機器人保麗龍切割的末端執行器工具的製造過程,此新工具將為以後的設計研究提供更多的穩定性,靈活性和準確性。對於第四部分,本論文進一步討論了另外兩種方法,其中第一種是聯合製造法,此方法涉及兩個機器手臂來執行不同的任務,以研究這種複雜的製造方法與單個機器手臂相比的差異和局限性,第二種則是玻璃纖維增強聚合物(FRP)的應用,以研究數位實體切割術的其他潛在用途,例如假設工程,可用於生產輕巧和自由形式的FRP立面。在第五部分中,本論文討論了使用RhinoVAULT進行薄殼結構的設計探索,RhinoVAULT是一種基於侧推性網狀結構分析(TNA)形態找尋的數位設計工具,隨後基於此設計工具設計並製造了一座1:1的構築。
本研究最後討論了這些各種設計工具和減法切割方法以及由此產生的從設計到製造的工作流程,並提出了未來的工作建議。
英文摘要 Stereotomy that also known as “Cutting Stone” originated as a technique which gathered theoretical and practical knowledge about the properties and construction of stone materials which have been forgotten far long in current architecture. In ancient architecture, traditional stereotomy is an art that been practiced over a wide chronological span and widespread across the ancient and medieval Mediterranean. In the past, stereotomy was often regarded as a classical discipline in the architectural field. Until the rise of the Industrial Revolution, the use of building materials has changed to iron, steel, and concrete. Recent years, digital fabrication and parametric design have started to be seen as a technological tendency in contemporary architecture. From these techniques, came the Digital Stereotomy, a rescue of the use of stone as a structural element of construction. While nowadays there is some research in the field of stereotomy decided to try to combine traditional stone construction with new ways of production, like CNC’s and robotic arms. This combination is starting to show amazing results, which are being exposed in exhibitions, prototyped and even constructed. In addition, the use of the robotic arm in architecture has created considerable interest among designers and architects. The robotic arm enables coupled with custom or task-specific mounted devices and digital descriptions where these recently become the medium for innovative architectural explorations. While numerous researchers and practitioners have suggested robotics applications in architectural practice, this sector is still in its infancy and therefore requires further study by design and architectural researchers.
This research discusses the design exploration of stereotomy architecture with the integration of digital design and fabrication. The paper presents the research findings into five parts. In the first part, through literature reviews, establish a basic robotic knowledge database where a fundamental design-to-fabrication process for robotic foam cutting is developed. The second part, a series of prototype designs will be developed to discuss empirical research into the manufacture of complex and custom-designed geometries by means of robotic foam cutting, focusing specifically on modular elements and joint typologies which are an essential condition for self-supporting structures. In the third part, the making process of two different sizes of end-effector tool for robotic foam cutting is presented where the new tools are to provide more stability, flexibility and accuracy for the later design research fabrication. For the fourth part, the paper further discusses two other methods in which the first is the conjoined fabrication method, involving two robotic arms to perform different tasks to research the differences and limitations of this complex fabrication method compared to the single robotic arm and the second is the application of fibreglass reinforced polymer (FRP), studying the other potential use of the digital stereotomy structures that could act as a falsework to produce lightweight and freeform FRP façade. In the fifth part, the paper discusses the design exploration of funicular shell structures by using RhinoVAULT, a form-finding digital design tool based on thrust network analysis (TNA) which later an interactive vault is designed and fabricated.
The thesis concludes with a discussion on these various design tools and subtractive cutting methodologies as well as a resulting design-to-fabrication workflow and suggests future work.
