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系統識別號 U0002-0802201213424100
中文論文名稱 巴西無地農民運動之現象研究
英文論文名稱 The Study of the Phenomena of Brazil's Landless Workers' Movement
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 張俊德
研究生英文姓名 Chun-Te Chang
學號 697310133
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-01-06
論文頁數 110頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳小雀
委員-余小云
委員-卓忠宏
中文關鍵字 巴西  新社會運動  農村勞工  無地  教育  暴力 
英文關鍵字 Brazil  New Social Movement  Rural Worker  Landless  Education  Violence 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 進入21世紀之後,巴西在國際舞台上已成為「金磚四國」的成員之一,它本身除了擁有富饒的物產資源之外,也擁有充沛的人力資源,是一個具有發展實力的國家。然而,儘管巴西成為一個新興強國,其國內卻面臨嚴重的社會問題,例如:貧富不均以及土地集中。在巴西,隨著經濟的發展,有錢人過著富裕生活而窮人過著貧困生活。此外,僅少數的大地主擁有全國近半的土地,而大多數的窮人卻沒有土地或是土地所有權。

社會運動指的是一個團體進行某種目標性的以及計畫性的共謀行動,目的是為了改變社會整個或部分的現象,並經由集體行為以較持久性的工作加以改變社會。藉由社會運動,弱勢團體或是被壓迫的群體可以對抗不公平的待遇以及改變他們的社會地位。新社會運動理論則強調對價值、觀念、文化與生活方式等自由權利的爭取。此外,新社會運動是多元性的並且尊重異質文化,它非科層組織的型態,而是重視一個由下而上的觀念。巴西無地農村勞工為了解決日常的生活困境以及提升社會地位,他們在1984年正式成立巴西無地農民運動並開始為他們目標展開抗爭。

本論文主要以新社會運動理論的觀點、歷史研究法與文獻分析法等途徑加以探討成立巴西無地農民運動的背景因素,並深入分析它的整體發展,以及在發展的過程中所遭遇的困境與挑戰。整體而言,巴西無地農民運動的發展符合新社會運動理論的特徵。
英文摘要 After entering 21st century, Brazil has become one member of the“BRICs”in the international society. It not only has rich natural resources but also abundant human resources, and that shows Brazil owning great potential of development. However, even though Brazil has become an important emerging country, it encounters several serious social problems, such as unequal wealth distribution and land concentration. In Brazil, with the economic development, the rich men live in a luxurious life but the poor people live a miserable life. In addition, only fewer landowners own nearly half the land of entire country, but most poor people neither own land nor possess the property right of land.

Social movement means a group which use collusive actions with some objectives and plans to change entire or part of social phenomenon, and also use persistent collective actions to change the society. With social movements, the disadvantaged groups or the oppressed groups could fight against the unfair treatment and change their social status. New social movement theory emphasizes the struggle for rights and freedoms of values, concepts, cultures and lifestyles. Besides, new social movements are pluralistic and respect to the heterogeneous culture, and they are not bureaucratic organization model but value the concept of bottom-up. In order to resolve problems in daily life and elevate the social status, the landless rural workers in Brazil officially organized the Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers Movement in 1984 and began to struggle for their objectives.

This thesis principally based on the views of new social movement theory and the approaches of the historical research method and the archival research method to discover the factors and backgrounds for the foundation of Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers Movement, meanwhile analyze its overall development deeply and the dilemmas and challenges which it occurred in the process of its development. As a whole, through the research of its development, we recognize the Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers Movement corresponds with major features of new social movement theory.
論文目次 目錄

第一章 緒論................................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的......................................1
第二節 研究方法與架構......................................4
第三節 資料來源與限制......................................5

第二章 巴西無地農民運動的興起..............................7
第一節 社會運動與新社會運動................................7
第二節 歷史背景因素.......................................15
第三節 成立過程與組織架構.................................24

第三章 巴西無地農民運動的抗爭.............................33
第一節 抗爭對象...........................................33
第二節 抗爭訴求...........................................38
第三節 抗爭方式...........................................46

第四章 巴西無地農民運動的發展.............................55
第一節 神秘主義...........................................55
第二節 佔地長住...........................................61
第三節 教育發展...........................................71

第五章 巴西無地農民運動的困境.............................77
第一節 外在威脅...........................................77
第二節 內部問題...........................................84
第三節 民意轉變...........................................87
第四節 未來挑戰...........................................89