論文目次 Table of Contents i
List of Figures vi
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Design Motivations 1
1.1.1 Traditional Stereotomy Inspiration 1
1.1.2 Design Thinking of Parametric and Digital Manufacturing 4
1.1.3 The Potential and Influence of Robotic Arm in Architecture 6
1.1.4 Traditional Stone Material 8
1.1.5 The Revolution of Digital Age 10
1.2 Design Objectives 12
1.2.1 Materials and Construction Methods 12
1.2.2 Research of Robotic Arm Cutting Method 12
1.2.3 Customize and Enhance the Cutting Tool for Robotic Arm 13
1.2.4 Design and Construct a Vault 13
1.3 Relative Fields 14
1.3.1 Digital Fabrication 14
1.3.2 Stone Masonry 14
1.3.3 Graphic Statics 14
1.4 Research Process 15
1.5 Research Findings 16
Chapter 2: Literature Reviews 17
2.1 Stone Masonry 17
2.1.1 Introduction 17
2.1.2 Architect and Organization 18
2.1.2.1 Block Research Group 18
2.1.3 Case Studies 19
2.1.3.1 The Colosseum in Rome, Italy 19
2.1.3.2 Armadillo Vault in Venice, Italy 21
2.1.4 Books and Web Articles 23
2.1.4.1 Sustainability of Construction Materials 23
2.2 Stereotomy 24
2.2.1 Introduction 24
2.2.2 Architect and Organization 26
2.2.2.1 New Fundamental Research Group 26
2.2.3 Case Studies 27
2.2.3.1 HyparGate 27
2.2.3.2 RDM Vault 28
2.2.4 Books and Web Articles 29
2.2.4.1 Architectural Stone Elements: Research, Design and Fabrication 29
2.2.4.2 Stereotomy: Stone Architecture and New Research 31
2.3 Robotic Architecture 32
2.3.1 Introduction 32
2.3.2 Architect and Organization 34
2.3.2.1 Gramazio Kohler Research 34
2.3.2.2 Odico 35
2.3.3 Case Studies 37
2.3.3.1 Design of Robotic Fabricated High Rises 37
2.3.4 Books and Web Articles 38
2.3.4.1 The Robotic Touch – How Robots Change Architecture 38
2.3.4.2 Towards a Robotic Architecture 40
2.4 Robotic System 41
2.4.1 Type of Robotic System 41
2.4.1.1 Industrial Robot 41
2.4.1.2 Collaborative Robot 42
2.4.2 Robotic Manufacture Brand 43
2.4.2.1 ABB 43
2.4.2.2 KUKA 43
2.4.2.3 Universal Robots 44
2.4.3 Hardware Overview 45
2.4.3.1 Robot Arm 45
2.4.3.2 End Effector 46
2.4.3.3 Teaching Pendant 49
2.4.3.4 Control Box 50
2.4.3.5 Rotating Table 52
2.4.3.6 Rail Track 52
2.4.4 Robot Programming Methods 53
2.4.4.1 Introduction 53
2.4.4.2 Teaching Pendant 53
2.4.4.3 Teaching by Demonstration (TbD) 54
2.4.4.4 Offline Programming (OLP) 55
2.4.5 Robots Kinematics 59
2.4.5.1 Introduction 59
2.4.5.2 Forward Kinematics (FK) 59
2.4.5.3 Inverse Kinematics 60
2.4.5.4 Singularity 60
2.5 Chapter Conclusion 62
Chapter 3: Initial Design 64
3.1 Fabrication Methods 64
3.1.1 Hot-Wire Cutting 65
3.1.2 Materials 65
3.1.3 Tool Path Development 66
3.1.4 Tool Calibration 68
3.1.5 Robotic Arm Programming Script 69
3.1.6 Digital Fabrication Process 72
3.2 Preliminary Work 73
3.2.1 Environment Setting 73
3.2.2 End Effector Tool and Auxiliary Equipment 74
3.3 Prototype Design Series 76
3.3.1 Surface Patterns 77
3.3.1.1 Two-Parabola Surface 77
3.3.1.2 Jitter Surface 79
3.3.1.3 Sine Wave Surface 80
3.3.1.4 Hyperbolic Paraboloid 81
3.3.1.5 Shell Pattern Surface 82
3.3.1.6 Knurled Surface 83
3.3.2 Modular Blocks 84
3.3.2.1 2D Geometry Pattern Designs 84
3.3.2.2 Spatializing 2D Geometry Patterns 87
3.3.2.3 Fabrication Process and Final Model 90
3.3.3 Columns 94
3.3.3.1 Modular Column 94
3.3.3.2 Irregular Column 95
3.3.4 Vault 98
3.4 Chapter Conclusion 102
3.4.1 Overall Review 102
3.4.2 Next Steps 108
Chapter 4: Robotic Arm Hot-Wire Cutting Tool System Design 109
4.1 Hot-Wire Cutting Tool System 109
4.1.1 Hot-Wire Cutting Tool System Configuration 109
4.1.2 Existing Hot-Wire Cutting Tool System 110
4.1.3 New Hot-Wire Cutting Tool System 111
4.1.3.1 Hot-Wire Cutting Tools 111
4.1.3.2 Electrical Power Supply 117
4.2 Chapter Conclusion 121
4.2.1 Overall Review 121
Chapter 5: Experimental Attempt of Robotic Arm in Stereotomy 122
5.1 Multi-Robot Systems 122
5.1.1 Environment Setting 122
5.1.2 End Effector Tool and Auxiliary Equipment 123
5.1.3 Robotic Arm Programming Script 124
5.1.4 Fabrication Process and Final Outcome 127
5.1.5 Issues and Reviews 129
5.2 Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) 130
5.2.1 Introduction 130
5.2.2 Design Description 131
5.2.3 Prototype 131
5.2.3.1 FRP Application Process and Final Outcome 132
5.2.3.2 Issues and Reviews 134
5.2.4 FRP Vault 134
5.2.4.1 Environment Setting and Auxiliary Equipment 134
5.2.4.2 Design, Fabrication and Assembly Process 135
5.2.4.3 FRP Application Process and Final Outcome 137
5.2.4.4 Issues and Reviews 141
5.3 Chapter Conclusion 142
5.3.1 Overall Review 142
5.3.2 Next Steps 143
Chapter 6: Interactive Vault Design 144
6.1 Design Description 144
6.2 RhinoVAULT 144
6.2.1 Introduction 144
6.2.2 Design Workflow 146
6.2.3 RV Interface 148
6.3 Digital Design Process 149
6.3.1 Site Location and Analysis 149
6.3.2 Form Finding Process 150
6.3.3 Funicular Vault Thickness Scripting 155
6.3.4 Design Optimization 156
6.4 Scale Model 160
6.4.1 3D Printing 161
6.4.2 Falsework Design 162
6.4.3 Assembly Process 163
6.5 Digital Fabrication Process 166
6.5.1 Environment Setting and Auxiliary Equipment 166
6.5.2 Robotic Arm Programming Script 169
6.5.3 Fabrication and Assembly Process 172
6.6 Chapter Conclusion 187
6.6.1 Overall Review 187
Chapter 7: Conclusions 190
7.1 Overall Review 190
7.2 Further Research Development and Recommendations 191
7.2.1 Hardware Recommendations 191
7.2.2 Software Recommendations 192
References 193
Appendix 195

Figure 1.1 Freeform Casting - Robot-Aided Hot-Wire Cutting Formwork Research 2
Figure 1.2 Heydar Aliyev Center by Zaha Hadid Architects 4
Figure 1.3 The First Industrial Programmable Robotic Arm "Unimate” 6
Figure 1.4 Winery Gantenbein by Gramazio & Kohler + Bearth & Deplazes Architekten 7
Figure 1.5 Le Corbusier Domino Frame 8
Figure 1.6 The History of CAD 10
Figure 1.7 Existing Hot Wire Foam Cutting Tool 13
Figure 1.8 Research Process Diagram 15
Figure 2.1 Notre Dame Cathedral 17
Figure 2.2 The Reciprocal Diagrams of RhinoVAULT 18
Figure 2.3 The Colosseum in Rome, Italy 19
Figure 2.4 Doric Column on the First Floor (Left), Ionic Columns on the Second Floor (Middle), Corinthian Columns on the Third Floor (Right) 19
Figure 2.5 The Support of the Velarium 20
Figure 2.6 Types of Vaults 20
Figure 2.7 The Armadillo Vault 21
Figure 2.8 Waterjet Cutting for Stone (Left), Vault Assembly (Right) 21
Figure 2.9 An Overview of Early Design Options Sketched Digitally with RhinoVAULT 22
Figure 2.10 Sustainability of Construction Materials 23
Figure 2.11 Stone Cutting 24
Figure 2.12 Perspective of the Trompe at Anet 25
Figure 2.13 The Flux Vault (Left), The Installation Process (Middle), Design Process (Right) 26
Figure 2.14 HyparGate at the Troyes, France 27
Figure 2.15 Robotic Fabrication (Diamond Wire Cutting and Milling) 27
Figure 2.16 RDM Vault 28
Figure 2.17 Diagram of Tool Path 28
Figure 2.18 Architectural Stone Elements: Research, Design and Fabrication 29