第六章 結論...............................................93

參考文獻.................................................101

圖目錄
圖3-1︰巴西各區土地徵收之數量.............................43
圖4-1︰巴西無地農民運動旗幟...............................60
圖5-1︰歷年鄉村地區被暗殺之人數(1985-2005)................80
圖5-2︰歷年鄉村地區發生衝突之次數(1985-2005)..............81

表目錄
表2-1︰巴西農村淨移民指數(1960-1991)......................21
表3-1︰歷年巴西土地分配的吉尼係數值(1967-1998)...........39
表3-2︰歷年農業改革所設置居住所之數量及居住所內所安置之家庭數目(1927-1992)...........................................42
表3-3︰歷年農業改革所設置居住所之數量及居住所內所安置之家庭數目(1927-1992)...........................................43
表5-1︰鄉村地區個體受暴力威脅之數據統計(1997-2003)........79
表5-2︰鄉村地區家庭受暴力威脅之數據統計(1997-2003)........79
參考文獻 參考文獻

一、中文文獻

(一) 書籍

何明修,《社會運動概論》,台北︰三民書局,2005,271頁。
何國世,《巴西史︰森巴王國》,台北︰三民書局,2008,209頁。
宋鎮照,《社會學》,台北︰五南圖書,1997,752頁。
張宏文,《社會學》,台北︰商鼎文化,1996,432頁。
曾昭耀主編,《現代化戰略選擇與國際關係》,北京︰社會科學文獻出版社,2000,522頁。
菲爾.柯西諾主編,梁永安譯,《英雄的旅程》,台北:立緒文化,2001,405頁。
彭懷恩,《社會學Q&A》,台北︰風雲論壇,2008,379頁。
Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Brian Winter著,林志懋譯,《巴西,如斯壯麗》,台北:早安財經文化,2010,368頁。
Keith Faulks著;包淳亮、張國城合譯,《政治社會學︰批判的導論》,台北︰巨流圖書,2009,289頁。

(二) 期刊

劉婷,〈巴西的土地問題與經濟發展〉,《拉丁美洲研究》,第28卷,第2期,2006年4月,頁28~34。

(三) 學位論文

翁佳鈴,《英國婦女運動之研究-從工業社會到後工業社會》,台北,淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文,1992,175頁。

(四) 網路資料

1. 官方及組織網路資料

〈吉尼係數〉,行政院經濟建設委員會,http://www.cepd.gov.tw/m1.aspx?sNo=0001246

2. 網路新聞資料

〈無地農民運動受巴西民眾唾棄〉,中央社,http://www.taiwannews.com.tw/etn/news_content.php?id=1138623&lang=tc_news&cate_img=262.jpg&cate_rss=JD
唯真,〈【愛智與真理之路】回歸太一〉,大紀元,http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/5/5/6/n913211.htm

3. 網路學術文章

林久絡,〈神祕主義〉,http://enlight.lib.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-BJ013/bj013133043.pdf

二、西文文獻

(一) 書籍

Aznárez, Carlos and Javier Arjona, Rebeldes Sin Tierra: Historia del MST de Brasil, Tafalla: Txalaparta, 2002, 233págs.
Boucher, Douglas M., The Paradox of Plenty: Hunger in a Bountiful World, Oakland: Food First Book, 1999, 346págs.
Branford, Sue and Jan Rocha, Cutting the Wire: The Story of the Landless Movement in Brazil, London: Latin America Bureau, 2002, 305págs.
Guevara March, Aleida, MST: Simiente De La Vida Y La Esperanza, Querétaro: Ocean Sur, 2008, 186págs.
Harnecker, Marta, Sin Tierra: Construyendo Movimiento Social, Madrid: Siglo XXI, 2002, 303págs.
Mertes, Tom and Walden F. Bello, A movement of movements: is another world really possible?, London & New York: Verso, 2004, 288págs.
Moyo, Sam and Paris Yeros, Reclaiming the Land: The Resurgence of Rural Movements in Africa, Asia and Latin America, London: Zed Books, 2005, 426págs.
Pereira, Anthony W., The end of the peasantry: the rural labor movement in northeast Brazil, 1961-1988, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1997, 232págs.
Prosterman, Roy L., Mary N. Temple, Timothy M. Hanstad, Agrarian Reform and Grassroots Development: Ten Case Studies, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1990, 339 págs.
Rosset, Peter, Raj Patel, Michael Courville, Promised Land: Competing Visions of Agrarian Reform, Oakland, CA: Food, 2006, 380págs.
Ruiz, Castor M. M. Barttolome, El Movimiento de los Sin Tierra en Brazil, Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto, 2006, 101págs.
Veltmeyer, Henry, On The Move: The Politics of Social Change in Latin America, Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2007, 209págs.