Figure 2.19 Stereotomy: Stone Architecture and New Research 31
Figure 2.20 Process Framework: Role of Robotics in Architecture. 33
Figure 2.21 Robotic Fabrication Lab, Institute for Technology in Architecture, WTH Zurich 35
Figure 2.22 Robotic Hot-Wire Cutting with a Single Curved Surface 36
Figure 2.23 Robotic Hot-Blade Cutting with Double Curved Surface 36
Figure 2.24 A Multitude of Different Models Robotically Fabricated in the Design Research Studio in Singapore 37
Figure 2.25 The Robotic Touch - How Robots Change Architecture 38
Figure 2.26 Towards a Robotic Architecture 40
Figure 2.27 Six Types of Industrial Robots 42
Figure 2.28 KUKA LBR IIWA 14 R820 42
Figure 2.29 ABB 43
Figure 2.30 KUKA 43
Figure 2.31 Universal Robots 44
Figure 2.32 ABB IRB 6620 (Left), Kuka Robot K-1000 (Right) 44
Figure 2.33 UR5, 10 & 15 44
Figure 2.34 Robotic Arm Overview 45
Figure 2.35 The Joints of a Six Axis Universal-Robot 45
Figure 2.36 Mechanical Gripper (Left), Pneumatic Gripper (Right) 46
Figure 2.37 Vacuum Gripper with Foam Rubber Layer (Left) and Suction Cups (Right) 47
Figure 2.38 Electromagnet Gripper (Left) and Permanent Magnet Gripper (Right) 47
Figure 2.39 Different Tool Types of Spindles 48
Figure 2.40 Custom Design Hot-Wire Cutting Tool by TKU Student 48
Figure 2.41 Universal Robots’ Teaching Pendant (Front and Back View) 49
Figure 2.42 U-Pendant (Left) and CAMOU Teach Pendant (Right) 50
Figure 2.43 Control Box of Universal Robots 50
Figure 2.44 the layout of electrical interface inside the control box 51
Figure 2.45 Single-Axis Positioner 52
Figure 2.46 KUKU Robotic Arm Mounted on the Linear Rail Track 52
Figure 2.47 Robot Programming by Using Teaching Pendant 53
Figure 2.48 Teaching by Demonstration of Universal Robots (Left), 54
Figure 2.49 Interface of RoboDK 55
Figure 2.50 GH Offline Programming Plugins: HAL, RAPCAM, Scorpion, Taco and KUKA|Prc (From Left to Right) 56
Figure 2.51 Robots Plugin Component Tab Panel 57
Figure 2.52 Load Robot System 57
Figure 2.53 Create Tool 57
Figure 2.54 Create Target 58
Figure 2.55 Create Program 58
Figure 2.56 Program Simulation 58
Figure 2.57 Save Program/ Remote UR 58
Figure 2.58 The Schematic Representation of Forward and Inverse Kinematics. 59
Figure 2.59 Wrist Singularity 60
Figure 2.60 Shoulder Singularity 61
Figure 2.61 Elbow Singularity 61
Figure 3.1 Robotic Fabrication Methods 64
Figure 3.2 Tool Path Development in GH 67
Figure 3.3 Cutting Path of Geometry in Rhino 67
Figure 3.4 The Tool Center Point (TCP) of Hot-Wire 68
Figure 3.5 Programming Script of Hot-Wire Cutting Process in GH 69
Figure 3.6 Needle Pin Tool (Left) and the Working Desk Plan (Right) 70
Figure 3.7 HWC Tool with TCP 70
Figure 3.8 Way Points Illustration 71
Figure 3.9 Spherical Boundary of KUKA KR30 71
Figure 3.10 Diagram of Design-to-Fabrication Workflow. 72
Figure 3.11 Scenario Simulation 01 73
Figure 3.12 Scenario Simulation 02 73
Figure 3.13 Scenario Simulation 03 73
Figure 3.14 Hot-Wire Cutting Tool (HWCT) Exploded View 74
Figure 3.15 Four-View Drawings and Exploded View of Three Types of Base Mould 75
Figure 3.16 Four Categories of Prototypes Design 76
Figure 3.17 Geometry Modelling (Up) and Cutting Tool Path Design (Down) in GH 77
Figure 3.18 Simulation of Cutting Process 78
Figure 3.19 Final Model 78
Figure 3.20 Fabrication Process of Two-Parabola Surface 78
Figure 3.21 Simulation of Cutting Process 79
Figure 3.22 Final Model 79
Figure 3.23 Geometry Modelling (Up) and Cutting Tool Path Design (Down) in GH 79
Figure 3.24 Simulation of Cutting Process 80
Figure 3.25 Final Model (Left), Detailing (Middle) and Overall Model (Right) 80
Figure 3.26 Geometry Modelling in GH 80
Figure 3.27 Simulation of Cutting Process 81
Figure 3.28 Detailing (Left) and Final Model (Right) 81
Figure 3.29 Fabrication Process of Hyperbolic Paraboloid Surface 81
Figure 3.30 Simulation of Cutting Process 82
Figure 3.31 Geometry Modelling in GH 82
Figure 3.32 Final Model (Fast Speed) 82
Figure 3.33 Final Model (Slow Speed) 82
Figure 3.34 Poor Detailing 82
Figure 3.35 Poor Detailing 83
Figure 3.36 Final Model (Left) and Detailing (Right) 83
Figure 3.37 Simulation of Cutting Process 83
Figure 3.38 The 11 Types of 2D Geometry Patterns 87
Figure 3.39 Spatializing the 11 Types of 2D Geometry Patterns 90
Figure 3.40 Fabrication Process of Type 01 91
Figure 3.41 Fabrication Process of Type 10 91
Figure 3.42 Final Model and Detailing 93
Figure 3.43 Overall Final Model 94
Figure 3.44 Joining Surface (Left & Middle) and Blow Up View (Right) 94
Figure 3.45 Assembly Process of Modular Column 94
Figure 3.46 Geometry Modelling and Cutting Tool Path Process 95
Figure 3.47 Simulation of Cutting Process 96
Figure 3.48 Program Scripting in GH 96
Figure 3.49 Individual Components (Left), Overall Final Model (Middle) and Blow Up Detail (Right) 97
Figure 3.50 Arrangement of The Modular Blocks laid on a Horizontal Surface 98
Figure 3.51 Vault Surface (Left) and The Modular Blocks Morph to the Vault Surface (Right) 98
Figure 3.52 Geometry Modelling in GH 99
Figure 3.53 Orientation of the Components onto the WCS 99
Figure 3.54 Cutting Path of each Component in GH 100
Figure 3.55 Simulation of Cutting Process 100
Figure 3.56 Overall Final Model (Left) and Blow Up Detail (Right) 101
Figure 3.57 The Gap in between Components 101
Figure 3.58 Cutting with Low Speed (Left) and Hight Speed (Right) 102
Figure 3.59 Speed and Temperature Configuration for HWC 103
Figure 3.60 Modular Blocks Type 04 Showed the Difference of the Divided Part 103
Figure 3.61 The Overheat Point of the Modular Blocks of Type 10 103
Figure 3.62 Individual of Column Components 104
Figure 3.63 The Differences in the Vault’s Components in Modelling 104
Figure 3.64 Summary Table of Prototypes Design Series 107
Figure 4.1 Hot-Wire Cutting Tool System Configuration 109
Figure 4.2 Deformation of the Existing Hot-Wire Cutting Tool (Top), 110
Figure 4.3 The Existing DC Power Supply (Source: Self-Taken Photo) 110
Figure 4.4 Small Hot-Wire Cutting Tool (HWCT) Exploded View 111
Figure 4.5 Materials for Small Hot-Wire Cutting Tool 112
Figure 4.6 Detail Drawing of Small Hot-Wire Cutting Tool 112
Figure 4.7 Manufacturing Process of Small Hot-Wire Cutting Tool 113
Figure 4.8 New Small Hot-Wire Cutting Tool Overview 113
Figure 4.9 Big Hot-Wire Cutting Tool (HWCT) Exploded View 114
Figure 4.10 Materials for Big Hot-Wire Cutting Tool 115
Figure 4.11 Detail Drawing of Big Hot-Wire Cutting Tool 115
Figure 4.12 Manufacturing Process of Big Hot-Wire Cutting Tool 116
Figure 4.13 New Big Hot-Wire Cutting Tool Overview 116
Figure 4.14 Electrical Power Supply Diagram for Small HWCT 118
Figure 4.15 Electrical Power Supply Diagram for Big HWCT 118
Figure 4.16 Materials for Electrical Power Supply 119
Figure 4.17 Manufacturing Process of Electrical Power Supply 119
Figure 4.18 Overview of Two Electrical Power Supplies 120
Figure 4.19 Summary Table of Overall HWCT 121