(二) 期刊

Cadji, Anne-Laure, “Brazil’s Landless Find Their Voice”, NACLA Report on the Americas, March/April 2000, Vol.33, No.5, pp. 30-35.
Caldeira, Rute, “My land, your social transformation: Conflicts within the landless people movement (MST), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil”, Journal of Rural Studies, Vol.24, Issue 2, April 2008, pp. 150-160.
Christensen, Caitlin, “Seeds of the New Society”, Peace Review, Vol.20, Issue 2, Apr/Jun 2008, pp. 200-208.
Dias Martins, Mônica, “The MST Challenge to Neoliberalism”, Latin American Perspectives, Vol.27, No.5, pp. 33-45.
Flavio de Almeida, Lucio Felix Ruiz Sanchez, Laurence Hallewell, “The Landless Workers' Movement and Social Struggles against Neoliberalism”, Latin American Perspectives, Vol.27, No.5, Sep. 2000, pp. 11-32.
Gilbert, Bruce, “A Study of Brazil’s Movement of Landless Workers”, Worker’s Power and Socialism, Vol.1, No.2, 2006, pp. 73-86.
Hammond, John L., “Land Occupations, Violence, and the Politics of Agrarian Reform in Brazil”, Latin American Perspectives, Vol.38, No.4, July 2009, pp. 156-177.
_________, “The MST and the media: Competing Images of the Brazilian Landless Farmworkers’ Movement ”, Latin American Politics and Society, Vol.46, No.4, Winter 2004, pp. 61-90.
Heil, Erin C., “The Brazilian Landless Movement, Resistance, and Violence”, Critical Criminology, Vol.18, No.2, Nov. 2009, pp. 77-93.
Hidalgo, F. Daniel, Suresh Naidu, Simeon Nichter, Neal Richardson, “Economic Determinants of Land Invasions”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol.92, No.3, Aug. 2010, pp. 505-523.
Houtzager, Peter P., “Collective Action and Political Authority: Rural Workers, Church, and State in Brazil”, Theory and Society, Vol.30, No.1, Feb. 2001, pp. 1-45.
_________, “Social movements amidst democratic transitions: Lessons from the Brazilian countryside”, Journal of Development Studies, Vol.36, No.5, June 2000, pp. 59-88.
Issa, Daniela, “Praxis of Empowerment: Mística and Mobilization in Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers’ Movement”, Latin American Perspectives, Vol.34, No.2, March 2007, pp. 124-138.
Karriem, Abdurazack, “Marching As To War”: A letter from Brazil to South Africa about Landlessness, Agrarian Reform and Social Movement Struggles against Neoliberalism, Revista NERA, ANO 8, N. 6 – JANEIRO/JUNHO DE 2005, pp. 1-13.
_________, “The rise and transformation of the Brazilian landless movement into a counter-hegemonic political actor: A gramscian analysis”, Geoforum, Vol.40, No.3, May 2009, pp. 316-325.
Kay, Cristobal and Graciela Salazar, “Estructura agraria, conflicto y violencia en la sociedad rural de America Latina (Agrarian Structure, Conflict and Violence in Rural Society in Latin America)”, Revista Mexicana de Sociología, Vol.63, No.4, Oct.-Dec. 2001, pp. 159-195.
Mark, Jason, “Brazil’s MST: Taking Back the Land”, Multinational Monitor, Vol.22, Issue 1&2, Jan./Feb. 2001, pp. 10-12.
Meszaros, George, “No Ordinary Revolution: Brazil’s Landless Workers’ Movement”, Race & Class, Vol.42, No.2, Oct. 2000, pp. 1-18.
_________, “Taking the Land into Their Hands: The Landless Workers' Movement and the Brazilian State”, Journal of Law and Society, Vol.27, No.4, Dec. 2000, pp. 517-541.
Navarro, Zander, “Breaking New Ground Brazil’s MST”, NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol.23, No.5, March/April 2000, pp. 36-39.
_________, “Democracy, Citizenship and Representation: Rural Social Movements in Southern Brazil, 1978-1990”, Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol.13, No.2, May 1994, pp. 129-154.
Ondetti, Gabriel, “Repression, Opportunity, and Protest: Explaining the Takeoff of Brazil’s Landless Movement”, Latin American Politics and Society, Vol.48, No.2, Summer 2006, pp. 61-94.
Perez, Stephen G., “The Rural Exodus in the Context of Economic Crisis, Globalization and Reform in Brazil”, International Migration Review, Vol.34, No.3, Autumn 2000, pp. 842-881.
Servolo de Medeiros, Leonilde, “Social movements and the experience of market-led agrarian reform in Brazil”, Third World Quarterly, Vol.28, No.8, 2007, pp. 1501-1518.
Vergara-Camus, Leandro, “The Politics of the MST: Autonomous Rural Communities, the State, and Electoral Politics”, Latin American Perspectives, Vol.36, Issue 4, July 2009, pp. 178-191.
Welch, Cliff, “Camponeses: Brazil's Peasant Movement in Historical Perspective (1946-2004)”, Latin American Perspectives, Vol.36, No.4, July 2009, pp. 126-155.
_________, “Globalization and the Transformation of Work in Rural Brazil: Agribusiness, Rural Labor Unions, and Peasant Mobilization”, International Labor and Working-Class History, Vol.70, Issue 1, Autumn 2006, pp. 35-60.
_________, “Lula and the Meaning of Agrarian Reform”, NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol.44, Issue 2, March/April 2011, pp. 27-30.
Wolford, Wendy, “Producing Community: The MST and Land Reform Settlements in Brazil”, Journal of Agrarian Change, Vol.3, No.4, October 2003, pp. 500-520.
_________, “This Land Is Ours Now: Spatial Imaginaries and the Struggle for Land in Brazil”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol.94, No.2, Jun. 2004, pp. 409-424.