Figure 5.1 Multi-Robot Systems Scenario Simulation 122
Figure 5.2 Overview of Needle Gripper (Top Left), Detail Drawing of Needle Gripper (Bottom Left) and Needle Gripper Exploded View (Right) 123
Figure 5.3 Four-View Drawings and Exploded View of Positioning Base 123
Figure 5.4 Program Scripting in GH (UR5) 124
Figure 5.5 Three Different Holding Position of UR5 125
Figure 5.6 Preview of the Needle Gripper Tool Grab the Material Block 125
Figure 5.7 Program Scripting in GH (UR10) 126
Figure 5.8 Three Different Cutting Paths of UR10 126
Figure 5.9 Calibration Process of Two Robotic Arms (UR5 and UR10) 127
Figure 5.10 Fabrication Sequence of Two Robotic Arms 127
Figure 5.11Fabrication Process of Multi-Robot Systems 128
Figure 5.12 Overview (Left) and Close-Up View (Right) of the Final Outcome 129
Figure 5.13 The Newly Cut-Out Final Outcome after Recalibration 129
Figure 5.14 The Minor Error Cutting Difference of the Geometry (Right) Compared to Original Geometry (Left) 129
Figure 5.15 The Core Material 131
Figure 5.16, Epoxy Resin (AB Glue), E-Glass Woven Fibreglass (LT-390) 131
Figure 5.17 (a) A-Agent, (b) B-Agent, (c) Mixing Process, 132
Figure 5.18 Application of Water-based Release Agent 132
Figure 5.19 E-Glass Woven Fibreglass Layering Process 133
Figure 5.20 Overview of the FRP 133
Figure 5.21 Demoulding Process Failure 134
Figure 5.22 UR10 Hot-Wire Cutting Scenario Simulation 134
Figure 5.23 Modelling Process of FRP Vault 135
Figure 5.24 Simulation of Cutting Process 136
Figure 5.25 Assembly Process of the Vault (Source: Self-Taken Photos) 136
Figure 5.26 The Individual Components (Left) and the Overview (Right) of the Vault (Source: Self-Taken Photos) 136
Figure 5.27 Materials for FRP Application 137
Figure 5.28 Base Layering 138
Figure 5.29 Fibreglass Layering on the Base Mould Layer 138
Figure 5.30 Application of New Selected Water-based Release Agent 139
Figure 5.31 Final Fibreglass Layering Process 139
Figure 5.32 Demoulding (Top Row), Deblurring (Middle Row) and Cleaning (Bottom Row) Process 140
Figure 5.33 The Overview of the Base Mould (Vault) and the Vault FRP 140
Figure 5.34 The Base Mould (Vault) (Top Left), the Vault FRP (Top Right) 141
Figure 5.35 Poor Workmanship of FRP Layering 141
Figure 5.36 Summary Table of Multi-Robot Systems 142
Figure 5.37 Summary Table of FRP Application Process 143
Figure 6.1 The Reciprocal Relationship in the Thrust Network Analysis (TNA) 144
Figure 6.2 The Primal Grid Γ and Dual Grid Γ* are related by a Reciprocal Relationship 145
Figure 6.3 RV Form Finding Process 146
Figure 6.4 RhinoVAULT Form Finding Design Workflow 147
Figure 6.5 The Overview of RhinoVAULT Toolbar and Submenus 148
Figure 6.6 Site Location Photos 149
Figure 6.7 Floor Plan and Side Elevation of the Site Location 149
Figure 6.8 Initial Form Design Process 150
Figure 6.9 Default Setting of RV 150
Figure 6.10 Form and Force Diagram Generation Process 151
Figure 6.11 The Angle Tolerance exceeded the Maximum Deviation 152
Figure 6.12 Relax and Smoothen the Form Diagram 152
Figure 6.13 The Final Result of the Thrust Network, Form and Force Diagram 153
Figure 6.14 Two Supports of the Vault is Moved Vertically Up 153
Figure 6.15 The Comparison Before and After the Modification 154
Figure 6.16 The Final Vault Form Design 154
Figure 6.17 The Resultant Forces of the Vault 155
Figure 6.18 Basic Data Collection Scripting 155
Figure 6.19 The Vault Thickness Generation 155