(三) 網路資源

1. 官方及組織網路資料

“About”, Friends of the MST, http://www.mstbrazil.org/?q=about
“Agrarian Reform in Brazil”, FAO, http://www.fao.org/righttofood/kc/downloads/vl/docs/AH264.pdf
“Brazil”, USAID, http://www.usaidlandtenure.net/usaidltprproducts/country-profiles/brazil/brazil-countryprofile.pdf/view?searchterm:Brazil
“Constitutional Authority: Legality of Land Occupations”, Friends of the MST, http://www.mstbrazil.org/constitutionalauthority
“Gross domestic product 2010”, World Bank, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP.pdf
Guanziroli, Carlos E., “La Reforma Agraria En el Marco de Una Economía Global: El Caso de Brasil”, p. 7., FAO, ftp://ftp.fao.org/sd/sda/sdaa/LR98_1/art3.pdf
“La masacre de Eldorado dos Carajás”, CLOC, http://movimientos.org/cloc/mst-br/show_text.php3?key=382
“La Mística del MST”, CLOC, http://www.movimientos.org/cloc/mst-br/show_text.php3?key=940
“La propuesta de Reforma Agraria del MST”, CLOC, http://movimientos.org/cloc/mst-br/show_text.php3?key=14
Massicotte, Marie-Josée, “Learning from peasant activism challenging trade politics Brazilian peasants and La Vía Campesina”, LASA Congress paper, June 2009, http://lasa.international.pitt.edu/members/congress-papers/lasa2009/files/MassicotteMarieJosee.pdf
“Objectives of the MST”, Friends of the MST, http://www.mstbrazil.org/content/objectives-mst
“¿Qué es el MST?”, CLOC, http://movimientos.org/cloc/mst-br/show_text.php3?key=13
Secretaría Nacional del MST, “Inauguración de la Escuela Nacional Florestan Fernandes”, CLOC, http://movimientos.org/cloc/mst-br/show_text.php3?key=3915

2. 網路新聞資料

“Arrestado exlíder brasileño del movimiento sin tierra por corrupción”, El Universal, http://www.eluniversal.com/2011/06/16/arrestado-exlider-brasileo-del-movimiento-sin-tierra-por-corrupcion.shtml
“Assassinations of environmentalists in Brazil's Amazon, while deforestation rises”, Rainforest News, http://www.salvaleforeste.it/en/assassinations-of-environmentalists-in-brazils-amazonwhile-deforestation-rises.html
“Brazil landless blockade railway”, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7289334.stm
Esnal, Luis, “Moderado éxito de la marcha de los Sin Tierra”, La Nación, http://www.lanacion.com.ar/93959-moderado-exito-de-la-marcha-de-los-sin-tierra
“MST inaugura uma escola de capacitação técnica para camponeses”, UOL Últimas notícias, http://noticias.uol.com.br/ultnot/efe/2005/01/24/ult1766u7499.jhtm (2012/01/06)
Sarah de Sainte Croix, “Amazon MST Leader Killed in Pará, Brazil”, The Rio Times http://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-politics/amazon-mst-leader-killed-in-para-brazil/#
Smink, Veronica, “Investigan a los Sin Tierra en Brasil”, BBC Mundo, http://www.bbc.co.uk/mundo/america_latina/2009/09/090922_0518_brasil_sin_tierra_mf.shtml