Figure 6.20 The Optimization of the Joint Surface Design 156
Figure 6.21 Before and After the Optimization of the Joint Surface Design 156
Figure 6.22 The Vault Design with Thickness (Left) and Create Openings Process (Right) 157
Figure 6.23 The Final Vault Design 157
Figure 6.24 The Detail Drawing of the Final Vault Design 158
Figure 6.25 Multiple Minimum Bounding Box Calculation Scripting in GH 159
Figure 6.26 The Overview of the Final Vault Design (Top Left), the Bounding Box Optimization Process (Top Right) and Overall Components of the Final Vault Design (Bottom) 159
Figure 6.27 Laser Cutting Drawing of the Site Location Model 160
Figure 6.28 The Overall Components of the Site Model (Left) and the Completed Site Model (Right) 160
Figure 6.29 The Components are imported into the 3d Printing Software (Left) and the Print Preview of the Components (Right) 161
Figure 6.30 3d Printing Process (Left) and the Completed 3d Printing Components 161
Figure 6.31 The Bowerbird Scripting for the Waffle Structure Falsework in GH 162
Figure 6.32 The Waffle Structure Drawing for Laser Cutting 162
Figure 6.33 The Falsework Design Process 162
Figure 6.34 The Overall of the 3d Printed Components (Left) and the Falsework (Right) 163
Figure 6.35 The Assemble Process of the Scale Model 163
Figure 6.36 Assembly Process of Scale Model 164
Figure 6.37 The Overview of the Scale Model 165
Figure 6.38 KUKA KR30 Hot-Wire Cutting Scenario Simulation 166
Figure 6.39 Four-View Drawings and Exploded View of Positioning Base 166
Figure 6.40 The Optimization and Orientation of the Final Vault Components 167
Figure 6.41 The Orientation of Components in a Grid System 168
Figure 6.42 Summary of Material Quotation 168
Figure 6.43 Summary of Fabrication Time Estimation 168
Figure 6.44 Program Scripting in GH (KUKA KR30) 169
Figure 6.45 Simulation of Cutting Process 170
Figure 6.46 Tool Angle Parameter in the Create Tool Component for the Big HWCT 170
Figure 6.47 Four Different Angle of the Big HWCT 170
Figure 6.48 Collision of the Big HWCT and the Material Block 171
Figure 6.49 Fabrication Process of First Component (Camera 01) 172
Figure 6.50 Fabrication Process of Component 33 (Camera 02) 173
Figure 6.51 Adhesive and Finishes Materials 174
Figure 6.52 The Vault Divided into Three Sections for the Assembly Process Sequence 175
Figure 6.53 Assembly Process of the Vault (Section 01) 176
Figure 6.54 Assembly Process of the Vault (Section 02 & 03) 177
Figure 6.55 Reinforced and Finishes Process of the Vault (Section 01) 178
Figure 6.56 Reinforced and Finishes Process of the Vault (Section 02) 179
Figure 6.57 Reinforced and Finishes Process of the Vault (Section 03) 179
Figure 6.58 The Final Assembly Process of the Vault 180
Figure 6.59 The Final Reinforced Process 181
Figure 6.60 The Anchoring Process for the Section 03 of the Vault 181
Figure 6.61 The Completed Anchor Platform 182
Figure 6.62 The Final Finishes Process 182
Figure 6.63 The Overview of the Vault 01 183
Figure 6.64 The Overview of the Vault 02 184
Figure 6.65 The Overview of the Vault 03 185
Figure 6.66 The Overview of the Vault 04 186
Figure 6.67 The Vault in Raining Day 187
Figure 6.68 Over Slanted Wall (Left) and Uneven Floor (Right) 188
Figure 6.69 Summary of Actual Fabrication Time 188
Figure 6.70 RhinoVAULT Design workflow 189
Figure 7.1 Marble Cutting with Diamond-Wire Saw 192
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