3. 網路學術文章

Adkin, Lindsay, “The MST Fights Globalization”, Duke University, http://www.duke.edu/~lla3/MST/globalization.html
“Brasil: por decisión unánime del jurado, un Tribunal de Pará absolvió a los 124 policías militares acusados de participar en la masacre de Eldorado dos Carajás”, Organización Mundial Contra la Tortura, http://www.omct.org/es/urgent-campaigns/urgent-interventions/brazil/2002/06/d15952/
Carter, Miguel, “The Landless Rural Workers Movement and Democracy in Brazil”, Landaction, http://landaction.org/IMG/pdf/Miguel_Carter_-_The_MST_and_Democracy_in_Brazil_1.pdf
“El movimiento de los sin tierra en Brasil”, Periferia Prensa Alternativa, http://www.periferiaprensa.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=226:el-movimiento-de-los-sin-tierra-en-brasil-&catid=57:edicion-40&Itemid=60
“Encuentro Internacional de Campesinos y Campesinas Sin Tierra”, FIAN International – For the Right to Food, http://www.fian.org/recursos/publicaciones/documentos/encuentro-internacional-de-campesinos-y-campesinas-sin-tierra/pdf
Fanelli, Luca and Sarah Sarzynski, “The Concept of Sem Terra and the Peasantry in Brazil”, Journal of Developing Societies, Vol.19, No.2-3, June 2003. http://lasa.international.pitt.edu/Lasa2003/FanelliLuca.pdf
Gilbert, Bruce, “Workers' Power and Socialism: A Study of Brazil's Movement of Landless Workers”, Open Journal Systems, http://dev.ojs.gc.cuny.edu/index.php/situations/article/view/26/28
González, Diego, “MST: Educación popular para la reforma agraria”, América Latina en Movimiento, http://alainet.org/active/30490&lang=es
Gucciardi Garcez, Catherine Aliana, “Cultivating sustainable development? An analysis of the Brazilian public policy for biodiesel within the context of sustainable development and environmental management”, University of Brasilia, Centre for Sustainable Development, www.worldenergy.org/documents/p001102.doc
Mançano Fernandes, Bernardo, “The MST and Agrarian Reform in Brazil”, Socialism and Democracy, http://sdonline.org/51/the-mst-and-agrarian-reform-in-brazil/
“Massacre de Eldorado dos Carajás completa 15 anos”, DOL-Diário Online http://www.diarioonline.com.br/noticia-143998-massacre-de-eldorado-dos-carajas-completa-15-anos.html
Serrano, Pascual, “Cinco años de la Escuela Nacional Florestan Fernandes del MST”, América Latina en Movimiento, http://alainet.org/active/35490&lang=es
Sinek, Wendy Muse, “Coalitional Choices and Strategic Challenges: The Landless Movement in Brazil, 1970-2005”, Center for Latin American Studies, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7q5402w4#page-1
Stronzake, Janaina and Beatriz Casado, “Movimiento Sin Tierra deBrasil”, Fundacionbetiko, http://www.fundacionbetiko.org/index.php/es/autores/articles/330-movimiento-sin-tierra-de-brasil
Stubrin, Florencia, “Movimiento de los Trabajadores Rurales Sin Tierra. Una experiencia alternativa de educación pública”, Ensayos & Investigaciones del Laboratorio de Políticas Públicas - Buenos Aires, http://campus.proeibandes.org/cursoeib/file.php?file=%2F1%2FBiblioteca_virtual%2FSituacion_Movimientos_indigenas%2FBRASIL.pdf
Umbelino de Oliveira, Ariovaldo, “Agrarian reform policy in Brazil”, Land Research Action Network, http://www.landaction.org/article.php3?id_article=531&lang=en
Wright, Angus and Wendy Wolford, “Now It Is Time: The MST and Grassroots Land Reform in Brazil”, Backgrounder, Vol.9, No.2, Spring 2003, http://www.foodfirst.org/node/49
Zacchi, Vanderlei J., “English, globalization, and the identity construction of landless workers”, The Global South, Vol.4, No.1, Special Issue: Latin America in a Global Age, Spring 2010, http://myuminfo.umanitoba.ca/Documents/1997/ZacchiV.pdf
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